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neli bregaZe

xorbleulis leqsika da kulturul-istoriuli sakiTxebi


akademikosma ivane JavaxiSvilma umniSvnelovanes sakvlev problemad dasaxa kultu-
ris istoria. am problemidan man pirvelxarisxovnad miiCnia mcenareebTan dakavSire-
buli sakiTxebis Seswavla, maT Soris, enobrivi monacemebis ganxilva, maTi realuri
mniSvnelobis dadgena [1]. akad. iv.JavaxiSvilis fasdaudebeli namoGvawari, gansakuT-
rebiT, kulturul mcenareTa sferoSi [2; 3], saKuradGeboa ara mxolod SedegebiT;
xSir SemTxvevaSi, misi naazrevi aCens axal safiqrals da gvibiZgebs sakiTxTa Semdgomi,
gaGrmavebuli kvlevisaken. aGniSnulis magaliTia mosazrebebi, romlebic terminebis
_ ZvelTesli da axalTesli _ analizis Sedegad gamoTqva Tavad iv.JavaxiSvilma. man
daaskvna, rom isini gamoxatavs, SesatKvisad, pureulis saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo
naTesebs da mauwKebelia imisic, rom qarTvelTaTvis Semodgomis naTesi ufro Zveli
wesi iKo, gazafxulisa ki _ axali, rom Tavdapirvelad qarTvel ersa da miwismoqmeds
xorbleulisa da qrTileulis mxolod Semodgomis JiSebi hqonia da rom sagazafxu-
lo pureuli saSemodgomosTan SedarebiTaa axali Tesli, Torem isic Zv.w. VII s. mo-
mdevno xanaSi unda iKos gamoKvanili [2 gv. 406, 408_411].
marTlac, damatebiTi lingvisturi masalis eTnografiulma Seswavlam da semanti-
kurma analizma gamoavlina, rom saqarTveloSi damowmebulma pureulis uZvelesma sa-
xelwodebebma _ Kana, ifqli, puri _ bolo dromde SeinarCuna Semodgomis naTesis
mniSvnelobac [4_6]. es faqti adasturebs da ufro sarwmunos xdis akad. iv.JavaxiSvi-
lis mier gamoTqmul mosazrebas, romlis arsi, vfiqrob, ar unda Semoifarglos mar-
toden qarTvelTa meurneobaze msJelobiT da SesaZlebeli unda iKos misi ganzogade-
ba. aGniSnulis safuZvels iZleva sabunebismetKvelo da humanitarul mecnierebaTa
disciplinebis monacemebi, dakavSirebuli ara mxolod saqarTvelosTan.
mniSvnelovania, rom uZvelesi marcvleuli mcenareebi: kulturuli xorblis wina-
pari, veluri erTmarcvala xorbali, veluridan kulturulisaken gardamavali anu
inicialuri saxeobebi, qarTuli endemebi, maxa da Zvelkolxuri asli, agreTve spelta
saSemodgomo pureulebia [7 gv. 28, 31, 93, 225].
xorblis moKvanasTan dakavSirebuli eTnografiuli masala agrobiologiis sfero-
dan gvamcnobs, rom glexebi amJobinebdnen Semodgomaze Tesvas ara marto e.w. orTes-
la anu ganviTarebis saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo ciklebis mqone pureulis, aramed
sagazafxulo JiSebisac ki
[7 gv. 72]. kargi Sedegis mqone es xalxuri agroteqnikuri GonisZieba dadasturebas
poulobs samecniero literaturaSi, saidanac Cans, rom sagazafxulo JiSebis Semo-
dgomaze daTesvis Sedegad icvleba pureulis fiziologiuri Tvisebebi da morfolo-
giuri niSnebi: izrdeba misi produqtuli dabuCqeba, TavTavis sigrZe, TavTunebis,
marcvlisa da masSi Semavali cilebis odenoba, saTesle marcvlis gamosavali, marcva-
li msxvildeba [8 gv. 140, 141; 9 gv. 12], Cqardeba vegetacia; Kana 5_8 dGiT aswrebs
Semosvlas Kvelaze adreul sagazafxulo naTessac ki, rasac mniSvneloba aqvs avadmKo-
fobaTa da mavnebelTagan dasacavad [8 gv. 42; 10 gv. 14, 17]. es ki xels uwKobs ma-
Galmosavlianobas. aseve, CveulebrivTan SedarebiT uxvmosavliania sagazafxulo JiSis
Semodgomaze naTesi Kanisagan miGebuli, e.w. ganaxlebuli da kvlav gazafxulze daTe-
sili marcvali [7 gv. 72], rasac mowmobs mecnierTa eqsperimentebic [10].
