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UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013

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Contents updates 2013


I. NATIONAL CURRENT AFFAIRS

1. Electoral Reforms (Update)---3

2. RTI Act (Update)---6

3. Judiciary (Update)---7

4. Crimes Against Women (Update)---8

5. National Integration Council (NIC)---9

II. INDIAN ECONOMY

1. Land Acquisition Bill (Update)---12

2. National Food Security Bill (Update)---13

3. The Fall of Rupee & CAD (Update)---15

4. Companies Bill 2012---17

5. Nuclear Liability Act---19

III. WORLD ECONOMY

1. G-20---24

IV. DEFENCE

1. INS Arihant - Nuclear Submarine---32

2. INS Vikrant---37

3. Sinking of INS Sindhurakshak---38

4. Agni-V ICBM---40

5. US Electronic Surveillance (Update)---43

V. FOREIGN POLICY

1. Indo-Pak Relations (Update)---45

2. Indo-US Relations (Update)---53

3. Indo-Russian Relations (Update)---55

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4. India-China Relations (Update)---59

VI. INTERNATIONAL CURRENT EVENTS

Indias Neighbours

1. Sri Lanka (Update)---64

Asia

2. Syria (Update)---66

3. Iran (Update)---71

VII. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

1. BRICS (Update)---75

VIII. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

1. G-SAT-7---76

2. Voyager Space Probe---78

IX. ENVIRONMENT

1. Phailin Cyclone---79

X. SPORTS

1. Olympics (Update)---82

2. Cricket (Update)---84

IX. PERSONALITIES---85
















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i. national current affairs
1. ELECTORAL REFORMS (UPDATE)

I. Supreme Court Gave Voters the Right to Reject All Candidates
(September 27, 2013):

On September 27, 2013, the Supreme Court held that a voter could exercise the
option of negative voting and reject all candidates unworthy of being elected.

The voter could press the None of the Above (NOTA) button on the electronic
voting machine.

The Supreme Court, while allowing a petition filed by the Peoples Union for Civil
Liberties, said that for democracy to survive, it was essential that the best
available men should be chosen. This could be best achieved through men of
high moral and ethical values who win the elections on a positive vote.

The NOTA option would indeed compel political parties to nominate sound
candidates, according to the Supreme Court.

The Chief Justice of India P. Sathasivam said that giving right to a voter not to vote
for any candidate while protecting his right of secrecy was important. Such an
option gave the voter the right to express his disapproval of the kind of candidates being
put up by the parties.

The Supreme Court directed the Election Commission (EC) to provide the
necessary provision in ballot papers/EVMs and the NOTA button.

The Supreme Court directed the EC to implement its order in a phased manner or
at a time with the assistance of the Government of India. It also directed the
Government of India to provide necessary help for implementation of the above
direction.

The Supreme Court directed the EC to undertake awareness programmes to
educate the masses.

II. Significance of NOTA Option:

In the existing electoral system, a dissatisfied voter does not turn up for voting and this
provides an opportunity for unscrupulous elements to impersonate him/her. But if the
option of None Of The Above candidates option is provided, even reluctant
voters could turn up at the booth and press the NOTA button in the electronic
voting machine, according to the Supreme Court.

The provision for negative voting would send clear signals to political parties
and their candidates as to what the electorate thought about them, according to
the Chief Justice P. Sathasivam.


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The Supreme Court pointed out that countries like France, Belgium, Brazil, Greece,
Ukraine, Chile, Bangladesh, the US, Finland, Sweden, Columbia and Spain had
provided for neutral/protest/negative voting.

If introducing the NOTA button can increase participation of democracy then, in
the Courts view, nothing should stop the same.

Non-participation in the elections would cause frustration and disinterest, which
was not a healthy sign of a growing democracy like India, according to the
Supreme Court.

The fundamental right under Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution read with the
statutory right under Section 79(d) of the Representation of the People Act would
be violated unreasonably if the right not to vote effectively was denied and
secrecy breached.

The right to vote as well as the right not to vote was statutorily recognised under
Section 79(d) of the Representation of the People Act and Rules 41(2) and (3) and
49-O of the Election Conduct Rules respectively.

The Election Commission (EC) welcomed the Supreme Court order directing it to
add None Of the Above (NOTA) button in the EVM (Electronic Voting Machine).
The button would give voters the option of not voting for any candidate. The secrecy of
voters who prefer that choice would be protected, according to the EC.

Earlier voters opting for the NOTA option Rule 49 (O) did not enjoy secrecy as
they had to record it by filling up a form in front of the poll officials/election
agents.

III. Conclusion:

Analysts point out that if a very large percentage of voters go for the NOTA option
then it could affect the legitimacy of the election process.

Concerns have also been expressed that the right to reject could be misused for
political rivalry and in insurgency-hit areas it could be manipulated to sabotage
the democratic process.

Analysts suggest that the Election Commission could fix a limit beyond which the
percentage of NOTA votes would lead to re-polling.

SUMMARY

I. Supreme Court Gave Voters the Right to Reject All Candidates (September 27, 2013):

On September 27, 2013, the Supreme Court held that a voter could exercise the option of
negative voting and reject all candidates unworthy of being elected.

The voter could press the None of the Above (NOTA) button on the electronic voting machine.

For democracy to survive, it was essential that the best available men should be chosen. This
could be best achieved through men of high moral and ethical values who win the elections on a
positive vote.
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The NOTA option would indeed compel political parties to nominate sound candidates

Giving right to a voter not to vote for any candidate while protecting his right of secrecy was
important.

The Supreme Court directed the Election Commission (EC) to provide the necessary provision in
ballot papers/EVMs and the NOTA button.

The Supreme Court direct the EC to implement its order in a phased manner or at a time with the
assistance of the Government of India

The Supreme Court directed the EC to undertake awareness programmes to educate the masses.

II. Significance of NOTA Option:

If the option of None Of The Above candidates option is provided, even reluctant voters could
turn up at the booth and press the NOTA button in the electronic voting machine

The provision for negative voting would send clear signals to political parties and their
candidates as to what the electorate thought about them

France, Belgium, Brazil, Greece, Ukraine, Chile, Bangladesh, the US, Finland, Sweden, Columbia
and Spain had provided for neutral/protest/negative voting.

If introducing the NOTA button can increase participation of democracy then, in the Courts view,
nothing should stop the same.

Non-participation in the elections would cause frustration and disinterest, which was not a
healthy sign of a growing democracy like India

The fundamental right under Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution read with the statutory right
under Section 79(d) of the Representation of the People Act would be violated unreasonably if
the right not to vote effectively was denied and secrecy breached.

The right to vote as well as the right not to vote was statutorily recognised under Section 79(d) of
the Representation of the People Act and Rules 41(2) and (3) and 49-O of the Election Conduct
Rules respectively.

The Election Commission (EC) welcomed the Supreme Court order directing it to add None Of
the Above (NOTA) button in the EVM (Electronic Voting Machine). The secrecy of voters who
prefer that choice would be protected, according to the EC.

Earlier voters opting for the NOTA option Rule 49 (O) did not enjoy secrecy as they had to
record it by filling up a form in front of the poll officials/election agents.

III. Conclusion:

If a very large percentage of voters go for the NOTA option then it could affect the legitimacy of
the election process.

Concerns have also been expressed that the right to reject could be misused for political rivalry
and in insurgency-hit areas it could be manipulated to sabotage the democratic process.

The Election Commission could fix a limit beyond which the percentage of NOTA votes would
lead to re-polling.





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I.2. RTI act (update)

I. The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill 2013 Introduced in the Lok
Sabha (August 12, 2013):

On August 12, 2013, the UPA Government introduced the Right to Information
(Amendment) Bill 2013 in the Lok Sabha.

The Bill proposed an amendment to Section 2 of the RTI Act which states that
any association or body of individuals registered or recognised as political party
under the Representation of the People Act, 1951, would not be considered a
public authority.

The Bill also included a new Section 31in the principal Act which stated that the
amendment would apply not withstanding anything contained in any judgement,
decree or order of any court or commission, and would prevail over any other
law for the time being in force.

The Bill would override the June 3, 2013, order of the Central Information
Commission that held six political parties the Congress, BJP, BSP, NCP, CPI
and CPM as public authorities under Section 2 (b) of the transparency law.

All political parties were unanimous in their support for the amendment of the
RTI Act.

The Bill when passed by the Parliament would be applicable with retrospective
effect from June 3, 2013, to negate the Central Information Commission order.

The Central Government pointed out that there were already provisions in the
Representation of People Act and the Income Tax Act, which deal with financial
aspects of the political parties and their candidates.




















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i.3. judiciary (UPDATE)

I. Rajya Sabha Passed the Constitution (120
th
Amendment) Bill, 2013 to
Create a Judicial Appointments Commission (September 5, 2013):

On September 5, 2013, the Rajya Sabha passed the Constitution (120
th

Amendment) Bill, 2013 to create a Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC)
which would replace the collegium system of appointing judges to higher courts.

The Bill envisaged setting up of the JAC, to be decided by Parliament, that would
recommend appointment and transfer of Supreme Court and High Court judges.

Presently, the Collegium consisting of five top judges of the Supreme Court,
headed by the Chief Justice of India, decides the appointment of judges to higher
courts.

Law Minister Kapil Sibal said that appointment of judges is the role of the executive
and not the judiciary. By the amendment the executive was not trying to interfere
with the judicial processes. It was trying to have a transparent system of
appointment and participate with the judiciary to have best judges for a better
future.

The main Bill the Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, 2013, which defined
the establishment of the proposed body was sent to the Standing Committee of
the Parliament.

By the time the Standing Committee returned the main Bill, the Centre would
seek ratification of all States on the Constitution Amendment, according to the
Law Minister.





















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i.4. Crimes Against Women
(UPDATE)

I. Four Accused in the Delhi Gang-Rape Awarded Death Sentence, the
Juvenile sent to a Correctional Home for Three Years:

On August 31, 2013, the Juvenile Justice Board held that the juvenile accused in
the Delhi gang-rape was guilty and sent him to a correctional home for three
years.

The juvenile was found guilty of rape and murder and the Juvenile Justice Board
awarded him the maximum punishment provided in the Juvenile Justice (Care
and Protection of Children) Act.

On September 10, 2013, a fast track court held the four accused in the Delhi
gang-rape guilty of a criminal conspiracy to gang-rape murder and commit
unnatural sex on the 23-year-old physiotherapy student on December 16, 2013.

On September 13, 2013, the fast track court awarded death penalty to four
convicts in the December 16, 2012 Delhi gang-rape.

The court held that the case fits into the rarest of rare category. It was stressed
that the court cannot turn a blind eye to sending a strong message to the
perpetrators of such crimes.

II. Conclusion:

The fast track court that awarded death penalty to the four convicts of the Delhi
gang-rape said that the criminal justice system must instil confidence in the minds
of people, especially women. The crime of such nature against a helpless
woman, per se, required exemplary punishment.

Amnesty International India said that far-reaching procedural and institutional
reform, and not death penalty, was what was needed to tackle the endemic
problem of violence against women in the country.

United Nations Women, a UN organisation dedicated to gender equality and
empowerment of women, asked the Government of India to adopt a
comprehensive approach to end violence against women.

While the UN does not support capital punishment, perpetrators of crimes
against women must be brought to justice, according to the representative of the
UN Women.

Evidence across the world suggests that higher conviction rates serve as
deterrents to violence. The UN Women called upon the Government of India to do
everything in its power to ensure speedy justice for survivors of violence, especially
those from marginalised communities.

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i.5. NATIONAL INTEGRATION COUNCIL

1. February 2005 - NIC Constituted After a Gap of 12 Years: In February 2005, the UPA
Government Constituted the National Integration Council (NIC) after a gap of 12 years. The
last meeting of the NIC was held in 1992.

2. 103-Member Body: The NIC is a 103-member body functioning under the Chairmanship of
the Prime Minister. It will have 11 Cabinet Ministers, all Chief Ministers, former Prime
Ministers, leaders of prominent parties, regional party leaders, chairpersons of all six National
Commissions on minorities, SC/STs, women and human rights, 10 representatives of the
industrial sector, 36 public figures, 10 women representatives and 17 media-persons.

3. NIC a Forum for Initiative and Interaction on Issues of National Concern: The NIC will
function as a forum for effective initiative and interaction on issues of national concern, review
issues relating to national integration and make recommendations thereon.

4. Need to Address the Challenge of Regionalism and Communalism:

Potential Sources of Discord: The Prime Minister Manmohan Singh identified
communalism, casteism, regionalism and lingual chauvinism as potential sources of
discord as referred to by the former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in the 1961 NIC
meeting.

Adequate Space for Regional and Sub-Regional Identities: The Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh underscored the need to address the challenges of regionalism and
communalism by stressing that there was adequate space in the polity and society for
regional and sub-regional identities and cultures.

Ensuring that Local Identities become Part of India's Diverse Mosaic: Dr. Singh
pointed out that technological advances in communication and information technology
and the media made it possible for the small communities and local cultures to preserve
and promote their unique identities. He stressed that there was a need to ensure that
these local identities become part of India's diverse mosaic in a harmonious way rather
than become the cause of divisiveness and exclusion.

Regional Economic Imbalances Need to be Addressed: The Prime Minister
identified regional economic imbalance as one of the causes of discord. He advised the
Chief Ministers of less developed States to learn from the experience of the more
developed ones to find new pathways to progress.

Improvement in the Livelihood of the Rural Poor an Important Element of
National Integration: Dr. Singh emphasised that the State Governments must invest in
health, education, infrastructure and governance, and transform rural economy. An
improvement in the lives and livelihood of the rural poor was an important element of
national integration.

Grievances Could be Addressed Democratically through Dialogue: The overt
challenges like communalism, extremism, separatism, insurgency and violence could
be addressed democratically and through dialogue, according to the Prime Minister.
Every political group, which claimed to represent the interests of any section, must
demonstrate its popularity through the institutions of democracy.
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Reinforcing Commitment to Pluralism and Inclusiveness: Dr. Singh stressed on
the need to inculcate the spirit of liberalism in the people. He emphasised that the
education system, the media and popular culture must reinforce India's commitment to
pluralism and inclusiveness.

All Three Pillars of the Constitution Need to Renew Commitment to the Founding
Principles of the Republic: The Prime Minister stressed that the legislature, judiciary
and the executive must at all times be cognisant of the need to renew India's
commitment to the founding principles of the republic and the guiding principles of the
Constitution.

Model Bill to Curb Communal Violence being Finalised: The Government said that
it was finalising a model Bill to curb communal violence that would be circulated to the
public for getting their suggestions.

5. Sixteenth NIC Meeting (New Delhi, September 23, 2013):

The 16
th
NIC meeting held in New Delhi on September 23, 2013 was focused on
the rising communal tensions.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told political parties not to derive mileage from
sectarian violence.

The State government should lose no time to control communal violence sternly.
The local administration should prevent a small issue from snowballing into a
huge controversy. The State should use all means at its disposal to punish those guilty
of fanning communal violence and ensure a speedy crackdown on such elements
irrespective of their political affiliations or influence, according to Dr. Singh.

The Prime Minister said that social media gave people freedom to express their
opinions and thoughts. But people should not be allowed to misuse this medium
to create communal tension and spread hatred.

Dr. Singh cited the recent communal violence in Muzaffarnagar in UP and
stressed that the States should act fast and transparently to avoid small
incidents leading to communal riots.

The Prime Minister pointed to the circulation of fake videos that worsened the
Muzaffarnagar riots and also recalled the mass exodus of people of the
north-east from some southern and western cities due to uploading of fake
messages on social media in 2012.

A majority of the Chief Ministers attending the NIC meeting agreed with the Prime
Ministers concern at misuse of the social media and urged the Centre to device
a mechanism to deal with this new phenomenon.

Some Chief Ministers demanded stricter cyberlaws to deal with
mischief-mongers.



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SUMMARY
1. NIC Constituted After a Gap of 12 Years

2. 103-Member Body

3. NIC a Forum for Initiative and Interaction on Issues of National Concern

4. Need to Address the Challenge of Regionalism and Communalism:

Potential Sources of Discord

Adequate Space for Regional and Sub-Regional Identities

Ensuring that Local Identities become Part of India's Diverse Mosaic

Regional Economic Imbalances Need to be Addressed

Improvement in the Livelihood of the Rural Poor an Important Element of National Integration

Grievances Could be Addressed Democratically through Dialogue

Reinforcing Commitment to Pluralism and Inclusiveness

All Three Pillars of the Constitution Need to Renew Commitment to the Founding Principles of
the Republic

Model Bill to Curb Communal Violence being Finalised

5. Sixteenth NIC Meeting (New Delhi, September 23, 2013):

The 16
th
NIC meeting held in New Delhi on September 23, 2013 was focused on the rising
communal tensions.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told political parties not to derive mileage from sectarian
violence.

The State government should lose no time to control communal violence sternly. The local
administration should prevent a small issue from snowballing into a huge controversy

The Prime Minister said that social media gave people freedom to express their opinions and
thoughts. But people should not be allowed to misuse this medium to create communal tension
and spread hatred.

Dr. Singh cited the recent communal violence in Muzaffarnagar in UP and stressed that the States
should act fast and transparently to avoid small incidents leading to communal riots.

The Prime Minister pointed to the circulation of fake videos that worsened the Muzaffarnagar
riots and also recalled the mass exodus of people of the north-east from some southern and
western cities due to uploading of fake messages on social media in 2012.

A majority of the Chief Ministers attending the NIC meeting agreed with the Prime Ministers
concern at misuse of the social media and urged the Centre to device a mechanism to deal with
this new phenomenon.

Some Chief Ministers demanded stricter cyberlaws to deal with mischief-mongers.






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II. INDIAN ECONOMY
1. Land acquisition Bill (UPDATE)

I. Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2013 Passed by
the Rajya Sabha (September 4, 2013):

On September 4, 2013, the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2013
was passed by the Rajya Sabha.

All four government amendments were accepted, necessitating that the Bill be reverted
to Lok Sabha for its consideration. The Lok Sabha had passed the Bill on August 29,
2013.

Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh moved four amendments, requiring that
the Bill be sent back to the Lok Sabha for the approval of the amendments.

According to the Amendments, the law would not apply to irrigation projects where
environmental impact assessment was required under the provision of any other law
already in force.

For land acquisition initiated under the Land Acquisition Act, 1984, which the present
Bill sought to replace, only the compensation part would be determined as provided in
the proposed law. The amendment drops the proposals on rehabilitation and
resettlement.

In case an award had been made, the provisions of compensation under the new law
would be applicable with respect to only those beneficiaries in whose account the
money had not been deposited.

The Bill sought to make consent of gram panchayats mandatory for acquisition of land
to be made at four times the market rate, besides outlining provisions for rehabilitation
and resettlement.


















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II.2. Food Security Bill (UPDATE)

I. National Food Security Bill, 2013, Passed by the Parliament (September
2, 2013):

1. Lok Sabha Passed the National Food Security Bill, 2013 (August 26, 2013):

On August 26, 2013, the Lok Sabha passed the National Food Security Bill, 2013
which seeks to provide subsidised food grains to 67 per cent of the population
(75% rural and 50% urban) of the country.

