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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN JUDUL.....................................................................
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN ......................................................
ii HALAMAN PERNYATAAN
...................................................... iii
ABSTRAK..................................................................................
... iv ABSTRACT
.................................................................................. v
KATA PENGANTAR ..................................................................
vi DAFTAR ISI
................................................................................. vii
DAFTAR GAMBAR
.................................................................... x DAFTAR TABEL
......................................................................... xii DAFTAR
LAMPIRAN................................................................. xiii
DAFTAR
ISTILAH...................................................................... xiv

BAB I. PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang...................................................................
1
1.2 Perumusan Masalah ...........................................................
3
1.3 Batasan Masalah ................................................................
3
1.4 Tujuan Penelitian ...............................................................
3
1.5 Manfaat Penelitian .............................................................
4

BAB II. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA


2.1 Kreatinin.............................................................................

5
2.2 Kreatin................................................................................
6
2.3 Asam pikrat ........................................................................
7
2.4 Metode analisis kreatinin ...................................................
8
2.5 Urin ....................................................................................
9
2.6 Kolorimetri.........................................................................
11
2.7 FIA dan SIA .......................................................................
13
2.8 Hipotesis.............................................................................
16

BAB III. METODE PENELITIAN


3.1 Tempat dan waktu
penelitian.............................................17
3.2 Bahan penelitian ................................................................
17
3.3 Alat penelitian....................................................................
17
3.4 Tahapan
penelitian.............................................................17
3.5 Cara kerja penelitian ..........................................................
18
3.5.1 Preparasi larutan..........................................................18
3.5.1.1
Pembua
tan
larutan
baku

kreatini
n .........
...........
18 8

3.5.1.2
Pembuatan asam
pikrat.....................................18
3.5.1.3
Pembuatan
NaOH.............................................18
3.5.1.4
Pembuatan reagen
pikrat .................................. 18
3.5.1.5
Preparasi sampel
urin........................................ 19
3.5.2 Optimasi Parameter....................................................19
3.5.2.1
Penentuan konsentrasi asam pikrat optimum... 19
3.5.2.2
Penentuan konsentrasi NaOH
optimum........... 21
3.5.2.3
Penentuan laju alir flow reversal
optimum...... 21
3.5.2.4
Penentuan laju alir optimum produk ke
detektor ....................................................... 21
3.5.2.5
Penentuan banyaknya pengulangan flow
reversal .................................................... 21
3.5.2.6
Penentuan volume dan jumlah segmen
optimum..........................................................
. 21
3.5.3 Pembuatan kurva kalibrasi kreatinin .......................... 22
3.5.4 Penentuan pengaruh komponen
pengganggu ............. 22
3.5.5 Aplikasi pengukuran kreatinin dalam sampel
urin .... 22
3.5.6 Perhitungan persamaan regresi linier dan koefisien
korelasi ....................................................................
. 22
3.5.7 Perhitungan nilai ratarata .......................................... 23
3.5.8 Perhitungan standar
deviasi........................................ 24
3.5.9 Perhitungan limit deteksi (LOD)................................
24
3.6 Analisis data .....................................................................
25
BAB IV. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN

4.1 Optimasi parameter............................................................


27
4.1.1 Optimasi parameter kimia............................................
27
4.1.1.1 Penentuan konsentrasi asam pikrat
optimum ... 27
4.1.1.2 Penentuan konsentrasi NaOH
optimum ........... 29
4.1.2 Optimasi parameter fisik............................................. 30
4.1.2.1 Penentuan laju alir flow reversal
optimum....... 30
4.1.2.2 Penentuan laju alir produk ke
detektor............. 32
4.1.2.3 Penentuan jumlah flow reversal
optimum........ 33
4.1.2.4 Penentuan volume dan jumlah segmen
optimum..........................................................
. 34
4.2 Kinerja analitis...................................................................
37
4.2.1 Pengaruh kreatin terhadap pengukuran kreatinin........
37
4.2.2 Kurva kalibrasi kreatinin............................................. 38

4.2.3 Perbandingan proses pengukuran kreatinin dengan


dan tanpa proses flow reversal
.................................... 39
4.3 Aplikasi SI-FRM terhadap penentuan kreatinin dalam
sampel
urin......................................................................40
BAB V. PENUTUP
5.1.
Kesimpulan .......................................................................
43
5.2.
Saran .................................................................................
43
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
................................................................... 45 LAMPIRAN
.................................................................................. 49