genetikos-seleqcionerTa cdebisave erTma rigma gamoavlina, rom ori sagazafxu-
lo xorblisa Tu qeris hibridTa STamomavlobaSi miGebulia saSemodgomo formebi
[11]. Tanac, sagazafxulo marcvlidan miGebuli saSemodgomo formebi iZleva memkvid-
rulad mdgrad STamomavlobas [12]. e.w. pureulis gadakeTebasTan dakavSirebulma
sxva eqsperimentebma ki cxadKo, rom saSemodgomo marcvleulis sagazafxulod gadake-
Teba SedarebiT rTuli da xangrZlivi, 4_5 wliani procesia [13], sagazafxulo JiSe-
bi ki ukve 2 sezonis ganmavlobaSi iZens saSemodgomoobis Tvisebas [9]. Kovelive es
unda migviTiTebdes imaze, rom Tavdapirvelad pureulis ganviTarebis cikli, mar-
Tlac, saSemodgomo iKo da, amdenad, am geneturi niSnis aGdgena misTvis SedarebiT
advilia, vidre ucxo, meoradi Tvisebis _ sagazafxuloobis SeZena. am mosazrebas mxa-
ri dauyires genetikosebma [7 gv. 227].
mcenareTa biologiur niSan-TvisebaTa CamoKalibebaSi ganmsazGvrelia bunebrivi
garemo. raze metKvelebs es ukanaskneli? pureulis kulturul formebs xom safuZ-
vlad daedo veluri saxeobebi. bunebaSi ki veluri marcvleuli TviTCaTesviT mrav-
ldeboda. SemdegSi adamiansac, Tavdapirvelad bunebis mibaZviT, unda ecada marcvlis
daTesva misi SemosvlisTanave. saqarTvelos pirobebSi pureuli (Tu mxedvelobaSi ar
miviGebT qersa da maxas, romlebic 1_2 kviriT aswrebs Semosvlas sxva naTesebs) mka-
TaTvisaTvis mwifdeba. amdenad, CvenTan verc bunebaSi TviTCaTesili da verc ukve
adamianis mier daTesili pirveli pureuli ver iqneboda sagazafxulo. igive iTqmis
zogadad pureulis winaaziuri gencentris Sesaxebac, sadac bunebrivi pirobebis Sesa-
tKvisad, samiwaTmoqmedo Kofis garijrajze _ rogorc amas gvauwKebs agroklimato-
logiis monacemebi [14; 15] da paleobotanikosTa daskvnebi [16 gv. 543, 547, 564; 17;
18; 19 gv. 44] _ pureulis moKvana SesaZlebeli iKo mxolod zamTris naleqebis wKa-
lobiT.
aGniSnulis dadasturebaa Sumeruli miTic, romlis mixedviT zafxulTan paeqro-
baSi imarJvebs `GmerTebis erTguli miwismoqmedi~ zamTari [20]. amazeve metKvelebs
Zveli samKaros pureulis GvTaebebis zamTarSi kvdoma da gazafxulze aGorZineba,
rac migvaniSnebs zamTris Zilgamovlili naTesebis gazafxulze aGmocenebaze.