The government had promulgated an Ordinance in July 2013 which had to be
replaced by the Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament to make it a law.

The Congress President Sonia Gandhi said that the Bill was a big message
about Indias capability to take responsibility for the food security of all its
citizens.

The National Food Security Bill was a fulfilment of the Congress partys promise
to wipe out hunger and malnutrition, according to Ms. Gandhi.

2. Rajya Sabha Approved the National Food Security Bill, 2013 (September 2, 2013):

On September 2, 2013, the Rajya Sabha approved by voice vote the National
Food Security Bill, 2013.

The Bill was passed after the government assured the members of the Upper
House that it had no intention of tinkering with the federal structure of
governance through the legislation.

The Rajya Sabha members were informed by the government that the current grain
allocation to the States under the Targeted Public Distribution System even if
over and above their entitlement under the new law would be maintained at
Above the Poverty Line prices.

II. Sharing the Cost of the Food Security Programme between the Centre
and the States:

After the passage of the National Food Security Bill by the Parliament, the issue
that came up was sharing the cost of the Food Security programme between the
Centre and the States.

The Centre convened a meeting of the State Food Ministers on September 23-24,
2013, to discuss the issue.

After insistence from political parties, the Centre had agreed to bring an
amendment to the Bill on holding consultations with the States on the rules to be
framed by it, instead of just issuing directions.


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As the Bill provides, the Centre was consulting the State governments before
framing the rules, schemes and guidelines, according to the Union Food Minister
K.V. Thomas.

The Centre would also discuss modernisation of the targeted Public Distribution
System with the State Ministers, according to Mr. Thomas.

The meeting convened by the Centre would discuss the contentious issues of
ratio of cost-sharing between the Centre and the States for transportation of
foodgrains from Food Corporation of India godowns to fair price shops.

The Centre was looking at the demand of the States about sharing 50 per cent of
the transportation cost.

The Centre would also attempt to evolve consensus on the amount, time and
manner of payment of food security allowance to beneficiaries and introduction
of cash transfer, food coupons or other schemes for the targeted beneficiaries.

The Centre has to frame and notify the norms and how it would provide funds to
the States in case of short supply of foodgrains from the Central pool.

By law, it was now the obligation of the Centre to procure, provide and distribute
to each State and Union Territory its entitlement of foodgrains to cover all
beneficiaries.



























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ii.3. Fall OF Rupee & CAD (update)

I. RBI Announced the Third Set of Measures to Stabilise the Rupee (August
14, 2013):

On August 14, 2013, the RBI announced the third set of measures to stabilise the
Indian rupee.

The RBI clamped capital controls to check demand for the US dollar.

The RBI clamped down on capital outflows with tighter investment and
remittance limits abroad for companies and individuals.

The RBI restricted the limit for overseas investment through automatic by an
Indian company from 400 per cent to 100 per cent of the companys net worth.

II. Government Banned Import of Gold Coins and Medallions to Manage the
Current Account Deficit:

In order to bring down the Current Account Deficit (CAD) to $70 billion, or around
3.7 per cent of the GDP, the Government announced measures to curb the import
of gold, silver and a few non-essential items and oil.

Tariffs were increased for gold and silver.

The Government banned the import of gold coins and medallions.

The Government expects to save $4 billion from the gold imports bill and $1.5
billion for petroleum.

III. Rupee Falls further as Stock Markets Crashed:

On August 16, 2013, the stock markets crashed and the rupee plunged to an
all-time low amid fears that the Government may switch to a capital-control
regime to curb foreign exchange volatility and reduce the Current Account
Deficit (CAD).

On August 19, 2013, the rupee witnessed the biggest single day fall to reach 63 a
US dollar.

As the rupee depreciated the Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) rushed to sell
stocks to repatriate US dollars.

The sell-off by the FIIs was mainly due to the fear that the Government would
come out with fresh measures to check the outflow of dollars from India,
according to analysts.

IV. RBI Announced Fresh Measures to Stabilise the Rupee:

On August 20, 2013, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced fresh measures
to curb the volatility of the Indian rupee and also to address the liquidity
concerns.



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The RBI eased the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) to provide more funds to
banks for lending.

The RBI also announced that it would buy bonds worth Rs.8,000 crore on August
23, 2013.

V. Conclusion:

The Indian rupee depreciated by 12-13 per cent in the current fiscal and the
inability to arrest the fall of the rupee was extremely worrying, according to
economists.

RBIs measures to push up the interest rates and drain liquidity to check
speculation of rupee backed by some administrative measures had limited
success, according to analysts.

The Union Finance Minister promised to contain the Current Account Deficit
(CAD) to within $70 billion or 3.7 per cent of the GDP this year.

To achieve this target the Government announced a number of measures to
boost dollar supply as well as to moderate its demand.

The Government raised the import duties on gold, silver and platinum.

The Government wants to reduce the import bill of petroleum products through
demand compression and by persuading bulk consumers to moderate their
demand.

The measures to boost the dollar supply include easing of norms for the External
Commercial Borrowings (ECBs), trade finance from abroad, and freeing of
interest rates on Non-Resident external accounts. Select public sector finance
companies were asked to raise quasi-sovereign bonds to the extent of $4 billion.

The RBI also announced a series of measures to rein in the capital outflows by
individuals and companies.

Analysts point out that the outflow of capital form emerging markets on speculation
that the US Federal Reserve could end its easy money policy hurt the currency of
nearly every developing country.

Finance Secretary told the media that the Government was not looking at taking
further steps to tackle the fall of the rupee, but would wait to see the impact of its
measures.








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ii.4. COMPANIES BILL 2012

I. Rajya Sabha Ratified the Companies Bill 2012 (August 8, 2013):

1. Companies Bill 2012 Replaced the Companies Act, 1956:

On August 8, 2013, the Rajya Sabha ratified the Companies Bill 2012, passed by
the Lok Sabha in December 2012.

The Companies Bill 2012 replaced the 57-year-old Companies Act, 1956.

The new legislation needs the Presidents assent to make it law.

2. Highlights of the Companies Bill 2012:

Companies are required to spend at least 2% of their average profits in the last
three years towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities.

Only companies having profits of 5 crore rupees or more in the last three years
have to make the CSR spend.

In case companies are unable to comply with the CSR rules, they need to give
explanations. Otherwise, they would be penalised.

The companies have the freedom to choose areas of work for CSR.

Mandatory for companies that one-third of their board comprises of independent
directors.

At least one of the board members has to be a woman.

Mandates payment of two years salary to employees in companies which wind
up operations.

Corporates must disclose the difference in salaries of the directors and that of
the average employee.

Provisions for faster winding up of firms.

Provides for class action suit, a key weapon for individual shareholders to take
collective action against errant companies.

An auditor can serve up to 20 companies.

Auditors have to be changed every five years to avoid collusion with the
management.

Ensures setting up of special courts for speedy trial and stronger steps for
transparent corporate governance practices and curb corporate misdoings.

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3. Significance of the Company Bill 2012:

The focus of the Companies Bill 2012 was to enhance transparency and ensure
fewer regulations, self-reporting and disclosures besides creating the necessary
environment for growth in the present global structure, according to the Corporate
Affairs Minister Sachin Pilot

The objective was also to help small one-person companies to access facilities
and credit, besides ensuring one minimum woman director in certain prescribed
class of companies, according to the Minister.

The effort was also to ensure these companies to give employment to all
sections of society, according Mr. Pilot.

The new Bill had introduced numerous changes and concepts which should
simplify regulations and bring greater clarity and transparency in managing
businesses, according to the FICCI President Naina Lal Kidwai.


































UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
19
II.5. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR
DAMAGE aCT

I. Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010:

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010, proposes to channel all legal
liability stemming from a nuclear accident in India to the nuclear power plant
operator concerned.

The liability of the nuclear power plant operator, whether public or private, is
capped at Rs. 1,500 crore.

For any damages in excess of the liability of the operator, the Bill makes the
Government liable up to a further level of 300 million Special Drawing Rights
(SDRs), approximately Rs.21,000 crore.

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 would enable India to accede to
the to the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) Convention on
Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC).

After India accedes CSC, Indian victims of a nuclear accident could draw upon
an international fund to the maximum amount of another 300 million SDRs.

II. Necessity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill:

The Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill was critical for the
operationalisation of the Indo-US Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative.

The Act enables India to accede to the Convention on Supplementary
Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), without which the US companies
would not be able to sell nuclear equipment to India.

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010, would help put a liability regime
in place in India. From the existing 436 nuclear power plants in the world, only the
nuclear power plants in India (18) and Pakistan (2) are not covered by any liability,
according to the spokesperson for the Congress Party Manish Tewari.

The Act had been under consideration for very long as the Public Liability
Insurance Act of 1991 (enacted after the Bhopal gas tragedy) was not applicable
to nuclear accidents, according to the then Minister of State in the Prime Ministers
Office Prithviraj Chavan.

Currently there was no law to provide compensation to the victims of a nuclear
incident, according to Mr. Chavan.

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill would provide for prompt
compensation to the victims of a nuclear incident, according to Mr. Chavan.



UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
20

III. Parliament Adopted the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010:

1. August 25, 2010 - Lok Sabha Unanimously Passed the Bill after 18 Amendments
Moved by the Government:

On August 25, 2010, the Lok Sabha passed the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill,
2010 by voice vote after the House adopted 18 amendments moved by the
Government.

The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government managed to get the support of the
Opposition parties for the passage of the Bill after it dropped the contentious provision
of intent as a precondition for holding suppliers liable for a nuclear accident caused by
defective equipment.

2. August 30, 2010 - Rajya Sabha Approved the Bill by Voice Vote: On August 30, 2010,
the Rajya Sabha approved the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill by voice vote.

3. Highlights of the Bill:

Nuclear operators to be strictly liable for damages resulting from an accident but
their liability would be capped at Rs.1,500 crore, unless a higher amount is notified
by the Government.

Beyond this cap, the Government assumes responsibility for damages.

Bill specifies maximum liability of 300 million Special Drawing Rights (SDRs),
approximately Rs.21,000 crore.

Increased the time period for filing claims in case of personal injury from 10 to 20
years.

Claims for damages must be disposed of within three months of application.

Victims can approach the High Court and the Supreme Court for review of
compensation amounts.

Provisions for setting up a nuclear damage claims panel.

IV. Significance of the Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
Bill, 2010:

The Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010, marked the
completion of a journey to end the nuclear apartheid against India, according to
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

The legislation would enable India to widen the option of nuclear power by
entering into nuclear commerce with other countries.

Indias three-phase nuclear research programme would not be compromised
because of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage , according to the Minister of State
in the Prime Ministers Office Prithviraj Chavan.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
21

The Bill Would Enable India to Move in the Direction of Increasing its Nuclear
Power Generation by Actively Participating in International Markets: India is
planning to increase the nuclear power generation from the present 4,120, MWe to
60,000 MWe by 2030, which requires Indias active participation in international
markets and compliance with international rules and regulations. The Civil Liability for
Nuclear Damage Bill is a step in this direction, according to analysts.

V. The US Objections to the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act:

The US objected to Sections 17(b) and 46 of the Civil Liability for Nuclear
Damage Act which open the door for legal action against nuclear suppliers if an
accident was caused by faulty or defective equipment.

The US felt that these provisions violated the International Atomic Energy
Agencys (IAEA) Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear
Damage (CSC).

US companies like GE and Westinghouse insist that they would not be able to
supply nuclear equipment to India unless they were fully insulated in the event of
an accident.

The Indian Government informed the US that the Act, as passed by the
Parliament was final and that no changes in any of its provisions were possible.

VI. India Signed the IAEAs Convention on Supplementary Compensation
for Nuclear Damage (CSC) (Vienna, Austria, August 27, 2010):

On August 27, 2010, India signed the International Atomic Energy Agencys
(IAEA) Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)
in Vienna, Austria.

The CSC provides a framework for channelling liability and providing speedy
compensation in the event of a nuclear accident.

The IAEA is the depository of the CSC, which has been signed by 14 countries
and ratified by four, including the US.

The CSC would enter into force only when at least five countries with a minimum
of 4,00,000 units of installed nuclear capacity ratify the treaty.

The CSC does not provide any forum for signatories to challenge each others
national laws.

Article XVI of the CSC allows for arbitration as well as adjudication by the
International Court of Justice, in the event of a dispute.

The US entered a reservation while ratifying the CSC in 2008 declaring that it
does not consider itself bound by these dispute settlement procedures.

India is likely to make a similar declaration when it ratifies the CSC. That would
leave the Supreme Court of India as the only forum competent to rule on the Civil
Liability for Nuclear Damages Act, 2010 with Indias international obligations stemming
from its accession to the CSC.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
22

By signing the CSC, India delivered the last of its commitments stemming from
the 2005 India-US Civil Nuclear Agreement.

With the US Administration issuing the requisite Part 810 licensing
certifications, the stage is set for the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd.
(NPCIL) to begin commercial negotiations with US companies General Electric
(GE) and Westinghouse for supply of two 1,000-MWe nuclear reactors.

SUMMARY

I. Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010:

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010, proposes to channel all legal liability stemming
from a nuclear accident in India to the nuclear power plant operator concerned.

The liability of the nuclear power plant operator, whether public or private, is capped at Rs. 1,500
crore.

For any damages in excess of the liability of the operator, the Bill makes the Government liable
up to a further level of 300 million Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), approximately Rs.21,000 crore.

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010 would enable India to accede to the to the
International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) Convention on Supplementary Compensation for
Nuclear Damage (CSC).

After India accedes CSC, Indian victims of a nuclear accident could draw upon an international
fund to the maximum amount of another 300 million SDRs.

II. Necessity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill:

The Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill is critical for the operationalisation of
the Indo-US Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative.

The Bill enables India to accede to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear
Damage (CSC), without which the US companies would not be able to sell nuclear equipment to
India.

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010, would help put a liability regime in place in India

The Bill had been under consideration for very long as the Public Liability Insurance Act of 1991
(enacted after the Bhopal gas tragedy) was not applicable to nuclear accidents

Currently there was no law to provide compensation to the victims of a nuclear incident

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill would provide for prompt compensation to the victims
of a nuclear incident

III. Parliament Adopted the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010:

August 25, 2010 - Lok Sabha Unanimously Passed the Bill after 18 Amendments Moved by the
Government:
August 30, 2010 - Rajya Sabha Approved the Bill by Voice Vote

IV. Significance of the Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010:

The Passage of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010, marked the completion of a
journey to end the nuclear apartheid against India.

The legislation would enable India to widen the option of nuclear power by entering into nuclear
commerce with other countries.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
23

Indias three-phase nuclear research programme would not be compromised because of the Civil
Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill.

The Bill Would Enable India to Move in the Direction of Increasing its Nuclear Power Generation
by Actively Participating in International Markets

V. The US Objections to the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act:

The US objected to Sections 17(b) and 46 of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act which open
the door for legal action against nuclear suppliers if an accident was caused by faulty or
defective equipment.

The US felt that these provisions violated the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA)
Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC).


US companies like GE and Westinghouse insist that they would not be able to supply nuclear
equipment to India unless they were fully insulated in the event of an accident.

The Indian Government informed the US that the Act, as passed by the Parliament was final and
that no changes in any of its provisions were possible.

VI. India Signed the IAEAs Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
(CSC) (Vienna, Austria, August 27, 2010):

On August 27, 2010, India signed the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) Convention
on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) in Vienna, Austria.

The CSC provides a framework for channelling liability and providing speedy compensation in
the event of a nuclear accident.

The IAEA is the depository of the CSC, which has been signed by 14 countries and ratified by
four, including the US.

The CSC would enter into force only when at least five countries with a minimum of 4,00,000 units
of installed nuclear capacity ratify the treaty.

The CSC does not provide any forum for signatories to challenge each others national laws.

Article XVI of the CSC allows for arbitration as well as adjudication by the International Court of
Justice, in the event of a dispute.

The US entered a reservation while ratifying the CSC in 2008 declaring that it does not consider
itself bound by these dispute settlement procedures.

India is likely to make a similar declaration when it ratifies the CSC. That would leave the
Supreme Court of India as the only forum competent to rule

By signing the CSC, India delivered the last of its commitments stemming from the 2005 India-US
Civil Nuclear Agreement.

With the US Administration issuing the requisite Part 810 licensing certifications, the stage is
set for the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) to begin commercial negotiations
with US companies







UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
24
III. WORLD ECONOMY
1. G-20

I. Background:

1. G-20 - Formed in 1999, Accounts for 85 per cent of the global economy and two-thirds of the global
population: The Group of 20 was formed on September 25, 1999 in Washington DC when the Finance Ministers
of G-7 felt the need to include emerging markets in discussions and reviews of policy issues to promote
international financial stability. The G-20 accounts for 85 per cent of the global economy and two-thirds of the
global population.

2. Members of the G-20: The US, the EU, China, India, Japan, Germany, Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Russia,
Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, South Korea and South Africa.

3. G-20 Summit (Washington, November 15, 2008):

First G-20 Meeting at the Summit Level: The G-20 Meeting in Washington on November 15, 2008 was
the first at the summit level - previous G-20 meetings were confined to Finance Ministers and central bank
governors. Spain and Netherlands were also invited to the G-20 Summit in Washington.

Aim of the Summit - to Address the Current Financial Crisis and Lay Foundation for Reforms: The
then US President George W. Bush said that the aim of the G-20 Summit was to address the current
financial crisis, and to lay the foundation for reforms that would help prevent a similar crisis in the future.

Washington Summit Declaration:

Agreement to restore confidence in the global financial system.

The common principles agreed included strengthening transparency and accountability;
enhancing sound regulation; promoting integrity in financial markets; reinforcing international
cooperation; and reforming international financial institutions.

College of Supervisors to be set up to monitor the worlds biggest financial institutions,
including the US systems, with a list to be compiled by the end of March 2009. The proposal would add a
level of security to monitor excessive risk-taking by banks and financial firms.

4. G-20 - London Summit (April 02-03, 2009):

Summit Statement:

$1.1 Trillion Pledged to Multilateral Institutions to Boost Economic Growth: G-20 leaders pledged
additional $1.1 trillion in resources for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other multilateral
institutions to boost global economic growth. This would be in addition to the fiscal stimulus packages
given by individual countries that would total $5 trillion by the end of 2010.

Agreement to Treble the Resources Available to the IMF to $750 Billion: The G-20 leaders agreed to
treble the resources available to the IMF to $750 billion and support the allocation of new Special Drawing
Rights (SDRs) of $250 billion. The leaders also agreed to support at least $100 billion in lending by
multilateral development banks that would be available to all members and ensure $250 billion in trade
finance. The Summit agreed to allow the IMF to sell gold and provide concessional finance to the poorest
countries.

Agreement to Establish a New Financial Stability Board (FSB) with Representation from all G-20
Members.

Agreement on a Set of Principles to Reform the Global Banking System: The G-20 leaders agreed
for the first time on a set of principles to reform the global banking system. The shadow banking system
would be brought under the regulatory regime and new accounting stands would be formulated.


UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
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Action against Tax Havens and Banking Secrecy through OECD Mechanism: In a move against tax
havens and banking secrecy, the G-20 Summit warned that it would deploy sanctions to protect public
finances and financial system. It declared that the era of banking secrecy was over. It was noted that the
Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) had published a list of countries
assessed against the international standard for the exchange of information.

Agreement to Refrain from Protectionism: In view of the rising protectionism in different countries the
G-20 leaders reaffirmed the commitment made in the Washington Summit in November 2008 to refrain
from raising new barriers to investment or trade in goods and services that were inconsistent with the
World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules.

Call for a Balanced Conclusion of the Doha Round of WTO Trade Talks: The G-20 Summit called for
an ambitious and balanced conclusion to the Doha development round of WTO trade talks that could
boost the world economy by at least $150 billion per year.

Pledge to Assist the Less Developed Countries to Meet the Millennium Development Goals: The
G-20 leaders pledged to assist the less developed countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals
and lay the foundation for a fair and sustainable world economy.

The Fiscal Stimulus Packages would be Directed to Ensure a Green, Low Carbon Recovery.

5. G-20 Summit (Toronto, Canada, June 27-28, 2010):

Summit Declaration:

Called for striking a balance between stimulus measures to sustain economic expansion and
reducing fiscal deficit to tackle the problem of Government finances.

Resolved to continue with free international trade and refrain from protectionist measures.

Strengthening the Recovery was the Key: The Declaration stated that while growth was returning, the
recovery was uneven and fragile, unemployment in many countries remained at unacceptable levels, and
the social impact of the crisis was still widely felt. Strengthening the recovery was the key.

To sustain recovery, there was need to follow through on delivering existing stimulus plans,
while working to create conditions for robust private demand.

Recent events highlighted the importance of sustainable public finances and the need for countries
to put in place credible, properly phased and growth-friendly plans to deliver fiscal sustainability,
differentiated for and tailored to national circumstances.

Countries with serious fiscal challenges need to accelerate the pace of consolidation.

Advanced economies have committed to fiscal plans that would halve deficits by 2013 and
stabilise or reduce government debt by 2016.

G-20 members renewed their commitment to refrain from raising or imposing barriers to
international trade and investment for a further three years till the end of 2013. This was in view of
the global economic crisis leading to the biggest decline of trade in more than 70 years.

The next G-20 Summit would be held in Seoul, South Korea in November 2010.

Significance of the Summit:

The G-20 Summit managed to reach a consensus on two Important Issues of Coordinating Fiscal
Policies and Framing Global Regulatory Rules for the Financial Sector: Analysts point out that the
significance of the Toronto G-20 Summit lay in the fact that it managed to reach a consensus on two
important issues of coordinating fiscal policies and framing global regulatory rules for the financial sector.
The Summit committed all countries to follow growth friendly fiscal consolidation plans, halving their
deficits by 2013 and stabilising the ratio of debt to GDP by 2016. Nevertheless, there would be no
sanctions on countries not adhering to this guideline.

The public message for all countries was that while shoring up domestic demand in the short
run, they should move towards fiscal consolidation, but at a pace to be decided by the country itself.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
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The Summit Endorsed Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs Suggestion on Nurturing the Global
Recovery Through Public Spending in the Advanced Countries: The Summit was significant for
India as Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs suggestion that global recovery was still fragile and hence
needed to be nurtured through continued public spending in the advanced countries was endorsed by the
G-20 members.

6. G-20 Summit (Seoul, South Korea, November 11-12, 2010):

A. Agenda of the Summit - Five Issues:
The framework of balanced and sustainable growth
Reform of the international financial institutions
Financial regulatory reform
Development and trade
Financial safety net for developing countries

B. Highlights of the G-20 Communiqu:

Agreement to curb persistently large imbalances in saving and spending but deferred until next
year tough decisions to identify and fix them. The goal was to facilitate timely identification of large
imbalances that require preventive and corrective actions to be taken.

Agreed to refrain from competitive devaluation and bring in exchange rate flexibility to ensure
that no country get undue advantage.

Ratified IMF Reforms: The G-20 leaders ratified changes in the governance of the IMF that would
expand representation of emerging-market countries, endorsed the expansion of IMF lending
programmes that could be used by countries facing a sudden liquidity crunch, and empowered the IMF to
spearhead the process for fixing imbalances.

Endorsed new rules set by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and known as Basel III,
which order banks to keep more capital for a rainy day.

Agreed to take a fresh approach to international development focused on promoting growth.
They also agreed to make development a permanent part of the G-20 agenda.

Seoul Consensus - Commitments to engage developing countries as partners: The Seoul
Consensus laid stress on commitments to engage developing countries as partners. A multi-year plan
for funding, such as infrastructure, private-sector job creation and access to banking services. It was also
agreed to support a free trade area in Africa.

C. Significance of the Summit:

The G-20 leaders agreed to avoid a competitive devaluation of their currencies and undertook to
seek a more balanced growth.

The G-20 endorsed measures to reform the IMF which would give China, India and others a
greater say in the world body. A more democratic IMF would have wider acceptability and would
therefore be better equipped to perform its role as a referee, according to analysts.

For the first time development was included in the G-20 Summit agenda with leaders committing
themselves to a multiyear action plan aimed at strengthening food security and bridging the gap between
the rich and poor nations.

India played a significant role by getting the G-20 to appoint a high powered panel for channelling
global surpluses to finance infrastructure.

Analysts point out that the significant message from the Summit was that the countries would
continue to work together but would not be constrained by any rigid time frame.




UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
27

7. G-20 Summit (Cannes, France, November 3-4, 2011):

A. Agenda for the Summit:
Reforming of the International Monetary System; providing support for the changes the global
economy is experiencing.
Strengthening the Financial Reform
Fighting Corruption and Cleaning up the business Environment
Ensuring Food Security in the most Vulnerable Nations

B. India Signed the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters:

On November 4, 2011, India signed the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax
Matters, developed by the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD).

The Convention has to be ratified by Indias Parliament to become law.

All members of the G-20 have now become signatories to the Convention.

The Convention provides for all forms of administrative cooperation between countries in the
assessment and collection of taxes, especially with the view to combat tax avoidance and evasion.
The cooperation covers the exchange of information, including automatic exchanges, to the recovery of
foreign tax claims.

C. G-20 Communiqu:

Asked tax havens to adopt prudential norms for sharing of tax information to check money
laundering and funding of terror failing which it threatened action.

Warned of action against jurisdiction and entities that would not cooperate in ensuring
transparency in tax frauds.

Underlined the importance of comprehensive tax information exchange and encouraged work in
the Global Forum (OECD) to define the means to improve it.

Called upon nations to adhere to the international standards in the tax, prudential and
Anti-Money Laundering/ Combating the Financing of Terrorism areas.

Welcomed the commitment made by all G-20 members to sign the Multilateral Convention Mutual
Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters and strongly encouraged other jurisdictions to join the
Convention.

G-20 made significant progress in implementing the Action Plan on combating corruption,
promoting market integrity and supporting a clean business environment.

Underlined the need for swift implementation of a strong international legislative framework, the
adoption of national measures to prevent and combat corruption and foreign bribery, the
strengthening of international cooperation in fighting corruption and development of joint initiatives
between the public and the private sector.

Consensus on measures to strengthen the international financial system.

D. Significance of the G-20 Summit:

The G-20 Communiqu endorsed Indias call for increased banking transparency and exchange
of information to combat tax fraud and evasion and other illicit flows, according to Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh.

The rich and the emerging economies pledged to fight cross-border tax evasion under the
agreement approved by the summit.

The Convention of global tax matters would help Governments collect tens of billions of dollars
in taxes on previous hidden income.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
28

The outcome of the G-20 summit at Cannes was positive and balanced, according to China. It was
pointed out that the leaders of the worlds most influential economies who attended the summit
expressed their commitment to stabilising financial market and improving global economic governance.

8. Seventh G-20 Summit (Los Cabos, Mexico, June19-20, 2012):

A. Declaration Adopted by the Seventh G-20 Summit:

The G-20 leaders would work collectively to strengthen demand and restore confidence to
support growth and financial stability in order to create jobs and opportunities.

Agreed on a coordinated Los Cabos Growth and Jobs Action Plan to achieve these goals.

Agreement among the leaders that policies in all countries must shift to strengthening growth.

The G-20 leaders look forward to the Euro Area working in partnership with the next Greek
Government to ensure that they remain on the path to reform and sustainability within the Euro
area.

The G-20 would intensify efforts to create a more conducive environment for development,
including supporting infrastructure investment.

Recognised the impact of the economic crisis on developing nations, particularly the low income
countries.

B. Significance of the Seventh G-20 Summit for India:

Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs stand that growth and austerity have to be combined, was
reflected in the Summit Declaration which emphasised that the need for growth because, austerity,
by itself, would not solve the debt problems of the Eurozone.

The Summit Declaration for the first time included investment in infrastructure in the developing
countries. India has been pressing for this since the last three Summits.

The Declaration called for ending mechanistic reliance on credit rating agencies, and
encouraging transparency and competition amongst them. This was in line with Indias stand.

The Summit agreed that the IMF quota reform should be speeded up from 2013. This would
increase the clout of the developing countries in the IMF.

The non-European members of the G-20 sent a strong message to Europe that it had to end the
nationalistic bickering and better supervise the Eurozones finances through the European Central
Bank (ECB), the IMF and the EU.

II. Eighth G-20 Summit (St. Petersburg, Russia, September 5-6, 2013):

1. Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs Address to the Summit:

Called for efforts at restoring growth, which would be greatly helped if there was
a stable external environment. The G-20 had a major role to play in this context.

Called upon the G-20 leaders to send a clear signal of their collective
commitment to work together for the revival of growth, which was the only way of
ensuring a sustainable growth in quality jobs.

Recovery in the global economy could not be driven by the developed economies
alone. There was need to restore robust growth in the emerging market
countries, which would contribute to global recovery.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
29

The policy of unconventional monetary expansion in advanced countries had
some success but it had also spillover effects. When the policy was being
loosened, there was a surge in capital flows to emerging markets, which helped some
countries finance their current account deficits (CAD) while generating upward pressure
on the currencies of their countries.

With markets now anticipating a reversal, a large outward flow of capital from
emerging markets was being witnessed. Since most emerging markets now
operated with flexible exchange rates, they experienced varying degrees of currency
depreciation, posing problems in many cases.

The conventional view that capital volatility should not be a source of concern as
long as exchange rates were flexible was now being questioned. Sudden
increases in cross-border flows affect not only the exchange rate but also credit
volumes and asset prices.

This effectively amounted to saying that automatic adjustment of capital flows
and growth does not take place with a flexible currency all the time.

The Prime Minister questioned the orthodoxy of self-correcting market forces in
the current global conditions.

2. G-20 Leaders St. Petersburg Declaration:

The G-20 Leaders Declaration committed itself to cooperate to ensure that policies
implemented to support domestic growth also support global growth and
financial stability and to manage spillovers to other countries.

Shared Indias view on the need for orderly exit from the monetary stimulus
undertaken in the context of the 2008 economic crisis.

Coordinated action by the G-20 has been critical to tackling the financial crisis
and putting the world economy on a path of recovery.

Critical for G-20 countries to focus all their joint efforts on engineering a durable
exit from the longest and most protracted crisis in modern history.

Most urgent need was to increase the momentum of the global recovery,
generate higher growth and better jobs while strengthening the foundations for
long term growth and avoiding policies that could cause the recovery to falter or
promote growth at other countries expense.

Monetary policy would continue to be directed towards domestic price stability
and supporting the economic recovery according to the respective mandates of
central banks.

G-20 leaders recognised the support that had been provided to the global
economy in recent years from accommodative monetary policies, including
unconventional monetary policies.

G-20 would remain mindful of the risks and unintended negative side-effects of
extended periods of monetary easing.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
30

3. Significance of the Eight G-20 Summit:

The eighth G-20 Summit was significant in reinforcing the process of forging
institutions for undertaking and monitoring governance of globalisation,
according to analysts.

A number of new institutions and old ones with new mandates are being worked
out to combat the menace of tax evasion and corruption by harmonising
financial accounting, improving regulation, producing financial inclusion,
investment, growth and jobs, according to analysts.

Indias Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs Arvind Mayaram, expressed
satisfaction that the final G-20 declaration took care of Indias main concerns, while
stating that the central banks of the developed world had agreed to calibrate and
communicate their monetary policies to the developing economies to minimise
volatility in capital flows and currencies.

Another significant achievement from Indias point of view was that it got the
G-20 to state that all nations would work together to ensure that MNCs pay taxes
in the countries where their profits arise, according to Mr. Mayaram.

III. Conclusion:

Time for the G-20 to evolve beyond the crisis management role and emerge as a
major forum for forging a consensus among developed and emerging
economies on major issues including trade and climate change, according to analysts.

SUMMARY

I. Eighth G-20 Summit (St. Petersburg, Russia, September 5-6, 2013):

1. Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs Address to the Summit:

Called for efforts at restoring growth, which would be greatly helped if there was a stable external
environment. The G-20 had a major role to play in this context.

Called upon the G-20 leaders to send a clear signal of their collective commitment to work
together for the revival of growth

There was need to restore robust growth in the emerging market countries, which would
contribute to global recovery.

The policy of unconventional monetary expansion in advanced countries had some success but
it had also spillover effects

With markets now anticipating a reversal, a large outward flow of capital from emerging markets
was being witnessed

The conventional view that capital volatility should not be a source of concern as long as
exchange rates were flexible was now being questioned

This effectively amounted to saying that automatic adjustment of capital flows and growth does
not take place with a flexible currency all the time.

The Prime Minister questioned the orthodoxy of self-correcting market forces in the current
global conditions.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
31

2. G-20 Leaders St. Petersburg Declaration:

Committed itself to cooperate to ensure that policies implemented to support domestic growth
also support global growth and financial stability and to manage spillovers to other countries.

Shared Indias view on the need for orderly exit from the monetary stimulus undertaken in the
context of the 2008 economic crisis.

Coordinated action by the G-20 has been critical to tackling the financial crisis and putting the
world economy on a path of recovery.

Critical for G-20 countries to focus all their joint efforts on engineering a durable exit from the
longest and most protracted crisis in modern history.

Most urgent need was to increase the momentum of the global recovery, generate higher growth
and better jobs while strengthening the foundations for long term growth and avoiding policies
that could cause the recovery to falter or promote growth at other countries expense.

Monetary policy would continue to be directed towards domestic price stability and supporting
the economic recovery according to the respective mandates of central banks.

G-20 leaders recognised the support that had been provided to the global economy in recent
years from accommodative monetary policies, including unconventional monetary policies.

G-20 would remain mindful of the risks and unintended negative side-effects of extended periods
of monetary easing.

3. Significance of the Eight G-20 Summit:

The eighth G-20 Summit was significant in reinforcing the process of forging institutions for
undertaking and monitoring governance of globalisation

A number of new institutions and old ones with new mandates are being worked out to combat
the menace of tax evasion and corruption by harmonising financial accounting, improving
regulation, producing financial inclusion, investment, growth and jobs

G-20 declaration took care of Indias main concerns, while stating that the central banks of the
developed world had agreed to calibrate and communicate their monetary policies to the
developing economies to minimise volatility in capital flows and currencies.

Another significant achievement from Indias point of view was that it got the G-20 to state that all
nations would work together to ensure that MNCs pay taxes in the countries where their profits
arise

II. Conclusion:

Time for the G-20 to evolve beyond the crisis management role and emerge as a major forum for
forging a consensus among developed and emerging economies











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iV. DEFENCE
1. INS ARIHANT -
NUCLEAR-POWERED SUBMARINE

I. Background:

1. Prime Minister Launched a Nuclear-Powered Submarine INS Arihant for Sea Trials:
On July 26, 2009 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched indigenously built
nuclear-powered submarine INS Arihant for sea trials at the Naval Dockyard in
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

2. Features of Indias Indigenous Nuclear-Powered Submarine - INS Arihant:

Arihant means destroyer of enemies

It is 110 metre long, 11 metre wide and 15 metre tall and can displace 6,000
tonnes of water.

A miniaturised Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) built by Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC) propels the nuclear-powered submarine.

The nuclear-powered submarine would be fitted with anti-ship missiles,
torpedoes and sensors.

INS Arihant would be fitted with Indias indigenous K-15 ballistic missiles that
could be launched from under water. The K-15, which are under production, can
carry both conventional and nuclear warheads having range of 700 km.

The nuclear-powered submarine will undergo various trials before it is formally
commissioned.

3. Nuclear-Powered Submarine built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV)
Programme:

The indigenous nuclear-powered submarine INS Arihant has been built under the
Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) programme, with the strategic
cooperation of Russia.

Vice-Admiral (retired) D.S.P. Verma is the Director-General of the ATV
programme.

The ATV programme was cleared for implementation by the former Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi in 1984.

The ATV programme commenced from 1998 and is estimated to have cost
Rs.30,000 crore.

The ATV programme saw a new era in cooperation among the DRDO, BARC, the
Navy, and public and private sectors, who synergised their efforts to achieve the
important milestone.

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33

4. Significance of the Indigenous Nuclear-Powered Submarine INS Arihant:

India joined the select group of countries which possess the capability to build a
nuclear-powered submarine. Only the US, Russia, China, France and the U.K. have
nuclear-powered submarines.

The construction of a submarine is a highly demanding task in itself, but for India
to develop its first nuclear submarine was a special achievement, according to the
Prime Minister. A nuclear-powered submarine is a much more complex platform than
any other vessel and India building one on its own was a great achievement, according
to DRDO officials.

The nuclear-powered submarine completes the third-leg of nuclear triad
envisaged under Indias nuclear doctrine of having a second strike capability,
according to the then Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta. India can now launch
missiles with nuclear warheads from the land, air and also from the sea.

The Indian Navy wanted to influence a wide area in the Indian Ocean and the
nuclear submarine was the apex of that capability, according to Admiral Mehta.

The nuclear-powered submarine gives India the status of a country possessing a
blue-water Navy because the submarine can travel far and wide.

The main advantage of a nuclear-powered submarine is that it can remain under
water for a long duration, whereas a diesel-fired submarine has to rise to the surface
every day for ejecting the carbon-dioxide produced by the diesel-generator.

By building the miniaturised reactor that propelled the nuclear-powered
submarine, BARC had demonstrated that India had indigenous Pressurised
Water Reactor (PWR) technology, according to the then Atomic Energy Commission
Chairman Anil Kakodkar.

The launching of INS Arihant was an important milestone in the ATV programme.
The PWR technology is very complex and BARC was able to compact the reactor and
pack it in the cramped space of the hull of the submarine, according to Dr. Kakodkar.

For the first time India had built a PWR that used enriched uranium as fuel, and
light water as both coolant and moderator. The mastering of the PWR technology
was significant as the Light Water Reactors that India would be importing from Russia,
France and the US were PWRs that used enriched uranium as fuel, and light water as
both coolant and moderator, according to Dr. Kakodkar.

5. Prime Minister Allays Fears of Any Aggressive Designs by India:

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that it was incumbent on India to take all
necessary steps to keep pace with global advances.

India does not have any aggressive designs, nor does it seek to threaten anyone,
according to Dr. Singh.

India sought an external environment in the region and beyond that, conducive
to its peaceful development and the protection of its value systems, according to
the Prime Minister.



UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
34

It was also incumbent upon India to take all measures necessary to safeguard
the country and keep pace with technological advancements worldwide. Eternal
vigilance was the price of liberty, according to Dr. Singh.

Special mention of the contribution of Russia in helping India achieve a
historical milestone in the complex project being implemented under the
public-partnership model was made by both the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and
the Defence Minister A.K. Antony.

II. Arihants Nuclear Reactor Achieved Criticality (August 10, 2013):

On August 10, 2013, Indias first indigenous nuclear submarine INS Arihant
achieved criticality (self-sustained nuclear reaction, the first step towards
stable production of power).

INS Arihant is propelled by a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) which uses
enriched uranium as fuel, and light water as both coolant and moderator. The
PWR generates about 80 MW of power.

The key challenge was to make the PWR compact to fit into the submarine and
the need for the reactor to be stable in the depth of the sea.

INS Arihant would be fitted with K-15 underwater fired missiles, which can reach
targets up to a distance of 700 km. The K-15 missiles which would carry nuclear
warheads are under production.

India is building three more nuclear-powered submarines at Visakhapatnam.

III. Significance of INS Arihants Nuclear Reactor Achieving Criticality:

India joined the exclusive club of countries that have built their own nuclear
powered submarines the US, Russia, the UK, France and China.

INS Arihants nuclear reactor achieving criticality is the first step towards
making Indias nuclear triad operational with the capability to fire deterrent
nuclear missiles from the land, air and sea envisaged in Indias nuclear doctrine,
according to analysts.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh congratulated the scientists and the Navy on
their success in achieving the criticality for INS Arihants nuclear reactor.

It represents a giant stride in the progress of Indias indigenous technological
capabilities, according to Dr. Singh.

It was a testimony to the ability of Indias scientists, technologists and defence
personnel to work together for mastering the complex technologies in the
service of the countrys security, according to the Prime Minister.

The achievement of criticality of the PWR aboard INS Arihant was a
demonstration of very advanced technological capability in the challenging
areas of nuclear reactor design, manufacture and commissioning, according to
the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Chairman R.K. Sinha.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
35

The sea trials of INS Arihant would be conducted by the end of August 2013 to
carry out tests on board, including weapons firing.

SUMMARY
I. Background:

1. 2009 - Prime Minister Launched a Nuclear-Powered Submarine INS Arihant for Sea Trials
2. Features of Indias Indigenous Nuclear-Powered Submarine - INS Arihant:
Arihant means destroyer of enemies
It is 110 metre long and 11 metre wide and can displace 6,000 tonnes of water.
A miniaturised Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) built by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
propels the nuclear-powered submarine.
The nuclear-powered submarine would be fitted with anti-ship missiles, torpedoes and sensors.
INS Arihant would be fitted with Indias indigenous K-15 ballistic missiles that could be launched from
under water
The nuclear-powered submarine will undergo various trials before it is formally commissioned.
3. Nuclear-Powered Submarine built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Programme:
The indigenous nuclear-powered submarine INS Arihant has been built under the Advanced Technology
Vessel (ATV) programme, with the strategic cooperation of Russia.
Vice-Admiral (retired) D.S.P. Verma is the Director-General of the ATV programme.
The ATV programme was cleared for implementation by the former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1984.
The ATV programme commenced from 1998 and is estimated to have cost Rs.30,000 crore.
The ATV programme saw a new era in cooperation among the DRDO, BARC, the Navy, and public and
private sectors
4. Significance of the Indigenous Nuclear-Powered Submarine INS Arihant:
India joined the select group of countries which possess the capability to build a nuclear-powered
submarine
The construction of a submarine is a highly demanding task in itself, but for India to develop its first
nuclear submarine was a special achievement
The nuclear-powered submarine completes the third-leg of nuclear triad envisaged under Indias nuclear
doctrine of having a second strike capability
The Indian Navy wanted to influence a wide area in the Indian Ocean and the nuclear submarine was the
apex of that capability
The nuclear-powered submarine gives India the status of a country possessing a blue-water Navy
because the submarine can travel far and wide.
The main advantage of a nuclear-powered submarine is that it can remain under water for a long duration
By building the miniaturised reactor that propelled the nuclear-powered submarine, BARC had
demonstrated that India had indigenous Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) technology
The launching of INS Arihant was an important milestone in the ATV programme
First time India had built a PWR that used enriched uranium as fuel, and light water as both coolant and
moderator
5. Prime Minister Allays Fears of Any Aggressive Designs by India:
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that it was incumbent on India to take all necessary steps to keep
pace with global advances.
India does not have any aggressive designs, nor does it seek to threaten anyone
India sought an external environment in the region and beyond that, conducive to its peaceful
development and the protection of its value systems
It was also incumbent upon India to take all measures necessary to safeguard the country and keep pace
with technological advancements worldwide
Special mention of the contribution of Russia in helping India achieve a historical milestone

II. Arihants Nuclear Reactor Achieved Criticality (August 10, 2013):

On August 10, 2013, Indias first indigenous nuclear submarine INS Arihant achieved criticality
(self-sustained nuclear reaction, the first step towards stable production of power).

INS Arihant is propelled by a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) which uses enriched uranium as
fuel, and light water as both coolant and moderator


UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
36

The key challenge was to make the PWR compact to fit into the submarine and the need for the
reactor to be stable in the depth of the sea.

INS Arihant would be fitted with K-15 underwater fired missiles, which can reach targets up to a
distance of 700 km

India is building three more nuclear-powered submarines at Visakhapatnam.

III. Significance of INS Airhants Nuclear Reactor Achieving Criticality:

India joined the exclusive club of countries that have built their own nuclear powered submarines
the US, Russia, the UK, France and China.

INS Arihants nuclear reactor achieving criticality is the first step towards making Indias nuclear
triad operational with the capability to fire deterrent nuclear missiles from the land, air and sea
envisaged in Indias nuclear doctrine, according to analysts.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh congratulated the scientists and the Navy on their success in
achieving the criticality for INS Arihants nuclear reactor.

It represents a giant stride in the progress of Indias indigenous technological capabilities

It was a testimony to the ability of Indias scientists, technologists and defence personnel to work
together for mastering the complex technologies in the service of the countrys security

The achievement of criticality of the PWR aboard INS Arihant was a demonstration of very
advanced technological capability in the challenging areas of nuclear reactor design,
manufacture and commissioning

The sea trials of INS Arihant would be conducted by the end of August 2013 to carry out tests
on-board, including weapons firing.


























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37
iV.2. INS VIKRANT

I. Indias First Indigenous Aircraft Carrier, INS Vikrant Launched (August
12, 2013):

On August 12, 2013, Indias first indigenous aircraft carrier, INS Vikrant, was
launched at Cochin Shipyard.

In 1961, the Indian Navy acquired its first aircraft carrier, INS Vikrant which
played a crucial role in the India-Pakistan war in 1971. It was decommissioned in
1997.

The new INS Vikrant would undergo outfitting till 2016 and would go for basin
trials and extensive sea trials before being commissioned in 2018.

The Indian Navy already possess INS Viraat, 28,000-tonne aircraft carrier.

Russias Admiral Gorshkov renamed Vikramaditya would join the Indian Navy by
the end of 2013.

II. Features of INS Vikrant:

Weight 37,000 tonne
Deck 2.5 acres
Speed 28 knots (52 km/hour)
Aircraft MiG 29K, Light Combat Aircraft and Kamov 31 helicopters
Capacity Can carry 36 fighter planes
Crew can carry about 1,560 personnel
Cost - $5 billion (Rs.30,000 crore)

III. Significance of the Launch of INS Vikrant:

The launching of Indias first indigenous aircraft carrier INS Vikrant marked just
the first step in a long journey, but at the same time it was an important one,
according to the Defence Minister A.K. Antony.

India joined the elite club of countries that could design and build 40,000 tonne
aircraft carriers.

Over the years, Indian Navy had shifted distinctly from a buyers navy to a
builders navy, according to Mr. Antony.

Sixty per cent of ships and submarines being built for the Indian Navy were being
constructed in Indian shipyards. Out of the 47 warships, destroyers, and other
vessels on order, 46 were being built at defence public sector or private shipyards in the
country, according to the Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral D.K. Joshi.

INS Vikrant would have long-range, surface-to-air missile and close-in weapon
system. It would be equipped with the most modern C/D bank early warning
radar, tactical air navigation and direction finding systems.

The Chinese media said that the launch of INS Vikrant reflected Indias ambition to
dominate the Indian Ocean and heralding a great Indian presence in the Pacific.
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iV.3. Sinking of ins sindhurakshak

I. Explosions Sink Submarine INS Sindhurakshak (August 14, 2013):

On August 14, 2013, Indian Navys Kilo-class submarine INS Sindhurakshak sank
at the Mumbai naval dockyard after two rapid, near-simultaneous explosions led
to major fires that spread rapidly.

The sinking of INS Sindhurakshak led to the death of 18 crew members three
officers and 15 sailors.

The Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines are made in Russia.

Sindhurakshak, which was built in 1997, was modernised in Russia from June
2010 to January 2012.

The Sindhurakshak runs on batteries under water. Engines are used to charge
the batteries. The submarine had finished charging batteries three days ago and was
ready for assuming its duty.

Russia was sending experts to India to help investigate the accident.

The Defence Minister A.K. Antony told the Rajya Sabha on August 20, 2013, that
preliminary investigation indicated that the explosions on the submarine INS
Sindhurakshak were caused by possible ignition of armament.

The rapidity and intensity of the explosions and the resultant damage to the
submarine indicated that the 18 persons on board would not have survived,
according to Mr. Antony.

A Board of Inquiry with all relevant specialists had been constituted to
investigate the causes of the accident at the earliest, according to the Defence
Minister.

The Navy had ordered an audit of Standard operating Procedures (SoPs) on all
operational submarines and extensive checks on the weapon related safety
systems, according to Mr. Antony.

Globally-renowned salvage agencies had been approached and they were
undertaking a survey for salvage operations, according to the Defence Minister.

II. Implications of the INS Sindhurakshak Accident:

Analysts point out that the sinking of the Kilo-class submarine INS Sindhurakshak
with lot of lives being lost was an unprecedented setback to the countrys effort
to strengthen undersea defence capabilities.

The Defence Minister A.K. Antony described the accident as the greatest tragedy
in recent times.

The inquiry into the Sindhurakshak accident would indicate design and safety
aspects that should be strengthened in future, according to analysts.





UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
39

The lessons from the Sindhurakshak accident would be crucial for the safety of
the nine other Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines that are present with the
Indian Navy.

The Naval Materials Research Laboratory project to design a propulsion
technology that is air independent would be vital as it could lower explosion
risk from submarine power plant gas leaks, and help the submarines stay
underwater for a longer duration.

Analysts feel that the Sindhurakshak accident could adversely impact the Navys
operational preparedness.

After the accident, Indias conventional submarine fleet strength is low at 13
vessels including nine Kilo-class submarines and four HDW class submarines.

Currently, India also has INS Chakra, a nuclear-powered submarine leased from
Russia for 10 years since January 2012.

China has 60 diesel-electric submarines and 10 nuclear-powered submarines.

Pakistan has eight conventional submarines.
































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IV.4. Agni-v icbm

I. Agni-V -Indias Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM):

1. Agni-V Successfully Test-Fired (Wheeler Island, Odisha, April 19, 2012):

On April 19, 2012, India successfully test-fired nuclear-capable
surface-to-surface Agni-V Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) from the
Wheeler Island off the Odisha coast.

The Agni-V missile lifted off a rail mobile launcher reached an altitude of 600 km
and attained a velocity of 7,000m/sec.

It hit a target 5,000 km away with an accuracy of a few metres between Australia
and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.

The re-entry vehicle could withstand temperatures about 3,000 degree Celsius as
it entered the atmosphere at an accurate angle.

Agni-V will undergo four to five more tests before becoming fully operational by
2014-15.

2. Features of Agni-V:

Surface-to-Surface Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)
Length - 17.5 metres
Weight - 50 tonnes
Warheads - 1.5 tonne
Range - 5000 km
Three-Stage Solid-Fuelled Missile
Payload - can carry nuclear warheads
Transportability - Canister system to impart higher mobility.
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has designed and
developed Agni-V.

3. Second Successfully Test-Firing of Agni-V (Wheeler Island, Odisha, September 15,
2013):

On September 15, 2013, the Agni-V Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) was
successfully test-fired for its full range of 5,000 km from the Wheeler Island in
Odisha.

The success of the mission established the ICBM capability of India, according to
the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister and DRDO Director-General Avinash
Chander.

The Agni-V ICBM was now ready for production. The next step would be to
endow it with canister-launch capability and the first trial would be carried out in
a few months, according to Mr. Chander.



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41

The Agni-V ICBM would be a stop-and-launch road mobile system that would
be fired within minutes once endowed with a canister-thrust capability, according
to Mr. Chander.

Nobody could intercept Agni-V once launched as it would be difficult to spot,
track and prevent, according to Mr. Chander.

4. Significance of the Successful Test-Firing of Agni-V:

With the successful test-firing of Agni-V, India joined the elite club of countries
with Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) technology. The countries which
have the ICBM technology include the US, Russia, France, U.K. and China. India is now
among these select group of companies who have the capability to design, develop,
build and manufacture a long-range missile of this class and technological complexity,
according to the then V.K. Saraswat, Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister.

The significance of the successful test-firing of Agni-V is that it is the most
formidable missile in Indias arsenal with the longest range. It forms the key
component of Indias strategic arsenal.

Agni-V would provide India with depth in deterrence as the country has a policy
of no-first-use of nuclear weapons. The missile with its very short reaction time as
well as very high mobility for requisite operational flexibility, takes care of Indias current
threat perceptions and primary area of concern, according to officials.

One of the key features of Agni-V was that it could use satellite-based navigation
systems, including GPS, GLONASS and Indias Regional Navigational Satellite
System (IRNSS), according to the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister Avinash
Chander.

Agni-V can cover the whole of Asia, 70 per cent of Europe, east Africa and other
regions. It can hit targets deep inside China, including Beijing and Shanghai and can
target the whole of Pakistan.

Gives the Armed Forces the Required Flexibility to Launch the Missile from the
Place of their Choice: With Agni-V all targets of interest could be reached from deep
inside India. Since it could be launched from a road mobile launcher and a canister, it
was difficult to intercept the missile and defeat it while being launched, according to Mr.
Chander. This gives the Armed Forces the required operational flexibility to pick and
choose from where to launch the missiles.

A great advantage in the configuration of Agni-V was that it could be further
enhanced and its range expanded. Agni-III with a range of 3,500 km could be
up-scaled to Agni-V in a short time. Similarly, Agni-V can also be up-scaled. The
advantage of Agni-V is that its up-scaling and mobility was high, according to V.G.
Sekaran, Director of Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL), Hyderabad. The ASL has
designed and developed Agni-V.

The rocket motor castings made up of carbon composites gave the Agni-V
missile a better performance, according to Dr. Sekaran.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
42

Analysts point out that the successful test-firing of Agni-V represents the
acquisition of strategic deterrence capability. It should not be seen in relation to any
perceived threat from any country. It should encourage Confidence Building Measures
(CBMs) with neighbours.

Indias Armed Forces have already inducted Agni-I and Agni-II which are meant to
account for the threat from Pakistan. The Agni-III, Agni-IV and Agni-V are designed
to counter the threat from China, according to analysts.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that the successful test-firing of Agni-V
represented another milestone in Indias quest to add to the credibility of its
security and preparedness and to continuously explore the frontiers of science.






































UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
43
iV.5. US ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE
(UPDATE)

I. Russian Granted Asylum to Edward Snowden (August 1, 2013):

On August 1, 2013, Russia granted temporary asylum to US whistleblower
Edward Snowden.

Mr. Snowden left the transit zone of Moscow airport to an undisclosed location.
He had been stuck at the airport since June 23, 2013.

The temporary asylum status would protect Mr. Snowden from extradition.

The asylum status allows him to live and work in Russia for one year and could
be extended indefinitely on a yearly basis.

The US had asked Russia to send back Edward Snowden for trial on charges of
espionage, but had not sent a formal extradition request.

The Russian President Vladimir Putin refused to hand over Edward Snowden.

Regardless of the fact that Russia was granting asylum for one year to Edward
Snowden, the action was a setback to US-Russia relations, according to the
chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee Robert Menendez.

II. US President Cancelled his Summit Meeting with the Russian President
(August 7, 2013):

The US President Barack Obama cancelled his summit meeting with the Russian
President Vladimir Putin.

On August 7, 2013, the White House said that following a careful review begun in
July 2013, the US Administration reached the conclusion that there was not
enough recent progress in their bilateral agenda with Russia to hold a US-Russia
Summit in early September 2013.

The US Administration said that Edward Snowden was also a factor that was
considered in assessing the current state of their bilateral relationship with
Russia.

The White House stressed that there had been a lack of progress in areas of
bilateral cooperation such as missile defence and arms control, trade and
commercial relations, global security issues, and human rights and civil society
in the last 12 month, prompting it to inform the Russian Government it would be
more constructive to postpone the Summit.

Russia expressed disappointment at the cancellation of the Summit but said it
remained ready to work with the US on a variety of issues.


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III. US President Outlined Reforms of the US Surveillance Programme
(August 9, 2013):

On August 9, 2013, the US President Barack Obama outlined reforms to prevent
abuse of the controversial US domestic surveillance programmes.

Mr. Obama said that given the history of abuse by governments, it was right to ask
questions about surveillance, particularly as technology was reshaping every
aspect of lives.

The US National Security Agency (NSA)s domestic surveillance programmes
including the monitoring of the metadata of domestic phone calls, have raised
apprehensions following the revelations by Edward Snowden.

The following four steps were outlined by the US President:

Working with Congress to reform Section 215 of the Patriot Act, which governs
the programme that collects phone records.

Proposal to appoint a lawyer to argue against the government at the Foreign
Intelligence Surveillance Court.

Formation of a group of external experts to review all US government
intelligence and communications technologies.

The President also directed justice department to declassify the legal rationale
for the governments phone-data collection, and stressed that the NSA would put in
place a civil liberties and privacy officer.























UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
45
V. FOREIGN POLICY
1. INDO-PAK RELATIONS (UPDATE)

I. Pakistan Troops Cross LoC and Kill Five Indian Soldiers (August 6,
2013):

On August 6, 2013, heavily armed border action team (BAT) of Pakistan troops
and terrorists crossed the Line of Control (LoC) in the Poonch sector of Jammu
and Kashmir and killed five Indian soldiers.

Defence Minister A.K. Antony told the Lok Sabha on August 8, 2013, that it was clear
that specialist troops of the Pakistan Army were involved the attack when a
group from Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) crossed the LoC and killed Indias
brave Jawans.

Nothing happens from Pakistan side of LoC without support, assistance,
facilitation and often, direct involvement of the Pakistan Army, according to Mr.
Antony.

The Defence Minister wanted Pakistan to show determination in dismantling the
terrorist infrastructure and show tangible movement on bringing those
responsible for the Mumbai terrorist attack in November 2008 to justice quickly.

India lodged a strong protest over the killings of its soldiers by summoning
Pakistans Deputy High Commissioner Mansoor Ahmed Khan.

Pakistan denied that its troops were involved in the killing of five Indian soldiers
on the LoC.