saKuradGeboa tripoliebSi damowmebuli, xalxis xatovani azrovnebis nimuSebic
_ saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo naTesebis gamomxatveli, qalTa ritualuri figure-
bi, romelTagan saSemodgomos SesatKvisi TariGdeba Zv.w. IV aTaswleuliT, sagazafxu-
losi ki ufro gviandeli, Zv. w. III aTaswleulisaa [21].
amasve gvauwKebs Zveli civilizaciis qveKnebis pirveli oficialuri kalendrebi
(maT Soris, ZvelqarTuli warmarTuli kalendaric), romlebic daefuZna xalxur same-
urneo kalendars da romelTa mixedviT Tavdapirvelad weliwadi iwKeboda mzis saza-
fxulo dadegidan (es TariGi amjamad, precesiebis Sedegad, ivnisSia; aTaswleulebs
miGma, Tu Tanamedrove kalendaruli jamTaGricxviT gaviTvliT Tveebs, ivlisze, kidev
ufro adre ki agvistoze modioda [7 gv. 167-169]). rac Seexeba aseve ZvelaGmosavlur
kalendars, romliTac weliwadi iwKeboda mzis sagazafxulo buniaobidan da romlis
SemoGeba (Zv.w. III aTasw.) ganapiroba SuamdinareTis meurneobaSi sagazafxulo pureu-
lis danergvam, igi saSemodgomo kalendarTan SedarebiT, kulturis gviandeli mona-
povaria.
Kovelive zemoaGniSnulis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli Cans akad. iv.JavaxiSvilis mier,
lingvisturi masalis analizis Sedegad, gamoTqmuli mosazrebis ganzogadeba da ase
CamoKalibeba: kulturul mcenareTa winaaziur gencentrSi, romelSic saqarTveloc
Sedis, bunebrivi garemos SesatKvisad, veluri pureulis ganviTarebis cikli saSemod-
gomo iKo. misma kulturaSi SeKvanam mogvca pirveli da amdenadve, swored, saSemodgo-
mo naTesebi.
Tu naTqvami misaGebia, maSin es debuleba xels uwKobs kulturis istoriasTan
dakavSirebuli sxva faqtebisa Tu sakiTxebis dazustebasa da garkvevas. saxeldobr:
SesaZlebloba iqmneba kulturuli pureulis gencentrebSi mwarmoebluri meurneobis
Casaxvis arealis gansazGvrisa vertikaluri zonalobis TvalTaxedviT. esaa saSemod-
gomo marcvleulis gavrcelebis olqebi, romlebic saqarTveloSi aGwevs zGvis doni-
dan 1500 metramde, rac eTanxmeba kulturuli pureulis gencentrebis mTasa da mTis
SuazolSi lokalizaciis Sesaxeb akad. n.vavilovis mier gamoTqmul mosazrebas [22].
es ukanaskneli dadasturebas poulobs agreTve axlo aGmosavleTis adresamiwaTmoqme-
do kulturaTa Semswavleli arqeologebisa da paleobotanikosebis naSromebSi [16
gv. 543, 546, 561; 19 gv. 39; 23; 24; 25]. es erTi mxriv, meore mxriv ki, iZleva saSua-
lebas am keraTa geografiuli arealis kidev ufro dazustebisa _ es unda iKos ol-
qebi, sadac adgilobrivi garemos SesatKvisad uZvelesi pureuli (albaT saadreo, anu
mokle savegetacio periodis mqone: veluri, maxas tipis, qeri) daaxloebiT mzis saza-
fxulo dadegisaTvis aswrebda Semosvlas [7 gv. 227].
SesaZlebelia agreTve sxvadasxva vertikalur zonaSi miwaTmoqmedebis etapobrivi
gavrceleba-ganviTarebis suraTis dadgena. magaliTad, maGalmTianeTis samiwaTmoqme-
dod aTviseba SesaZlebeli iqneboda sameurneo Kofis ganviTarebis SedarebiT gvian
safexurze _ mas Semdeg, rac gamoKvanili iqna pureulis sagazafxulo JiSebi. CvenSi
aseTebia uZvelesi xorbleulis, aslisa da ifqlis, bazaze miGebuli sagazafxulo
formebi, maT Soris, mkacrad sagazafxulo saxeoba xorblisa, endemuri dika [7 gv. 26,
52, 52-58]. gamodis, maGalmTianeTic, Tumc ki meoradi, magram mainc saxeobaTa da
formaTwarmoqmnis uZvelesi keraa. es faqti ki, mTel rig sxva, maT Soris zemomota-
nil zogierT monacemTan erTad, safuZvels iZleva darwmunebiT Tqmisa, rom saqarTve-
lo mwarmoebluri meurneobis Casaxva-ganviTarebis erT-erTi uZvelesi da damoukide-
beli keraa da rom am keraSi adgili hqonda saxeobaTa da formaTwarmoqmnis uwKvet
process, raSic didi wvlili miuZGvis xalxur seleqcias [7 gv. 92, 238, 241].
debuleba saSemodgomo pureulis pirveladobis Sesaxeb SesaZlebels xdis saxeoba-
Ta warmoqmnasTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi sakiTxis gadawKvetasac, rasac SemecnebiT-
Tan erTad aqvs praqtikuli mniSvnelobac _ saxeobaTa warmoqmnis gzebisa da maTi
ganviTarebis istoriis codna xels uwKobs praqtikuli biologiis ganviTarebas, mce-
nareTa Tanamedrove moTxovnaTa SesatKvisi, gaumJobesebuli saxeobebis gamoKvanas [26].
amJerad ki mxedvelobaSia mecnierTa wreSi kamaTis sagnad qceuli sakiTxi imis Taoba-
ze Tu xorblis or saxeobas _ ifqlsa da dikas _ Soris romeli unda KofiliKo me-
orisaTvis advilfSvnadobis ganmapirobebeli Q faqtoris gadamcemi. mas Semdeg, rac
gairkva, rom saSemodgomo pureulia istoriulad pirveladi, cxadi gaxda, rom saga-
zafxulo dika ver iqneboda donori saSemodgomo, isic uZvelesi saxeobisa _ ifqlis,
romelsac, rogorc sxva monacemebiTac gairkva, Tavad unda mieGo monawileoba dikas
CamoKalibebaSi [7 gv. 228_236].
da mainc, rodidan ivaraudeba pureulis sagazafxulo formebis gamoKvana?
zemonaxseneb tripolies arqeologiur monapovrebSi damowmebuli sagazafxulo
naTesis amsaxveli ritualuri plastikis nimuSebi Cndeba Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi. arqeo-
logiurive masala adasturebs Zv.w. III aTaswleulisaTvis kavkasiaSi daGestnis maGal-
mTianeTis samiwaTmoqmedod aTvisebas [27].
Tu maGalmTianeTSi kavkasiis teniani hava SesaZlebels xdida sagazafxulo pureu-
lis moKvanas, SuamdinareTSi igive saqmianoba SeuZlebeli Tu ara, ararentabeluri
mainc iqneboda adgilobrivi bunebrivi pirobebis gamo (razec zemoT iKo saubari).
gamodis, mxolod maGalganviTarebulma sairigacio sistemam SeuwKo xeli iq, swored,
marcvleulis sagazafxulo JiSebze damKarebuli miwaTmoqmedebis aGmavlobas [7 gv.