II. Parliament Resolution Condemned Pakistani Armys Unprovoked Attack
on Indian Soldiers (August 14, 2013):

On August 14, 2013, both Houses of the Parliament adopted a Resolution
condemning the Pakistan Army for its unprovoked attack on an Indian Army
patrol on Indias side of the LoC that resulted in the death of five Indian soldiers.

The Resolution said that it was unfortunate that Pakistan chose to indulge in
such unprovoked attacks at a time when efforts were being made to establish a
long-lasting framework of peaceful, friendly and cooperative ties.

The Resolution called upon Pakistan to abide by the 2003 ceasefire commitment.

The Resolution stressed that the entire State of Jammu and Kashmir, including
the territory forcible and illegally occupied by Pakistan, was an integral part of
India and would remain so.

The Indian Parliaments Resolution was in response to the Resolution passed by
Pakistans Parliament on August 13, 2013 accusing the Indian Army of
unprovoked aggression on the LoC.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
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III. Defence Minister Army Told to Effectively Retaliate Every Instance of
Cross-Border Firing:

On August 19, 2013, the Defence Minister A.K. Antony told the Rajya Sabha that
the Army had been told to effectively retaliate every instance of cross-border
firing.

The killing of the Indian soldiers would have consequences for Indias behaviour
on the LoC and its relations with Pakistan, according to Mr. Antony.

Indias restraint should not be taken for granted; nor should the capacity of its
Armed Forces and resolve of the Government to uphold the sanctity of the LoC
be ever doubted, according to the Defence Minister.

The Indian Army had mobilised its resources and was taking all steps to protect
the sanctity of the LoC, according to Mr. Antony.

Those in Pakistan who were responsible for the brutal killing of India soldiers
should not go unpunished. Pakistan should also show determined action to
dismantle the terrorist networks, organisations and infrastructure, according to the
Defence Minister.

As Pakistani troops violated the ceasefire across the LoC many times in different
sectors after August 6, 2013, the Indian Army gave a befitting reply with heavy
machine guns and 81mm medium mortars, according to officials.

The Jammu and Samba sectors on the border flared up due to Pakistans
violation of ceasefire. Pakistans Chirkot and Bhattal posts across Indian
positions in Poonch and Krishnaghati were also surgically targeted by Indian
forces.

For the first time since the November 2003 ceasefire agreement, the Pakistan
troops opened fire in the Drass and Kargil heights.

IV. Implications for Indo-Pak Relations:

1. Indias Stand:

India wanted the government of Pakistan to take responsibility for the killing of
five Indian soldiers near the LoC in the Poonch sector on August 6, 2013.

External Affairs Minister Salman Khurshid said that India had done much more to
contribute to the peace process and emphasised that the Pakistan government
needs to take responsibility for the killing of Indian soldiers as Indias meeting
point was the civilian elected government of Pakistan, not the Pakistan Army or
any other agency.

The ground level tensions had to be resolved first and this was not the right time
to hold talks with Pakistan or even to decide when the talks should be held and
to what extent, according to Mr. Khurshid.

Indias decision on talks would be taken after the situation was completely
understood, and would be in the national interest, according to the External Affairs
Minister.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
47

While India was committed to resolving all outstanding issues with Pakistan
through dialogue, in the current context and in the events from August 6, 2013,
India saw that the upholding of the sanctity of the LoC was vital, according to the
Ministry of External Affairs spokesperson Syed Akbaruddin.

President Pranab Mukherjee, in his address to the Nation on the eve of the 67
th

Independence Day, said that despite Indias consistent efforts to build friendly
relations with neighbours, there had been tensions on the border with repeated
violations of the ceasefire on the LoC, leading to tragic loss of lives.

The President said that Indias commitment to peace was unfailing, but even its
patience had limits. All steps necessary to ensure internal security and protect the
territorial integrity of the nation would be taken.

The President paid homage to the courage and heroism of the Security and
Armed Forces who maintain vigilance and to those who had made the supreme
sacrifice of the most precious gift of life in the service of the motherland.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, in his Independence Day address, described
the killing of five Indian soldiers on the LoC by the Pakistani troops as a
dastardly attack and promised to take all possible steps to prevent such
incidents in the future.

2. Pakistans Stand:

Pakistan wanted an uninterrupted dialogue with India to resolve outstanding
issues.

Necessary channels were open with India, including diplomatic and military
channels, for a tension-free relationship with India, according to Pakistans Ministry
of Foreign Affairs spokesperson.

Pakistan would continue to respond to the situation with restraint and
responsibility in the hope that steps would be taken by India to reduce tensions,
according to Pakistans Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

3. Impact on Resumption of Indo-Pak Dialogue Process:

Analysts point out that the killing of five Indian soldiers by intruding Pakistani
troops in the Poonch sector of Jammu and Kashmir represented a breach of the
LoC and the 2003 ceasefire agreement and put a question mark on the
resumption of the India-Pakistan dialogue process.

Analysts point out that the ceasefire violations and infiltrations across the LoC had
increased this year with two ambush attacks by Pakistani intruders in a span of
eight months.

The attacks were expected to rise with the withdrawal of US troops from
Afghanistan. Therefore, India needs to step up its preparedness and strengthen
its tactics at the border.




UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
48

Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifs conciliatory overtures to India would not
matter much unless he begins to rein in the Pakistan Army and militant groups
while ensuring an end to the ceasefire violations on the LoC and the accused in
the Mumbai terror attacks are brought to book, according to analysts.

The Indian chapter of India-Pakistan Soldiers Initiative (IPSI) condemned the
killing of five Indian soldiers by the Pakistan Army as an act which deserved the
severest censure and condemnation.

The IPSI called for continuing dialogue despite the killings that had vitiated the
atmosphere and set the clock of peace in the reverse direction. It was felt that an
uninterrupted and an uninterruptible dialogue process was the only option to follow the
peace process and resolution.

V. Meeting between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan (New York,
September 29, 2013):

1. Meeting on the Sidelines of the UN General Assembly: On September 29, 2013, the
Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh met his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif on the
sidelines of the 68
th
session of the UN General Assembly in New York.

2. Restoring Peace on the LoC:

With an increase in the violent incidents along the Line of Control (LoC) threatening to
undermine the ceasefire between India and Pakistan, the Prime Ministers of the two
countries tasked their respective Directors General of Military Operations
(DGMOs) with setting up a mechanism to restore peace and tranquillity along the
entire length of the border in Jammu and Kashmir.

Both the Prime Ministers agreed that improving the situation on the LoC which
has seen repeated violations in recent months was a precondition for the
bilateral relations to move forward.

The two leaders decided to ask the DGMOs to suggest effective means to restore
the ceasefire and ensure it remained in force and in place, according to Indias
National Security Adviser Shivshankar Menon. Though no time frame has been set up,
the hope was that it would happen as soon as possible.

The DGMOs had also been asked to investigate all incidents along the LoC and
ensure there was no recurrence, according to Pakistans Foreign Secretary Jalil
Abbas Jilani.

2. Terrorism:

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh raised the issue of terrorism and the
need for Pakistan to take effective action against the perpetrators of the
November 26, 2008, Mumbai terror attacks, according to Mr. Menon.

Pakistans Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that was Pakistans intention and
with the return of Pakistans Judicial Commission from India after gathering
evidence, there would be further progress.

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
49

3. Trade, Siachen and Sir Creek:

The other issues discussed by the two Prime Ministers included trade, Siachen
and Sir Creek.

Both Prime Ministers agreed that progress would be possible only if the
immediate problem along the LoC was sorted out.

4. Pakistans Punjab Provincial Governments Financial Support to the JuD:

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh raised the issue of the Punjab provincial
government in Pakistan where Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifs party Pakistan
Muslim League (N) is ruling providing financial support to the Jamaat-ud-Dawa
(JuD), the successor organisation of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).

Pakistans Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that the funds were only being used
to provide education and welfare activities.

VI. Conclusion:

The meeting between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan in New York on
September 29, 2013, ended with a modest agreement to safeguard the ceasefire
through increased field level military contacts between the two DGMOs.

Analysts point out that the normalisation of bilateral relations between India and
Pakistan cannot be achieved over a single meeting.

Uninterrupted dialogue process at higher levels could lead to smaller,
incremental steps which could in turn result in improvements on the ground,
according to analysts.

Analysts opine that the best hope of improvement in Indo-Pak relations lies in
strengthening of democracy in Pakistan.

SUMMARY

I. Pakistan Troops Cross LoC and Kill Five Indian Soldiers (August 6, 2013):

On August 6, 2013, heavily armed border action team (BAT) of Pakistan troops and terrorists
crossed the Line of Control (LoC) in the Poonch sector of Jammu and Kashmir and killed five
Indian soldiers.

It was clear that specialist troops of the Pakistan Army were involved the attack when a group
from Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) crossed the LoC and killed Indias brave Jawans.

Nothing happens from Pakistan side of LoC without support, assistance, facilitation and often,
direct involvement of the Pakistan Army

The Defence Minister wanted Pakistan to show determination in dismantling the terrorist
infrastructure and show tangible movement on bringing those responsible for the Mumbai
terrorist attack in November 2008 to justice quickly.

India lodged a strong protest over the killings of its soldiers by summoning Pakistans Deputy
High Commissioner Mansoor Ahmed Khan.

Pakistan denied that its troops were involved in the killing of five Indian soldiers on the LoC.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
50

II. Parliament Resolution Condemned Pakistani Armys Unprovoked Attack on Indian Soldiers
(August 14, 2013):

On August 14, 2013, both Houses of the Parliament adopted a Resolution condemning the
Pakistan Army for its unprovoked attack on an Indian Army patrol on Indias side of the LoC that
resulted in the death of five Indian soldiers.

The Resolution said that it was unfortunate that Pakistan chose to indulge in such unprovoked
attacks at a time when efforts were being made to establish a long-lasting framework of peaceful,
friendly and cooperative ties.

The Resolution called upon Pakistan to abide by the 2003 ceasefire commitment.

The Resolution stressed that the entire State of Jammu and Kashmir, including the territory
forcible and illegally occupied by Pakistan, was an integral part of India and would remain so.

The Indian Parliaments Resolution was in response to the Resolution passed by Pakistans
Parliament on August 13, 2013 accusing the Indian Army of unprovoked aggression on the LoC.

III. Defence Minister Army Told to Effectively Retaliate Every Instance of Cross-Border Firing:

On August 19, 2013, the Defence Minister A.K. Antony told the Rajya Sabha that the Army had
been told to effectively retaliate every instance of cross-border firing.

The killing of the Indian soldiers would have consequences for Indias behaviour on the LoC and
its relations with Pakistan

Indias restraint should not be taken for granted; nor should the capacity of its Armed Forces and
resolve of the Government to uphold the sanctity of the LoC be ever doubted

The Indian Army had mobilised its resources and was taking all steps to protect the sanctity of
the LoC

Those in Pakistan who were responsible for the brutal killing of India soldiers should not go
unpunished

As Pakistani troops violated the ceasefire across the LoC many times in different sectors after
August 6, 2013, the Indian Army gave a befitting reply with heavy machine guns and 81mm
medium mortars

The Jammu and Samba sectors on the border flared up due to Pakistans violation of ceasefire.
Pakistans Chirkot and Bhattal posts across Indian positions in Poonch and Krishnaghati
were also surgically targeted by Indian forces.

For the first time since the November 2003 ceasefire agreement, the Pakistan troops opened fire
in the Drass and Kargil heights.

IV. Implications for Indo-Pak Relations:

1. Indias Stand:

India wanted the government of Pakistan to take responsibility for the killing of five Indian
soldiers near the LoC in the Poonch sector on August 6, 2013.

India had done much more to contribute to the peace process and emphasised that the Pakistan
government needs to take responsibility for the killing of Indian soldiers as Indias meeting point
was the civilian elected government of Pakistan, not the Pakistan Army or any other agency.

The ground level tensions had to be resolved first and this was not the right time to hold talks
with Pakistan or even to decide when the talks should be held and to what extent

UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
51

Indias decision on talks would be taken after the situation was completely understood, and
would be in the national interest

While India was committed to resolving all outstanding issues with Pakistan through dialogue, in
the current context and in the events from August 6, 2013, India saw that the upholding of the
sanctity of the LoC was vital

Despite Indias consistent efforts to build friendly relations with neighbours, there had been
tensions on the border with repeated violations of the ceasefire on the LoC, leading to tragic loss
of lives.

The President said that Indias commitment to peace was unfailing, but even its patience had
limits

The President paid homage to the courage and heroism of the Security and Armed Forces who
maintain vigilance and to those who had made the supreme sacrifice of the most precious gift of
life in the service of the motherland.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, in his Independence Day address, described the killing of five
Indian soldiers on the LoC by the Pakistani troops as a dastardly attack and promised to take
all possible steps to prevent such incidents in the future.

2. Pakistans Stand:

Pakistan wanted an uninterrupted dialogue with India to resolve outstanding issues.

Necessary channels were open with India, including diplomatic and military channels, for a
tension-free relationship with India

Pakistan would continue to respond to the situation with restraint and responsibility in the hope
that steps would be taken by India to reduce tensions

3. Impact on the Indo-Pak Dialogue Process:

The killing of five Indian soldiers by intruding Pakistani troops in the Poonch sector of Jammu
and Kashmir represented a breach of the LoC and the 2003 ceasefire agreement and put a
question mark on the resumption of the India-Pakistan dialogue process.

Ceasefire violations and infiltrations across the LoC had increased this year with two ambush
attacks by Pakistani intruders in a span of eight months.

The attacks were expected to rise with the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan. Therefore,
India needs to step up its preparedness and strengthen its tactics at the border.

Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifs conciliatory overtures to India would not matter much
unless he begins to rein in the Pakistan Army and militant groups while ensuring an end to the
ceasefire violations on the LoC and the accused in the Mumbai terror attacks are brought to book

The Indian chapter of India-Pakistan Soldiers Initiative (IPSI) condemned the killing of five Indian
soldiers by the Pakistan Army as an act which deserved the severest censure and condemnation.

The IPSI called for continuing dialogue despite the killings that had vitiated the atmosphere and
set the clock of peace in the reverse direction








UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
52

V. Meeting between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan (New York, September 29, 2013):

1. Meeting on the Sidelines of the UN General Assembly

2. Restoring Peace on the LoC:

The Prime Ministers of the two countries tasked their respective Directors General of Military
Operations (DGMOs) with setting up a mechanism to restore peace and tranquillity along the
entire length of the border in Jammu and Kashmir.

Both the Prime Ministers agreed that improving the situation on the LoC which has seen
repeated violations in recent months was a precondition for the bilateral relations to move
forward.

The two leaders decided to ask the DGMOs to suggest effective means to restore the ceasefire
and ensure it remained in force and in place

The DGMOs had also been asked to investigate all incidents along the LoC and ensure there was
no recurrence

2. Terrorism:

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh raised the issue of terrorism and the need for Pakistan to
take effective action against the perpetrators of the November 26, 2008, Mumbai terror attacks

Pakistans Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that was Pakistans intention and with the return of
Pakistans Judicial Commission from India after gathering evidence, there would be further
progress.

3. Trade, Siachen and Sir Creek:

The other issues discussed by the two Prime Ministers included trade, Siachen and Sir Creek.

Both Prime Ministers agreed that progress would be possible only if the immediate problem
along the LoC was sorted out.

4. Pakistans Punjab Provincial Governments Financial Support to the JuD:

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh raised the issue of the Punjab provincial government in
Pakistan providing financial support to the Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD), the successor organisation of
the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).

Pakistans Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that the funds were only being used to provide
education and welfare activities.

VI. Conclusion:

The meeting between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan in New York on September 29,
2013, ended with a modest agreement to safeguard the ceasefire through increased field level
military contacts between the two DGMOs.

Normalisation of bilateral relations between India and Pakistan cannot be achieved over a single
meeting.

Uninterrupted dialogue process at higher levels could lead to smaller, incremental steps which
could in turn result in improvements on the ground

The best hope of improvement in Indo-Pak relations lies in strengthening of democracy in
Pakistan.


UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
53
V.2. Indo-us relations (UPDATE)

I. Meeting between the Indian Prime Minister and the US President
(Washington, September 27, 2013):

1. Issues of Concern:

A. India:
Concerns over the potential adverse impact that the comprehensive immigration
reform bill currently with the US Congress could have on businesses employing
skilled Indian workers.

The US has said that Indian nationals were the largest recipients of H-1B and L1
visas by a wide margin and, the legislation under consideration would bring
significant benefits to Indian nationals.

B. The US:

The US nuclear vendors Westinghouse and GE want Section 17(b) of Civil
Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, which holds the suppliers responsible in case
of a nuclear accident caused by faulty products or services, amended or
removed.

However, the Government of India has made it clear that there would be no
dilution of the Civil Liability Nuclear Damage Act stressing that the Government
would act according to the law of the land and not take any decision which was against
the nations interest.

The US wants India to fall in line with the Montreal Protocol and scale back Indian
companies use of refrigerant gases.

Analysts in India have pointed out that adoption of alternate technology would be 20
times more costly and in some cases untested for safety.

2. Issues Discussed at the Meeting:

A. Strategic Issues:

The strategic issues that dominated the bilateral discussions appeared to have
focussed on Syria and Iran, according to analysts.

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said he had complimented the US
President Barack Obama for giving diplomacy a chance especially considering
that six million Indians lived in West Asia.

The US President reiterated the role that the threat of force by the US had played
in making it possible to get Syria to give up its stockpile of chemical weapons.

However, Mr. Obama stressed that he always expressed preference for resolving
the issue diplomatically.
UPDATES UAIs STUDY MATERIAL 2013
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B. Areas of Cooperation:

Both leaders talked about a wide range of areas of cooperation including
defence, clean energy, the civilian nuclear agreement, counter-terrorism and the
Af-Pak region.

C. Indo-Pak Relations:

The Indian Prime Minister said that expectations about the meeting with his
Pakistani counterpart had to be toned down as long as terror stalked the
subcontinent and its epicentre remained focused in Pakistan.

The US President thanked the Indian Prime Minister for Indias consistent in
improving cooperation across the border and seeing a reduction of tensions on
the subcontinent.

D. Indo-US Civil Nuclear Agreement:

Mr. Obama praised the continuous improvement in bilateral relations that
encompassed not only enormous progress with the landmark civilian nuclear
agreement but also the fact that the Miss America contest was won by an
Indian-American, Nina Davuluri.

The US President expressed satisfaction with the fact that in the last few days an
agreement on the first commercial agreement between a US company and India
had been achieved.

The signing of a pre-early-works agreement between US nuclear suppliers and
the Indian operator, NPCIL, had been on cards during the Prime Ministers visit.

E. Bilateral Trade and Investment:

Both leaders underscored the significant advances in bilateral trade and
investment.

The US President said that the bilateral trade had increased by 50 per cent just
over the last several years.

The Indian Prime Minister said that the figure had touched $100 billion despite
the slowdown in the global economy.











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v.3.INDO-Russian Relations (Update)

I. 14
th
Annual Bilateral Summit (Moscow, October 20-21, 2013):

1. Focus of Talks:

The convergence on strategic issues, including the shared interests in
Afghanistans future, and peace and stability in the region.