195, 197, 221, 225, 241], rasac Sedegad mohKva ukve Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi axali, e.w.
sagazafxulo kalendris SemoGeba. Kovelive es ki mauwKebelia imisa, rom am droisa-
Tvis pureulis sagazafxulo saxeobebi karga xnis gamoKvanilica da KofaSic aTvise-
bul-damkvidrebuli Kofila. e.i., sagazafxulo pureuli, marTlac, mxolod saSemod-
gomosTan SedarebiT Kofila `axali Tesli~, Torem isic Soreuli warsulis monapo-
varia.
da kidev erTi, aGniSnulTan dakavSirebuli niSandoblivi faqti _ amave xanisa-
Tvis (Zv.w. III aTasw.) amier-kavkasiaSi ukve damowmebulia saialaGo meurneoba [28]. es
ki migvaniSnebs imaze, rom maGalmTianeTis saialaGod da samiwaTmoqmedod aTviseba
urTierTdakavSirebuli da sulac urTierTganmapirobebeli istoriuli movlenebia.
anu mas Semdeg, rac xalxuri zooteqnikis gonivruli monapovris, dolis vadebis xe-
lovnurad regulirebis, Sedegad SesaZlebeli gaxda mecxvareobis ganviTarebul, saia-
laGo formaze gadasvla [29], wamoiyreboda maGalmTianeTis samiwaTmoqmedodac aTvi-
sebis aucilebloba, rac kidev erTxel adasturebs CvenSi odiTganve simbiozuri me-
urneobis arsebobas.
aseTia, daaxloebiT, akad. iv.JavaxiSvilis mier xorbleulis saxelwodebebTan da-
kavSirebiT gamoTqmuli mosazrebis safuZvelze Catarebuli, Semdgomi, CaGrmavebuli
kvlevis mokled gadmocemuli Sedegebi.
damowmebuli literatura:
iv. J a v a x i S v i l i , Cveni amocanebi enaTmecnierebisa da kulturis istoriis sfe-
roSi. `qarTuli enisa da mwerlobis istoriis sakiTxebi~, Tb., 1956.
iv. J a v a x i S v i l i , saqarTvelos ekonomiuri istoria, w. I, tf., 1930.
iv. J a v a x i S v i l i , saqarTvelos ekonomiuri istoria, w. II, tf., 1934.
n. b r e g a Z e , xorblis leqsikasTan dakavSirebiT. III. `mse~, XX, Tb. 1979.
n. b r e g a Z e , xorblis leqsikasTan dakavSirebiT. IV. `macne~, ist.s., #3, 1981.
n. b r e g a Z e , sitKvis `Kana~ erTi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb, `saq.mecn.akad. moambe~, t.
67, #1, 1972.
m. `. a ! å ã = ä ƒ å , n÷å!*, C% =ã!%.2…%ã!=-,, c!3ƒ,,, ŠK., 1983.
b. k. l å … = K ä å , oøå…,ö/ c!3ƒ,,, ŠK., 1948.
b. m. p å ì å “ ë % , m=!C="ëå……%å ,ƒìå…å…,å !%"%L Cøå…,ö/ " %ƒ,ì3þ " öåë . “åëå*ö,,,
näå““=, 1956.
o. Š. j , K = “ % " , g…=÷å…,å %“å……åã% C!%!=“2=…, “åìå…, " C%ƒä…,. “åìå…å"%ä÷å“*,.
C%“å"=. Cøå…,ö/ , ÷ìå… . `"2%!å-. *=…ä.ä,“., nì“*, 1953.
Š. j. k å C , … , j ãå…å2,÷å“*%L C!,!%äå %ƒ,ì%“2, Cøå…,ö, `b%!C%“/ ."%ëþö,,,
K,%ãå%ã!=-,,, ãå…å2,*, , “åëå*ö,,", l.-k., 1960, “. 149-152.
b. o. k = “ * , … , lå2%ä Cå!åäåë*, !%"%L Cøå…,ö/ " %ƒ,ì3þ " “åëå*ö,, %ƒ,ì%L
Cøå…,ö/ …= ~ã%-b%“2%*å. ` " 2%!å- .*=…ä.ä,“., q=!=2%", 1961, “. 14.
h. t. k ? å … * % , n …=C!="ëå……%ì ,ƒìå…å…,, C!,!%ä/ Cøå…,ö , ÷ìå…åL, p%“2%"
…/d., 1956, “.4.
l,!%"%L =ã!%*ë,ì=2,÷å“*,L “C!=" %÷…,*, l.-k., 1937.