2. Civil Nuclear Cooperation Kundankulam Nuclear Power Project:

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that relations with Russia were the
highest strategic priority for India.

Dr. Singh conveyed Indias commitment to fully implement the road map on civil
nuclear cooperation signed by the two countries in 2010.

The civil nuclear agreement envisaged Russia supplying 15 to 18 nuclear
reactors to India.

Indias nuclear liability Act is a concern for Russia in finalising the agreement for
Units 3 and 4 of the Kundankulam nuclear power project in Tamil Nadu.

The two sides agreed to expeditiously finalise the General Framework
Agreement and Techno-Commercial Offer for Units 3 and 4, according to the Joint
Statement issued at the end the 14
th
Annual Bilateral Summit.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh highlighted the imminent production and power
from Units 1 and 2 of the Kundankulam nuclear power project would be critical in
2014.

3. Economic Relations:

Russian President Vladimir Putin said that his talks with Indian Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh gave priority to increasing the economic relations.

Bilateral trade between India and Russia is just $11 billion, but both countries
stressed that it had increased 25 per cent in 2012 despite adverse global
situation.

The quality of Russias trade with India was a matter of satisfaction as it included
machinery and equipment, according to Mr. Putin.

Both sides agreed to study the possibility of an overland gas pipeline.

Both countries were also working on increasing ONGC Videsh Limiteds
involvement in oil and gas exploration in Russia, where OVL already has its
largest investments.



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India has sought Russias support for concluding a Free Trade Agreement with
the Customs Union of Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus, to give economic ties a
boost.

Both sides agreed to work towards the creation of a Joint Study Group for
studying the possibility of signing a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation
Agreement (CECA) between India and the Customs Union of Belarus,
Kazakhstan and Russia, according to the Joint Statement.

Indian and Russia highlighted the significant potential for cooperation in sectors
such as oil and gas, pharmaceutical, infrastructure, mining, automobiles,
fertilizers, aviation, as well as modernisation of industrial facilities located in the
two countries.

4. Defence Ties:

India and Russia described their defence ties as a crucial element of the strategic
partnership and vowed to enhance cooperation in the main areas of rocket,
missile and naval technologies.

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that Indo-Russian defence relations
were unmatched by any other relationship and Russia would remain a key
defence partner for India as both countries move into a stage of joint design,
development and production of key defence platforms.

In a Joint Statement, both sides announced plans to enhance cooperation in the
fields of rocket, missile and naval technologies and weapon systems.

Both countries had already agreed to extend indefinitely their 15-year-old
partnership for producing BrahMos supersonic anti-ship missile and to develop
a still more potent hypersonic version of the missile.

The Joint Statement welcomed the completion of the trials of the Vikramaditya
aircraft carrier, the delivery in 2013 of the Trikant frigate, the sixth stealth frigate
built by Russia for the Indian Navy, as well as licensed production of the
Su-30MKI fighter plane and T-90S tanks.

Progress in the construction of the fifth-generation fighter aircraft and multi-role
transport aircraft was also noted.

5. Space Technology:

India and Russia agreed to increase cooperation in space technologies.

Both sides decided to set up a new working group for GLONASS. India was
offered to become Russias partner in the GLONASS programme and to set up
two GLONASS ground control stations in India.

India is the only nation to which Russia has agreed to give access to GLONASS
military-grade signals which would help the Indian Armed Forces to improve the
accuracy of their weapon systems.
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6. Terrorism:

India and Russia declared no tolerance for sheltering, arming, training or
financing of terrorists.

Both sides condemned terrorist acts as attacks on the freedom and democratic
values and aimed at undermining the territorial integrity of India and Russia.

The two countries said that such acts may have international linkages extending
across and beyond the borders.

States that provide aid, abetment and shelter for such terrorist activities were
themselves as guilty as the actual perpetrators of terrorism, according to the Joint
Statement.

Both sides reaffirmed the obligations of all states to curb terrorism from their
territories and areas under their control. Such countries were urged to irreversibly
shut down terrorist networks, organisations and infrastructure, and show tangible
movement in investigating and bringing quickly to justice all those responsible for acts
of terrorism.

The Joint Statement stressed that there could be no justification for terrorist
acts, such as the Mumbai terror attacks or Beslan terrorist attack.

7. Syria:

The Joint Statement said that Russia would welcome Indias participation in
Geneva-2 international conference on Syria, being jointly hosted by Russia and
the US.

Both sides expressed the strong belief that the crisis should not be resolved by
force, and could be settled only through political means.

India applauded Russias role in reaching agreement on the destruction of
Syrias arsenals of chemical weapons.

8. UNSC, SCO, MTCR and NSG:

Russia reiterated its strong support to India for a permanent seat in the UN
Security Council (UNSC) and for full membership in the Shanghai Cooperation
Organisation (SCO).

Russia agreed to give positive considerations to Indias bid to join the Missile
Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and to support its full membership in the
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).

9. RIC:

Both sides affirmed their commitment to further intensify political interactions in
Russia-India-China (RIC) triangular format.

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Both countries stressed on the importance of the RIC Foreign Ministers meeting
in New Delhi in November 2013, pointing out that it was essential to continue
consultations concerning regional security at the level of High Representatives
of China, India and Russia.

II. Significance of the Indo-Russian Relationship:

Over the past six decades, no country has had closer relations with India and no
country inspired more admiration, trust and confidence among the people of
India than Russia, according to Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

India had benefited enormously from Russian support in every aspect of national
development efforts be it in the development of heavy industry, the power
sector, space programme or in meeting its defence requirements, according to Dr.
Singh.

Russia stood by India at moments of great international challenge when Indias
own resources were limited and its friends were few, according to Dr. Singh.

Russia offered India partnership in nuclear energy when the world still shunned
nuclear commerce with India, according to the Indian Prime Minister.

India regarded Russian friendship and support as something particularly
precious and would never forget it, according to Dr. Singh.

The Prime Minister pointed out that friendship with Russia enjoyed complete
political consensus and enormous public goodwill and support in India.

Dr. Singh was convinced that while the strength and the intensity of bilateral
relationship would remain undiminished, it must also adapt itself to the changing
times so that both sides can address the full range of current opportunities and
challenges.

Indias defence ties with Russia were unmatched and Russia would remain an
indispensable partner for Indias defence needs. The Prime Minister called for
increasing shift towards technology transfer, joint ventures and co-development and
co-production.

Russia was a key partner for Indias energy security, according to Dr. Singh. He
stressed on an ambitious long-term plan for cooperation in nuclear energy approved in
2010 and a programme for cooperation in oil and gas that was being drawn up.

Indias partnership with Russia was one of the fundamental foundations of
Indias foreign policy, according to Dr. Singh.

The shared interests, growing opportunities for cooperation, the history of
relationship, abiding comfort with each other and the warmth and goodwill
between people ensure that the strategic partnership between India and Russia
would continue to grow in strength and relevance in this changing world,
according to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

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v.4. India-china relations (UPDATE)

I. Indian Prime Ministers Visit to China (October 23-24, 2013):

1. Focus of the Visit:
Economic Issues
Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA)

2. Visa Liberalisation Pact with China put on Hold:

India decided to put on hold the visa liberalisation agreement with China on hold
indicating that there were different ways of managing the complex relations with
China.

India and China were close to a visa liberalisation agreement but when China
issued stapled visas to archers from Arunachal Pradesh, India decided to put on
hold the visa liberalisation agreement, according to an official.

3. Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) Signed:

The Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) was signed by India and
China at the conclusion of talks between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and
his Chinese counterpart Li Keqiang.

The BDCA envisaged a graded mechanism, starting with meetings between
border personnel.

Periodic meetings would be held between the officers of the regional military
headquarters, especially in the Chengdu military region and Indias Eastern
Command, and Lanzhou military region and the Northern Command.

High-level meetings between the Ministries of Defence of both sides would also
be held along with the working mechanism for consultation and co-ordination on
India-China Border Affairs, and the India-China Annual Defence Dialogue.

Both sides formalised an agreement not to tail each others patrols in the border
areas where there is no common understanding of the Line of Actual Control
(LAC), and the right to seek a clarification.

India and China would establish meeting sites for border personnel, as well as
telephone and telecommunication links on the LAC.

Both sides would not use military capability to attack each other.

Both sides would cooperate on the basis of laws of both countries and bilateral
agreements and would share information on military exercises, aircraft and
demolition operations.

Both sides would jointly combat smuggling of arms, wildlife items and
contraband.
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Both sides would assist each other in locating personnel, livestock, means of
transport and aerial vehicles that may have crossed or in the process of crossing
the LAC.

4. MoU on Strengthening Cooperation on Trans-border Rivers:

India and China signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on
strengthening cooperation on trans-border rivers.

China would provide Brahmaputra flood data from May to October instead of
June to October.

China assured India that its dams were run of the river projects and not designed
to hold water.

5. Other Agreements Signed:

Agreement on the establishment of Nalanda University at Rajgir, Bihar, with
China being a participating country in this project.

Agreement to strengthen cultural ties.

Agreement on road transport and highways.

Agreement to establish sister city ties between Delhi and Beijing, Bangalore and
Chengdu and Kolkata and Kunming.

6. Stapled Visas and Terrorism Emanating from Pakistan and Chinas Infrastructure
Building in PoK:

India brought up the issue of terrorism emanating from Pakistan, and Chinas
infrastructure building in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK), as well as the
concern about China issuing stapled visas to people from Arunachal Pradesh,
according to the Indias Foreign Secretary Sujatha Singh.

7. Indias Prime Ministers Stress on Seven Practical Principles of Engagement
between India and China:

Emphasis on greater sensitivity to core issues like boundary question and
managing trans-border rivers a prerequisite for taking the relationship forward
in other areas.

Maintaining peace and tranquillity in border areas was a cornerstone of the
relationship. Nothing should be done to disturb that and at the same time should move
quickly to resolve the boundary issue.

Ensuring peace and increasing consultations on complex issues like
trans-border rivers and the trade imbalance were two of the seven principles.



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Concerns on both sides whether it is incidents in the border region,
trans-border rivers or trade imbalances could become impediments to the full
exploitation of the opportunities for bilateral and multilateral cooperation
between India and China.

The other five areas of engagement between India and China were: sensitivity to
each others core concerns; greater policy coordination on global issues to boost
strategic trust; pushing economic ties; widening people-to-people contact; and a spirit of
transparency to eliminate misunderstandings on issues concerning the region and its
periphery (reference to Indias concerns on a number of aspects of Chinas
engagement with Pakistan).

Terrorism, extremism and radicalism emanating from the neighbourhood were
affecting both countries directly and could create instability across Asia.

Maritime security in the Pacific and Indian Oceans was essential to Indias
energy security. It was in Indias interest to see an inclusive and rule-based
security architecture in Asia.

Indias strategic partnerships with other countries were defined by its own
economic interests, needs and aspirations and not directed against China or
anyone else. India expected a similar approach from China.

Indian and China were not destined to be rivals, and should show determination
to become partners.

II. Significance of the Prime Ministers Visit to China:

1. Significance of the BDCA:

The Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) between India and China
would help maintain peace and tranquillity in the border areas, according to the
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang.

Both leaders agreed that there were far more common interests than possible
differences between India and China, and as two old civilisations, the two
peoples have the wisdom and the two governments have the ability to manage
differences along the border so that it wont affect overall interests of their
bilateral relations, according to Mr. Li.

The BDCA would add to the existing instruments to ensure peace, stability and
predictability on the borders, according to the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh.

Chinese Media described the BDCA as a landmark legal document which would
help eliminate potential misunderstanding and misjudgement.

The BDCA was a positive step towards resolving the boundary dispute between
India and China and enhances the existing layer of confidence-building
measures (CBMs) through flag meetings, joint military patrols, and periodic
high-level meetings, according to analysts.
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2. Significance of the MoU on Cooperation on Trans-border Rivers:

The MoU on Cooperation on Trans-border rivers was significant agreement as it
could lead to more information from China on its hydropower projects, according
to officials.

3. Visit Achieved the Purpose of Moving Forward on Mutual Engagement:

China was Indias largest neighbour, a significant economic partner and major
presence in the global arena, according to Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

There were many issues on which cooperation between India and China was to
the mutual benefit of both, according to Dr. Singh.

It was only through a process of mutual engagement that both countries would
be able to move forward, and the visit had achieved that purpose, according to Dr.
Singh.

4. Indian Prime Ministers Visit Highlighted by China:

The outcome of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs visit to China,
particularly the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) underlined both
countries willingness to manage their differences and sent a positive and
powerful message to the world, according to Chinese officials.

China was committed to building up strategic mutual trust and deepening
practical cooperation across the board with its neighbours, according to the
Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying.

China attached special emphasis to Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs visit and
wanted to send a message by according him very special treatment usually not
given to other leaders, according to Chinese officials.

The talks between the Prime Ministers of the two countries noticeably took place
in a very candid and frank atmosphere and all issues were discussed, according
to Chinese strategic analysts.

An agreement to take forward talks on the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar
economic corridor would be the defining factor of the following decade,
according to Chinese experts on South Asia. A first joint study group meeting on the
project would be held in Kunming in December 2013.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs visit to China sent a positive and powerful
message that the two countries were committed to working together, according to
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi.

III. Conclusion:

India and China seek to build on the momentum generated by Prime Minister
Manmohan Singhs visit to China in October 2013, according to analysts.




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Both countries intend to peacefully manage the differences in the border issues
while seeking to build partnerships on the international stage and taking steps to
correct the trade imbalances (around $30 billion in favour of China), according to
analysts.

India wants greater access for its pharmaceuticals and software development,
while China feels that both countries were on a par at the lower end while the
West stays at the top end.

India is also opening up to more investments from China which currently stands
at $800 million. In May 2013, India submitted a draft proposal for Chinas industrial
plans.







































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VI. INTERNATIONAL CURRENT EVENTS
1. SRI LANKA (UPDATE)

I. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Visit to Sri Lanka:

In late August 2013, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR)
Navi Pillay visited Sri Lanka for a seven-day fact finding mission.

Ms. Pillay said that she was deeply concerned that Sri Lanka, despite the
opportunity provided by the end of the war to construct a new vibrant,
all-embracing state, was showing signs of heading in an increasingly
authoritarian direction.

The degree to which the military appeared to be putting down roots and
becoming involved in what should be civilian activities was a matter of concern,
according to Ms. Pillay.

The UNHCHR said that reconstruction work in the north and east in terms of
new roads, bridges, houses, medical facilities, schools and improved electricity
and water was impressive.

However, physical reconstruction alone would not bring reconciliation, dignity
or lasting peace as more holistic approach was needed to provide truth, justice
and reparations for peoples suffering during the war, according to the UNHCHR.

Ms. Pillay hoped that Sri Lanka would hold a proper, credible national process, as
per the commitment made by the Sri Lankan President in 2009 to the UN
Secretary-General.

II. Sri Lankan Government Said the UNHCHR Transgressed Her Mandate:

On September 1, 2013, the Sri Lankan Government said that the UN High
Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) Navi Pillays remarks that Sri Lanka
was heading in an authoritarian direction was a political statement on her part
which clearly transgressed her mandate and the basic norms which should be
observed by a discerning international civil servant.

The judgement on the leadership of the country was better left for the people of
Sri Lanka to decide, than being caricatured by external entities influenced by
vested interests, according to a statement by the Sri Lankan Government.

III. UNHCHR Set a March 2014 Deadline for the Sri Lankan Government to
Inquire into Reported Cases of Human Rights Violations (September 25,
2013):

On September 25, 2013, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR)
Navi Pillay set a March 2014 deadline for the Sri Lankan Government to put in
place a credible national inquiry into reported cases of human rights violations,
failing which the international community would establish its own inquiry
mechanisms.
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The UNHCHR would submit her comprehensive report with recommendations at
the 25
th
session of the Human Rights Council.

IV. First Provincial Council Elections held in Sri Lankas Northern Province
(September 21, 2013):

On September 21, 2013, simultaneous elections were held in Sri Lankas Central
and Northern Province.

These were the first provincial council elections in about 25 years in Sri Lankas
Northern Province which witnessed a nearly three-decade ethnic war.

International monitors representing the Commonwealth and the SAARC nations
were in the Sri Lankas Northern Province.

The Tamil National Alliance (TNA) a group of five Tamil political parties -
received a massive mandate of 80 per cent of the votes to win 30 out of the 38
seats.

The Provincial Council elections in the Northern Province witnessed a voter
turnout of 68 per cent and were held after considerable external pressure,
especially from India.

Retired Supreme Court Judge C.V. Wigneswaran would assume charge as the
first Chief Minister of Sri Lankas Northern Provincial Council.

The Chief Minister-elect said that it was important for the Provincial Council to
constantly engage in a dialogue and work with the Sri Lankan Government. He
pointed out that international intervention would be sought only when talks with the
Government fail repeatedly.

V. Significance of the Provincial Council Elections in Sri Lankas Northern
Province:

The Provincial Council elections in Sri Lankas Northern Province were seen as a
starting point in the pursuit of a long-term political solution to the Tamil issue,
according to analysts.

The Provincial Council elections in the Northern Province marked an important
milestone towards national reconciliation as it gives the Tamil-majority province
its first ever democratic political set up to share governance with the Centre.

The TNA said that it was committed to the full implementation of the 13
th

Amendment of the Constitution and building upon it to bring about meaningful
devolution which must result in a political solution that was reasonable,
workable and durable.

The Governments attempts to change the demographic composition of the
Northern and Eastern Provinces, land, militarisation and financial autonomy,
were among the main issues that the Provincial Council would have to address,
according to the TNA leader R. Sampanthan.
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VI.2. SYRIA (UPDATE)

I. Chemical Attack Killed Hundreds in Syria (August 21, 2013):

On August 21, 2013, hundreds of people were killed in a chemical attack on the
Damascus suburb of Ghouta in Syria.

The chemical attack was seen as the worlds worst chemical weapons attack
since killing of thousands of Iraqi Kurds in chemical attacks by Saddam Husseins
forces, according to media reports.

The Syrian opposition and the West blamed the Syrian government for the sarin
gas attack.

The Syrian government agreed to allow UN chemical weapons inspectors access
to sites in Damascus suburbs where the alleged chemical attacks occurred.

II. Threat of Military Strikes on Syria by the West:

The US, U.K. and France called for armed intervention in Syria in retaliation for
the August 21, 2013, chemical weapons attack, allegedly unleashed by the Syrian
government against unarmed civilians.

The British House of Commons favoured exploring the diplomatic option before
rushing into military engagement.

The US moved warships and other military assets closer to Syria in preparation
for a possible attack.

France despatched one of its most modern frigates the Chevalier Paul from the
southern naval base of Toulon to the waters of Syria.

Russia also despatched more warships to east Mediterranean in an apparent
response to the build of US and British forces near Syria.

On August 30, 2013, US Secretary of State John Kerry said that there was clear
and compelling evidence that the government of Syrian President Bashar
al-Assad used poison gas against its citizens. The US administration released an
unclassified intelligence report on the use of chemical weapons in Syria.

On August 31, 2013, the US President Barack Obama said that he would seek the
approval of US Congress before launching any military action meant to punish
Syrian government for its alleged use of chemical weapons that killed hundreds of
civilians.

III. Stiff Opposition to Military Strikes:

The advocacy of military strikes against the Syrian government was opposed by
countries like Russia, China and Iran which cited international law violations,
regional destabilisation, and the fragility of the international economy as
arguments against military strikes.
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Germany also ruled out participating in military strikes against Syria.

The 22-nation Arab League also opposed military strikes, despite holding the
Syrian regime responsible for the heinous crime of chemical attacks on civilians.

IV. Indias Stand:

India cautioned against military intervention by stressing that it had consistently
called upon all sides to abjure violence, so that conditions could be created for
an inclusive political dialogue leading to a comprehensive political solution,
taking into account the legitimate aspirations of the Syrian people.

India said that there could be no military solution to the conflict. It would continue
to support the proposed International Conference on Syria (Geneva-II) for bringing the
Syrian government and opposition to the negotiating table.

India consistently supported elimination of chemical weapons worldwide. The
international legal norm against their use anywhere and by anyone should not be
breached, according to the External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Syed Akbaruddin.

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that any action against Syria had to
be under the auspices of the UN Security Council. He also stressed that military
action must not be specifically aimed at bringing about a regime change.

V. Russian Plan for Syrian Chemical Weapons gets Wide Support:

On September 09, 2013, Russias Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that Russia and
Syria were working jointly to resolve the chemical weapons row and the plan
developed together with the Syrian side would be submitted to all interested
parties, including the US.

On September 10, 2013, Syria said that it was ready to take all steps leading to
elimination of its chemical weapons arsenal an initiative that would culminate
with Syria signing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

India supported Russias proposal for the elimination of Syrias chemical
weapons while reiterating that its position that there should be no military intervention
and all parties concerned should move towards a political settlement, possibly with
Geneva-II conference.

The US President Barack Obama announced his agreement to explore
international diplomacy instead of military intervention.

Analysts felt that the Russian proposal presented the US President with an exit
strategy on the messy situation in Syria and to opt out of the military option.






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VI. US-Russia Agreement on the Elimination of Syrias Chemical Weapons:

On September 14, 2013, the US and Russia reached an agreement on a timetable
for the elimination of Syrias stock of chemical weapons with the provision that
non-compliance by Syria would result in the UN Security Council steering the future
course of action.

According to the agreement Syrias chemical weapons would be either removed
or destroyed by mid-2014.

International inspectors involved in the implementation of the agreement must
be in Syria by November 2013, according to the US Secretary of State John Kerry.

The inspectors from the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW) and the UN must be provided with the immediate and unfettered right to
inspect any and all sites in Syria.

VII. UN Experts Find Large Scale Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria:

A report by the UN inspectors who visited Syria said that chemical arms had
been used in the 30-month-old conflict on a relatively large scale.

The UN inspectors said that there was clear and convincing evidence that sarin
gas killed hundreds of people in an attack on Ghouta near Damascus on August
21, 2013.

Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov accused the UN inspectors of
pursuing a biased approach by stressing that they had disregarded samples that
the Syrian government had collected from a succession of tragic episodes, which
apparently took place between August 21-24, 2013.

VIII. Infighting between Syrian Rebel Groups:

In late September 2013, fierce clashes were reported between the Syrian rebel groups.
The al-Qaeda affiliated Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) routed the
western-backed Free Syrian Army (FSN) in a Syrian town near the Turkish
border.

On September 25, 2013, 13 rebel groups led by the al-Qaeda linked Nusra Front in
a joint statement rejected the authority of the Turkey-based Syrian National
Coalition (SNC) pointing out that it no longer represented their interests.

The joint statement reflected the lack of unity between the Syrian political
opposition groups, based in exile, and the disparate rebel groups fighting the
Syrian government in Syrias civil war, which resulted in the death of 100,000 people,
according to analysts.

The joint statement also highlighted the increasing irrelevance of the
western-supported Syrian Coalition and its military arm, with increasing
radicalisation in Syria, according to analysts.

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IX. UN Resolution on Destruction of Syrias Chemical Weapons
(September 27, 2013):

On September 27, 2013, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a
Resolution 2118 ordering the destruction of Syrias chemical weapons and
condemning a murderous poison gas attack in the suburbs of Damascus.

The UN Resolution gave international binding force to the US-Russia agreement
to eliminate Syrias chemical weapons.

The US-Russia agreement called for Syrias chemical weapons, estimated to be
1,000 tonnes, to be put under international control by mid-2014.

The Resolution allows for a new vote on possible measures if the US-Russia plan
was breached.

If Syria does not comply with the Resolution, the UN Security Council agreed to
impose measures under Chapter VII of the UN Charter which could authorise the
use of sanctions or military force. However, the action would require a new vote,
which could be opposed by Russia.

The Resolution expressed strong conviction that those responsible for chemical
weapons attacks in Syria should be held accountable.

The UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told the Security Council that he wanted
to hold a new Syria peace conference in mid-November 2013.

X. Conclusion:

1. Significance of the US-Russia Agreement Elimination of Syrias Chemical Weapons:

Analysts point out that the US-Russia agreement on elimination of Syrias chemical
weapons provides a framework for the inspection, removal and elimination of
Syrias chemical weapons.

The agreement backed by the UN Security Council Resolution underlines the
importance of diplomacy in international politics its implementation would ward
off potentially disastrous military intervention and also open up opportunities to resolve
the Syrian crisis politically according to analysts.

The US-Russia agreement is significant as its could prevent further escalation of
violence in Syria, including the use of chemical weapons, according to analysts.

The chemical weapons inspection in Syria would also lead to a ceasefire
agreement between the government and the rebels in many parts of the country.

After Syria signs the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Israel and Egypt
would be the only two countries in the region to remain outside major treaties
banning Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs).


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Russia has stressed that the resolution of the chemical weapons issue in Syria
would be an important step towards establishing a Middle East Zone free of
WMDs.

The US-Russia agreement backed by the UN Resolution on the elimination of
chemical weapons in Syria offers an opportunity to bring all parties in the Syrian
conflict towards the negotiation table, according to analysts.

2. Russias Key Role in the Resolution of the Syrian Crisis:

Analysts point out that Russia has playing a key role in the resolution of the Syrian
crisis and the adoption of the UN Resolution for the destruction of chemical
weapons in Syria is seen as victory for Russian diplomacy.

Russian President Vladimir Putin urged the US via his article in New York Times
to stop using the language of force and return to the path of diplomatic
settlement. This was seen as the most diplomatic gesture by a Head of State to reach
to foreign citizens.

Analysts point out that Russia has rendered diplomatic and military support to
Syria since the beginning of the conflict in that country. It vetoed all west-backed
UN Security Council resolutions condemning the Syrian government.

Russias active participation as a strategic partner of both Syria and Iran could
alter the balance of power in the Gulf and the adjoining region which was so far
dominated by the US, Israel and the Arab nations of the Gulf, according to
analysts.

Syria credited its decision to eliminate its chemical weapons to Russian persuasion.
Syrias pledge to eliminate its chemical weapons stockpile strengthened
Russias diplomatic efforts to seek a peaceful settlement of the Syrian conflict.

Russias diplomatic efforts to ward off a potentially disastrous military
intervention by the West in Syria have been acclaimed internationally and have
enhanced its image in the international community.
















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vi.3. IRAN (UPDATE)

I. US President Barack Obamas Address to the UN General Assembly
(October 24, 2013):

In his address to the 68
th
Session of the UN General Assembly, the US President
Barack Obama said that he was encouraged by the commitment of Iranian
President Hassan Rouhani government to a more moderate course,
underscoring that the path of diplomacy must be tested in negotiations.

The US President said that he was directing the US Secretary of State John Kerry to
pursue this effort with the Iranian government, in close coordination with the
European Union (EU), the UK, France, Germany, Russia and China.

Mr. Obama stressed that while persisting with the status quo might deepen Irans
isolation, Irans genuine commitment to go down a different path would be good
of the region and the world.

II. Iranian Presidents Address to the UN General Assembly (September 25,
2013):

On September 25, 2013, while addressing the UN General Assembly, the Iranian
President Hassan Rouhani said that he was prepared to engage in time-bound
and results-oriented talks on Irans nuclear programme.

He stressed on Irans two-pronged approach Its nuclear programme had been,
and would always be, exclusively for peaceful purposes; and it would retain the
right to uranium enrichment and reject illegitimate pressures to impede the right.

The Iranian President stressed that nuclear weapons and weapons of mass
destruction had no place in Irans security and defence doctrine, and
contradicted its fundamental religious and ethical convictions.

Irans national interests made it imperative that it removed all reasonable
concerns about its peaceful nuclear programme, according to Mr. Rouhani.

The Iranian President emphasised that Irans right to implementing enrichment
activities domestically and its enjoyment of related nuclear rights would be the
only path towards achieving the first objective of nuclear negotiations.

Irans nuclear technology, including enrichment, had already reached industrial
scale, and it was, therefore an illusion, and extremely unrealistic, to presume that
the peaceful nature of its nuclear programme could be ensured through
impeding the programme via illegitimate pressures, according to Mr. Rouhani.






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III. US-Iran Talks (United Nations, September 27, 2013):

On September 27, 2013, the US and Iran held their first highest-level talks after a
long gap at the United Nations.

The US Secretary of State John Kerry and Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammed
Javad Zarif held the talks in positive terms.

Both sides had a very constructive meeting, according to Mr. Kerry. He said that
Mr. Zarif had put some possibilities on the table, but insisted that there was more
work to be done.

Iran proposed fully implementing an agreement on its nuclear programme within
a year, according to a US official.

IV. The US and Iranian Presidents Talk for the First Time since the 1979
Iranian Revolution (September 28, 2013):

In a bid to end more than three decades of estranged relations, the Presidents of
the US and Iran spoke over the phone on September 28, 2013, and agreed to
work on resolving global suspicions that Iran was trying to build a nuclear
weapon.

According to the White House, the US President Barack Obama told his Iranian
counterpart Hassan Rouhani that he wanted to see the return of two Americans
detained in Iran former US Marine Amir Hekmati and Christian pastor, Saeed
Abedini as well as Robert Levinson, a retired FBI agent, who went missing in Iran in
2007.

The US President said that the long break underscored the deep mistrust
between the two countries, but it also indicated the prospect of moving beyond
that difficult history.

The Iranian President said that he wanted his trip to the UN to be a first step and
a beginning for better and constructive relations with countries of the world as
well as a first step for a better relationship between the two great nations of Iran
and the United States of America.

V. Irans Parliament and President Supported the Iranian Presidents US
Outreach:

On October 2, 2013, Irans Parliament strongly supported President Hassan
Rouhanis US outreach to dispel mistrust between the two countries.

A group of 230 Parliamentarians, out of 290, signed a statement expressing
support for the Iranian President for presenting the image of a powerful and
peace-seeking Iran which saw talks and interaction for the settlement of regional
and international issues.


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On October 5, 2013, Irans supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said that he
supported the diplomatic initiative of the government and attached importance
to its activities in the trip to the UN.

However, the Iran supreme leader said that Iran was pessimistic towards the
Americans and does not put trust in them. The American government was
untrustworthy, supercilious and unreasonable, and broke promises, according to the
Iranian supreme leader.

Ayatollah Khamenei, the supreme leader of Iran, has the final say on all matters
of state, including foreign policy.

VI. Irans talks with P5+1 on Its Nuclear Programme (Geneva, October 15,
2013):

On October 15, 2013, talks were held in Geneva between Iran and the P5+1 the
US, UK, France, China and Russia, plus Germany.

The talks ended a six-month stand-off over Irans refusal to curb uranium
enrichment in exchange for the easing of sanctions.

The climate of the meeting was very good and very constructive. The proposal
that Iran had introduced had the capacity to make a breakthrough, according to
Irans senior negotiator Abbas Aragchi.

Irans plan contained three steps that could settle the long-running nuclear
stand-off within a year, according to Irans Foreign Minister Javad Zarif. He said that
the initial step could be achieved within a month or two.

The EU spokesman Michael Mann pointed out to the very different atmosphere
during the talks between the two sides.

VII. Implications of a Thaw in US-Iran Relations:

Analysts point out that a thaw in US-Iran relations could over a period of time
prepare for a diplomatic initiative led by Asian countries India, China, Japan
and Korea all of which have an interest in the security of the Gulf.

The US-Iran rapprochement could bring a new cooperative security structure
bringing together all key regional and extra-regional powers committed to the
goal of moderate and accommodative approaches on the basis of consensually
accepted norms and principles, according to analysts.

Analysts point out that Israel and Saudi Arabia were not very happy with the US on
Iran outreach and cautioned the US not to be lured by Irans recent diplomatic
moves.

Russia was expanding its military relations with Iran, as part of its effort to
re-emerge as a major power in the Gulf.


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Russias Air Force commander Lt. Gen. Viktor Bondarev visited Iran on October
22, 2013, and held talks with Irans General Farzad Esmayeeli, the commander of Irans
Khatam ol-Anbia air defence base.

The Focus of the talks between the Russian and Iranian defence officials was on
air defence tactics as Iran apprehends threat of air strikes by Israel and the US
against its nuclear infrastructure to undermine its perceived nuclear weapon
ambitions, according to analysts.

Russias efforts to form a durable security relationship with Iran followed its
strong relations with Syria.








































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VII. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
1. BRICS (UPDATE)

I. BRICS Meeting Progress towards Creation of Currency Reserve Fund:

On September 5, 2013, the leaders of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and
South Africa) met on the sidelines of the G-20 Summit in St. Petersburg in
Russia.

Individual contributions were announced for the creation of the $100-billion
Currency Reserve Fund (CRF).

China would contribute $41 billion, while Brazil, Russia and India contribute $18
billion each. South Africa would contribute $5 billion to the CRF.

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that the creation of CRF was
significant as it came at a time when emerging market currencies were very
vulnerable in recent months on account of global factors like withdrawal of the
easy money policy by the US as its economy had shown signs of recovery.

The CRF would allow the members of BRICS to access the $100-billion corpus to
deal with short-term volatility in their capital flows, which may negatively impact
their currencies.

In light of the increase in financial market and capital flow volatility during recent
months, the BRICS leaders reiterated their concerns over the unintended
negative spillovers of unconventional monetary policies of certain developed
economies, according to the Joint Statement.

The BRICS leaders emphasised that the eventual normalisation of monetary
policies needs to be effectively and carefully calibrated and clearly
communicated, according to the Joint Statement.

The BRICS position, as reflected by the Joint Statement was made in unison,
especially with regard to the spillover effects of unconventional monetary
policies of developed countries, according to Indias Foreign Secretary Sujata Singh.

BRICS leaders expressed concerns at the stalling of the International Monetary
Fund (IMF) reform process. They stressed on the urgent need to complete the next
IMF quota review by January 2014 to ensure the IMFs credibility, legitimacy and
effectiveness.

The plan for creating a BRICS Development Bank with an initial corpus of $50
billion would progress smoothly in the months to come, according to Indias
Foreign Secretary.





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VIII. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
1. GSAT-7

I. GSAT-7, Indias First Full-Fledged Military Communications Satellite
Launched (August 30, 2013):

On August 30, 2013, GSAT-7, Indias first full-fledged military communications
satellite, was launched from Kourou spaceport of French Guiana in South
America.

GSAT-7 was injected into a geosynchronous transfer orbit by a European Ariane
5 rocket. The Indian Space Research Organisations (ISRO) Master Control Facility
picked up the signals from GSAT-7 and opened its power generating solar panels.

GSAT-7 weighing 2,650 kg is the last of the seven fourth-generation satellites
launched by ISRO.

The satellite was built at a cost of Rs.185 crore and the foreign launch cost
Rs.480 crore.

GSAT-7 was the 17
th
ISRO satellite launched by the European launch company
Arianespace since 1981.

GSAT-7s final slot would be 74 degrees East longitude and would be
functionally ready for the user by September-end.

II. Significance of GSAT-7:

GSAT-7, a naval communication and surveillance satellite, is a multiple-band
satellite which would be used exclusively by the Indian Navy to enhance secure,
real-time communications among its warships, submarines, aircraft and land
systems.

The UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band being used for the first time in an INSAT
would boost communication and intelligence network across a wide region,
according to experts.

The premium S band would enable communication from mobile platforms like
ships.

The Ku band would allow high-density data transmission, including voice and
video. A special ground infrastructure has been created.

The Indian Navy had stressed the importance of space-based communication as
vital for its network-centric operations.

The GSAT-7 would significantly improve Indias maritime security and
intelligence gathering in a wide swathe on the eastern and western flanks of the
Indian Ocean region, according to analysts.

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When GSAT-7 becomes functionally ready, it would be a potent force-multiplier,
networking the Navys warships, submarines and aircraft with operational
centres ashore through high-speed encrypted data-links, according to experts.

With a dedicated satellite of its own the Indian Navy would be transformed from a
platform centric Navy to a network-enabled force, according to experts.

The GSAT-7 naval communication and surveillance satellite would improve
Indian Navys ability to detect and share emerging maritime threats in real-time
so that a counter is launched swiftly to neutralise them, according to defence
analysts.









































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viii.2. VOYAGER Space Probe

I. Voyager Space Probe Crossed the Solar System:

In 1977, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the
Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 space probes to study the outer solar system and the
interstellar medium (ISM) the matter that exists between stars in the universe.

In 1979, Voyager 1 flew by Jupiter and in 1980 by Saturn to conclude its primary
mission. It became the first space probe to provide detailed images of the two planets
and their moons.

In 1990, Voyager 1 photographed the entire solar system, 9.6 billion km from the earth.

On August 25, 2012, the Voyager 1 became the first man-made object to cross the solar
system and into the interstellar space around 18.78 billion km from the sun.

The conclusion was drawn from a combination of data regarding the changes in the
charged particles observed, the magnetic field data and the new plasma data. Plasma
is the densest and slowest moving charged particles in space.

The scientists from NASAs Jet Propulsion Lab, expect the particle science instruments
on board Voyager 1 to continue to send radio signals to the earth until 2020.

The Voyager 1 space probe carries a gold-plated disc containing photos, songs and
multicultural greetings, in case other life-forms encounter the probe.

Voyager 2 is currently around 15.3 billion km from the earth.

Voyager had boldly gone where no probe had gone before, marking one of the most
significant technological achievements in the annals of the history of science, and
adding a new chapter in human scientific dreams and endeavours, according to NASAs
John Grunsfeld.


















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ix. environment
1. CYCLONE pHAILIN

I. Introduction:

1. Tropical Cyclone: A type of low-pressure system which produces strong winds and
flooding rain that generally forms in the tropics is called a tropical cyclone. It is an important
part of the atmospheric circulation system, which moves heat from the equatorial region
towards the higher latitudes. Tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes and typhoons
are specific names for tropical cyclones based on the strength and location.

2. Hurricanes and Typhoons: Tropical cyclones with sustained wind speeds exceeding 117
kmph are known as hurricanes in the North Atlantic region and as typhoons in different parts of
the Pacific Ocean. A hurricane is made up of bands of thunderstorms that spiral around an
area of relative calm at the centre of the circulation called the "eye".

3. Conditions for the Formation of a Hurricane:

Layer of warm water must have a temperature of at least 27 degrees Celsius and
should be at least 60m deep.