` ã!%*ë,ì=2,÷å“*,L =2ë=“ l,!=, l.-k., 1972.
K. W. B u t z e r , Environment and Archaeology, London, 1972.
Wan Z e i s t , The Domestication and Exploitation on Plants and Animals, “DEPA”, London, 1969,
p. 45.
J. O a t e s , Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia, London, 1972, p. 299.
H. H e l b a e k , Samarran Irrigation Agriculture at Choga Mami in Iraq. “Graq”, vol. XXXIV, part I.
q. j ! = ì å ! , h“2%!, …=÷,…=å2“ " x3ìå!å, l ., 1965, “. 164-165.
a . ` . p /K = * % " , “ƒ/÷å“2"% ä!å" …,. “ë=" …, l ., 1981, “. 179-180.
m. h. b = " , ë % " , hƒK!=……/å 2!3ä/, 2.r, “. 118, 170.
Ch. A. R e e d , The Patern of Animal Domestication on the PrehistoricNear East, “DEPA”, London,
1969, p. 361`.
J. M e l l a a rt , The Neolithic of Near East, London, 1975, p. 27,30.
b . l . l = ““% … , q!åä…= ` ƒ, , d !å"…,L b %“2%*, l ., 1964, “. 62, 69, III, 192.
b . k . j % ì = ! % " , o!%,“.%›äå…,å *3ëü23!…/. !=“2å…,L, k ., 1938, “. 3.
b . c. j % 2 % " , ÷ , o!%Këåì/ *3ëü23!…%-,“2%!,÷å“*%ã% , .%ƒ L“2"å……%ã% !=ƒ",2,
…=“åëå…, ä!å"…åã% d =ãå“2=…=, l ., 1982, “. 150-151.
j. u. j 3 ø … = ! å " = , Š.m.)3K,…,ø",ë,, d !å" …,å *3ëü23!/ ~›…%ã% j="*=ƒ=, k ., 1970,
“.110.
m. ` . a ! å ã = ä ƒ å , hƒ ,“2%!,, …=!%ä…%L ƒ%%2å.…,, "q%%K?å…, ` m c!3ƒ,,,", 2. 88, 12,
1977.

N. Bregadze

WHEAT-RELATED VOCABULARY AND CULTURAL


AND HISTORIC PROBLEMS

Summary

On the basis of linguistic material Academician I. Dzhavakhishvili came to the conclusion that the
Georgians primarily used to sow winter crops. Later on the data of humanitarian and natural sciences
enabled the author of the present article to broaden the area of the research and to generalize I.
Dzhavakhishvili`s statements to the following: historically, within the limits of the whole South-West
Asia genetic centre of cultural plants, wild grains and, accordingly, their cultured initial species were
winter crops.
Such a conclusion, in its turn, helps to specify and solve a number of problems of history and culture.
For instance, it seems possible: 1. To determine the vertical provenance zones of primary cereals; 2. To
link agricultural exploitation of highlands (1500-2300 m a. s. l.) with the raizing of spring crops; 3. To
assume that in Georgia, one of the most ancient and independent gencentres of cereal crops, an endless
process of species and shape formation took place; 4. To solve certain questions in respect of formation of
wheat species; 5. To state that in ancient Mesopotamia the prosperity of agriculture, being based on
spring sowing was only possible due to highly developed irrigative systems; 6. To identify the epoch of
spring crops raizing and introduction into agriculture; 7. To judge on the development of uplands (1500-
2300 m a. s. l.) for stock-raizing and agriculture as being historically interconnected and interstipulating
processes, with due regard for longstanding symbiotic character of these branches in Georgian economy.