Winds should converge near the surface.

As air rises, more air flows in to replace it, causing winds.

Latent heat is released as water vapour condenses into droplets in the rising air.

Latent heat warms the surrounding air, which gets lighter and rises.

Existing wind at all altitudes needs to be at the same speed and direction.

The air rising in the storm is pumped away by the high pressure area in the upper
atmosphere.

4. Hurricanes Linked to Global Warming: Rising sea surface temperatures over the last 35
years have increased the number of hurricanes in all five oceans of the Earth, which could be
linked to global warming, according to scientists. However, scientists pointed out that they
lacked enough data to be definitive, as the period studied was too short.

II. Cyclone Phailin:

1. Cyclone Phailin Struck Andhra Pradesh and Odisha (October 12, 2013):

On October 12, 2013, the tropical cyclone Phailin struck South Odisha coast near
Gopalpur with heavy rainfall in northern Andhra Pradesh, costal and interior
Odisha.

Wind speeds of around 200 kmph were recorded with a storm surge of 3.5
metres.

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The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) said that Phailin was not a super
cyclone but nevertheless the worst in the last 14 years.

Forty four people were killed in Odisha 21 persons were killed when Phailin struck
the State on October 12, 2013 and 23 persons were killed in the floods that followed in
five districts in the northern region of the state.

An estimated 80 lakh people were affected by the cyclone in several districts of
Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

About 8.3 lakh people were evacuated and took shelter in 1,073 relief camps. The
manpower employed to evacuate people included 2,000 Army troops and 3,000
personnel of the National Disaster Relief Force (NDRF).

The relief operations included 18 helicopters, 12 transport aircraft and two
warships.

An estimated 2.4 lakh houses were damaged, 2,400 crore of paddy crop was
destroyed and five lakh hectares of standing crop was destroyed by the cyclone.

Odisha was sanctioned about Rs.250 crore for relief and restoration work.

2. Preparedness and Precise Forecast helped in reducing the Loss of
Lives:

Analysts point out that full preparedness by the Central and State agencies and
precise forecasting by the IMD helped in reducing the loss of lives as lakhs of
people were evacuated to safer areas.

The relief camps in Odisha were 1,073, while 135 camps were opened in Andhra
Pradesh.

A Doppler radar is placed in Bhubaneswar which gives out precise coordinates
in terms of geographical spread, intensity and timing of the cyclones. This helps
in providing early alerts to the local authorities and wider dissemination of cyclone
warnings in the vulnerable areas for timely evacuation of people.

Evacuations are a significant aspect of disaster mitigation. Thus unlike 1999 when
the super cyclone in Odisha took the people and the authorities by surprise in Odisha,
over 5 lakh evacuations were already complete by the first half of October 12, 2013.

Analysts point out that accurate prediction of wind velocity by the IMD, quick
response to early warnings of the potential of Phailin cyclone to cause
destruction, timely evacuation of lakhs of people from the districts of Odisha and
Andhra Pradesh as well as organised provisioning to cater to the emergency
needs of those rescued pointed to the fact that the National Disaster
Management Authority (NDMA) had done a remarkable job.




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The World Bank said that successfully evacuating a million people was not a small task.
It had taken years of planning, construction of disaster risk mitigation
infrastructure, setting up of evacuation protocols, identification of potential safe
buildings and most importantly, working with communities and local
organisations in setting up volunteer teams who knew exactly what needed to be
done.

The Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA) and the Government
of Odisha needed to be given full credit for their unwavering commitment to
disaster preparedness and risk mitigation, according to the World Bank.

The OSDMA was set up by Odisha in 1999, following the disaster caused by the
super cyclone. The ODSMA focused exclusively on disaster management.

The World Bank pointed out that Odisha kept investing in building cyclone shelters,
evacuation routes and strengthening coastal embankments. Mock drills were
conducted in the states coastal districts every single year.

The World Bank is financing the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project
(NCRMP-Phase I) under implementation in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. The $255
million project was started in 2011.

The NCRMP is focused on enhancing the early warning system down to the
last-mile community level and building cyclone risk mitigation infrastructure,
including multi-purpose cyclone shelters, evacuation roads and strengthening
of existing coastal embankments.

3. Conclusion:

Analysts point out that disasters caused by cyclones can be averted by putting in
place a coordinated plan supported by meteorological information is put into
effective action.

The disaster management staff needs to be trained in advance to acquire the
necessary skills to tackle emergencies, according to analysts.

Analysts suggest that eco-sensitive areas should be free of unchecked
development as learnt from the Uttarakhand floods.













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x. sports
1. OLYMPICS (UPDATE)

I. IOC Wants IOA to Fully Accept Its Recommendations to Ensure Good
Governance:

On September 5, 2013, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) insisted that the
suspended Indian Olympic Association (IOA) must fully accept its draft
amendments, including the one barring those charge-sheeted from contesting
the elections.

The IOC Executive Board heard a report that the General Assembly had approved most
of the amendments to the IOAs constitution requested by the IOC, but one specific
clause had not been adopted. The clause which dealt with the eligibility of
members, was key to the good governance of the National Olympic Committee
(NOC) and needed to be fully accepted before the suspended IOA could proceed
with the elections, according to the IOC statement.

If the suspension of IOA continued, then depending on the concession granted
by the IOC, India could participate in the Olympics under the IOC flag but cannot
use the National Flag or the National Anthem.

The IOA was suspended on December 2012 as its elections were not held as per
the IOA constitution and the Olympic Charter.

The IOA has objected to the amendment on the ground that the law of the land
allowed politicians facing various charges to contest elections. It adopted a
diluted version of the clause in its August 25, 2013, meeting.

Union Sports Minister Jitendra Singh said that one of the major issues was ethics
and good governance and hoped that better sense prevailed and the IOA would
incorporate changes which the IOC had been suggesting.

Indian sportspersons must be protected and some sort of alternative
arrangements should be there to see that Indian sportspersons do not suffer and
they are able to compete under the Indian flag, according to the Union Sports
Minister.

II. Tokyo Won the Right to Host the 2020 Olympic Games:

On September 8, 2013, Tokyo won the right to host the 2020 Olympic Games,
overcoming fears about radiation from the Fukushima nuclear plant.

Tokyo, which previously hosted the Olympic Games in 1964, was chosen over
Istanbul (Turkey) and Madrid (Spain) by members of the International Olympic
Committee meeting in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had flown to the Buenos Aires to reassure
the members of IOC about the safety about the Fukushima nuclear plant which is
about 220 km from Tokyo.
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This would be the fourth time that Japan would be playing host to the Olympics
1964 summer Olympics and the winter Olympics in 1998 and 1972.

III. Wrestling Retained in Olympics:

On September 8, 2013, the IOC members voted wrestling back into the Olympics.
Wrestling would be part of the Olympic Games in 2020 and 2024.

Wrestling was dropped from the Olympic programme in February 2013 by a
15-member IOC executive board.

Indias Union Sports Minister Jitendra Singh expressed happiness over the
decision of the IOC to retain wrestling in the 2020 Olympics. Mr. Singh had written
to the IOC President requesting him to keep wrestling in the Olympics. The Sports
Minister had sought support of other countries to campaign for the retention of wrestling
in the Olympics.



































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x.2. CRICKET (UPDATE)

I. BCCI Bans Cricketers for Spot-Fixing in the IPL:

On September 13, 2013, the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) imposed a life
ban on cricketers Sreesanth and Ankeet Chavan for having brought disrepute to the
game by indulging in spot-fixing during the 2013 Indian Premier League (IPL)
tournament. Both cricketers were playing for the Rajasthan Royals in the IPL.

Rajasthan Royals player Amit Singh was banned for five years and Siddharth Trivedi,
also of Rajasthan Royals, was banned for one year as he did not inform the BCCI that
he had been approached by the bookmakers.

Harmeet Singh was reprieved for lack of evidence.

The bans were based on the BCCIs internal inquiry report.

II. Former IPL Commissioner, Lalit Modi Expelled from BCCI:

On September 25, 2013, the former IPL Commissioner, Lalit Modi, was expelled from
the BCCI for serious misconduct and indiscipline.

All the 29 members present at a Special General Meeting of the Board voted for the
expulsion motion against Mr. Modi.



























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xi. personalities

NATIONAL:

1. Raghuram Rajan (New RBI Governor):

On August 6, 2013, Chief Economic Adviser Raghuram Govind Rajan was appointed as
the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for three years. He took over from D.
Subbarao on September 4, 2013.

Dr. Raghuram Rajan is the 23
rd
Governor of the RBI. At the age of 50, he is one of the
youngest to become the RBI Governor.

Dr. Rajan completed his B.Tech from IIT Delhi, MBA from IIM Ahmedabad and Ph.D.
from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was also professor at the
University of Chicagos Booth School of Business.

Dr. Rajan was the Chief economist of the International Monetary Fund from 2003-2007
and since 2008 he has been the Chief Economic Adviser (CEA) to Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh.

The books written by Dr. Rajan include Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists in 2004
and fault lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy, 2010.

In 2005, while at the IMF, Dr. Rajan presented a paper titled Has Financial
Development Made the World Riskier? which correctly predicted the 2008 global
financial crisis.

The appointment of Dr. Raghuram Rajan as the new Governor of RBI was hailed by
experts as an excellent choice.

Dr. Rajan took charge as the new RBI Governor at a time when the Indian economy is
facing multi-pronged crisis including the rapidly depreciating rupee, widening Current
Account Deficit (CAD), industrial slowdown and high consumer price inflation.

The new RBI Governor set out a bold reformist agenda for his tenure which included
measures to strengthen monetary policy framework, deepen securities markets,
improve financial inclusion, support and push for Indian rupee as an international
currency and a warning to corporate loan defaulters.

2. Rakesh Sood (Prime Ministers Special Envoy for Disarmament and
Non-Proliferation):

On September 1, 2013, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh appointed Rakesh Sood, the
former Ambassador to Nepal, Afghanistan and France and Indias first Ambassador in
charge of Disarmament in Geneva, as his new envoy for Disarmament and
Non-Proliferation.

Mr. Rakesh Sood is seen as an expert in his field and could make significant
contributions to Indias foreign policy on security, non-proliferation and disarmament
issues, according to analysts.
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Mr. Sood was served as the Joint Secretary DISA (Disarmament and International
Security Affairs) from 1992 to 2000. During this tenure he was involved in negotiations
concerning the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Chemical Weapons
Convention (CWC) and the deliberations on the Fissile Materials Cut-off Treaty
(FMCT). He was also involved in dialogues on nuclear and non-proliferation issues with
the major powers in the world.

After India conducted its nuclear test in 1998 to become a declared nuclear power, Mr.
Rakesh Sood accompanied Indias then National Security Adviser Brajesh Mishra to
various countries to explain Indias stand on its nuclear capability.

In late 1990s, Mr. Sood also took part in the talks on security, non-proliferation,
disarmament and related issues between the then External Affairs Minister Jaswant
Singh and the then US Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott which resulted in a
waiver that allowed India access to civil nuclear technology.

3. Deepak Sandhu (First Woman Chief Information Commissioner):

On September 5, 2013, Deepak Sandhu was sworn in as the Chief Information
Commissioner (CIC) of the Central Information Commission by the President Pranab
Mukherjee.

Deepak Sandhu became the first women Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) of
India.

Ms. Sandhu, a former Indian Information Service Officer of the 1971 batch, has served
in many key positions like Principal Director General (Media and Communications), the
Press Information Bureau, Director-General DD news and the Director-General (News)
All India Radio.

In 2009, Ms. Sandhu was appointed as Information Commissioner.

The new CIC said that the RTI journey which began in 2005 was just a beginning and
she planned to take it forward by engaging with various stakeholders. She stressed that
her priority would be to reduce the pendency of cases at the Central Information
Commission.

INTERNATIONAL:

4. Bradley Manning (US Whistleblower):

In late July 2013, Bradley Manning, the US Army intelligence analyst in Iraq in 2010,
was convicted of passing on more than 700,000 government classified documents to
WikiLeaks.

Bradley Manning was sentenced to 35 years in prison for the leaks.


Manning was found guilty on 17 of the 22 charges he faced, six of which were under the
Espionage Act. The US military judge cleared manning of the charge of aiding the
enemy.
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The former US State Department spokesman PJ Crowley said that Mannings
revelations to WikiLeaks which included hundreds of thousands of US diplomatic cables
and raw intelligence reports from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan, violated his
military oath and put real lives and real careers at risk.

A senior US State Department official testified that the release of diplomatic cables by
Manning to WikiLeaks had, and continued to have, a chilling effect on US foreign policy
and that was a risk to national security.

Bradley Manning apologised for hurting his country and pleaded with the military judge
for chance to go to college and become a productive citizen.

Mannings attorneys contended that he had shown clear signs of deteriorating mental
health which should have prevented commanders from sending him to a war zone to
handle classified information.

5. Tony Abbott (New Prime Minister of Australia):

Australias conservative Liberal/National coalition registered a landslide victory in the
elections for the federal lower chamber, held on September 7, 2013.

Voting is compulsory in Australia with the fully-preferential electoral system. The
Liberal/National coalition led by Tony Abbott won 88 seats in the 150-seat House of
Representatives with the ruling Labor Party winning 57 seats.

Tony Abbott, the new Prime Minister of Australia, declared that Australia was under a
new management and was once again open for business.

Mr. Abbott wants to abolish the carbon tax and impose austerity measures. However,
the austerity measures may not be very popular, according to analysts.

The coalition government of Mr. Abbott would have to make concessions in the Senate,
where other parties hold the balance of power.

Under the new Prime Minister, Australia has proposed to cut foreign aid but would
maintain strategic collaboration with the US, and would also continue to attract Indian
students while extending its commitment to the Asian Quadrilateral.

6. Thomas Bach (New President of the International Olympic Committee):

On September 10, 2013, Germanys Thomas Bach was elected as the President of the
International Olympic Committee (IOC) in Buenos Aires (Argentina). He took over from
Jacques Rogge of Belgium.

The 59-year-old, Thomas Bach, is the first Olympic gold medallist to become the IOC
President. He won the gold medal for the West German fencing team in the team foil
event in the 1976 Olympics.

A lawyer by profession, Thomas Bach has been a member of the OIC since 1991 and
had been Vice-President three times apart from heading the Judicial Commission.

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Mr. Bach has led the fight against doping, calling for athletes to be suspended for four
years instead of the current two-year ban.

Mr. Bach said that he knew what the enormous responsibilities are of being IOC
President.

Previous IOC Presidents: Demetrius Vikeelas (Greece 1894-96), Baron Pierre de
Coubertin (France 1896-1925), Henri de Baillet-Latour (Belgium 1925-42), Sigfrid
Edstrom (Sweden 1942-52), Avery Brundage (USA 1952-72), Lord Michael Killanin
(Ireland 1972-80), Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spain 1980-2001), Jacques Rogge
(Belgium 2001-2013)

7. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (President of Liberia Winner of Indira Gandhi
Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2012):

On September 12, 2013, the President of Liberia Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was presented
the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2012 by the
Indian President Pranab Mukherjee in New Delhi.

The Liberian President, who is the first democratically elected women head of any
African country, was chosen for the award for serving as an example and an inspiration
for many an women in Africa and beyond, and for ensuring the return of peace,
democracy and development to Liberia.

Indias President Pranab Mukherjee said that Ms. Sirleaf revived national hope by
strengthening institutions of good governance and leading the revitalisation of the
national economy in a country that saw bloodshed and civil war spanning decades.

Mr. Mukherjee said that India had been privileged to have played a key role in
peacekeeping efforts in Liberia.

Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that the Liberian President, a Noble
Laureate, guided her country towards peace, stability, democracy and development
after two decades of suppression, violence and conflict.

India stood by Liberia in its efforts to pursue stability, economic growth and democratic
governance, according to Indias President Pranab Mukherjee.

The World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WANIFRA) and the World
Editors Forum urged Ms. Sirleaf to stand by her commitment towards ensuring freedom
of the Press and repealing criminal defamation laws.

8. Angela Merkel (Chancellor of Germany):

German Chancellor Angela Merkel won a third term as the Chancellor in elections held
in Germany on September 22, 2013.

Angela Merkel won by an impressive margin of 42.5 per cent of the votes.

Ms. Merkel is the third post-war German Chancellor to win three successive terms.
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Ms. Merkel and her Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU) won
311 seats five short of an absolute majority in the federal lower chamber, Bundestag.
Under the German hybrid electoral system, 299 members of the lower chamber are
elected by simple majority in individual constituencies and 299 by party-list proportional
reckoning.

Analysts point out that the third successive term as Chancellor of Germany puts Ms.
Merkel in a strong position to lead Germany and Europe. Germanys position as the
strongest economy and main creditor in Europe lends credibility to the German
Chancellors leadership role.

9. Organisation for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) (Awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize for 2013):

On October 11, 2013, the Organisation for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2013. The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize
was won by the European Union (EU) and the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) won the Prize in 2005.

The OPCW, an independent global body, was established in 1997 by the Chemical
Weapons Convention (CWC) within the framework of the United Nations.

The OPCW is based in Hague and has 189 member countries.

The OPCW evaluates member countries declarations to verify convention being
adhered to. It carries out inspections of destruction procedures.

Currently the OPCW has been involved in Syria to carry out its mandate to dismantle
chemical weapons stockpiles in Syria. It gained credibility for its role in enforcing the
peace option in Syria by way of its technical expertise.

The Nobel Committee stated that by conferring the award on the OPCW it was
upholding Alfred Nobels vision of disarmament.

Ahmet Uzumcu, the Director-General of OPCW, said that the Nobel Peace Prize was a
great honour and a motivation for the organisation to realise its mandate. The mandate
effectively covers 98 per cent of the worlds population, according to the OPCW.

The Nobel Committee stated that some states were still not members of the OPCW.
Certain states had not observed the deadline, which was April 2012, for destroying their
chemical weapons. That applied especially to the USA and Russia. The US has sought
another 10 years to destroy its chemical weapons stockpile; while Russia was expected
to complete the destruction of its chemical weapons arsenal by 2018.

The OPCW said that India, Albania and South Korea were the only countries to have
destroyed their chemical weapons stockpiles. Under the Chemical Weapons
Convention (CWC) member countries are obliged to declare and destroy any stockpiles
of chemical weapons they possess within a stipulated time-frame.

The Nobel Peace Prize award for the OPCW was significant for the goal of ridding the
world of weapons of mass destruction, according to analysts.
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10. Eleanor Catton (Winner of the Man Booker Prize 2013):

Eleanor Catton from New Zealand won the 2013 Man Booker prize for her novel, the
Luminaries. She was presented a cheque of 50,000.

The 28-year old author is the youngest novelist to win the Man Booker prize and has
also set a record for the longest winning novel as the Luminaries is 852 pages.

Eleanor Catton is the last winner of the Man Booker prize in its present format which is
confined to writers from the Commonwealth countries and Ireland. From 2014, the Man
Booker prize would be opened up to writers from all countries of the world.

The Luminaries is a murder mystery set in New Zealand during the gold-rush in late 19
th

century, with astrology a running theme through the novel.

The Luminaries is the second novel written by Eleanor Catton and she is the second
New Zealander to win the Booker, after Keri Hulme in 1985.