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Political Corruption

Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for

illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as
repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political
corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved
with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if
the act is directly related to their official duties.
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism,
patronage, graft, and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise
such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, it is not restricted to
these activities.
The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or
jurisdiction. For instance, certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may
be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or poorly defined
powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions.
Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A
state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by

Korupsi politik
Korupsi politik adalah penggunaan kekuasaan disahkan oleh pejabat pemerintah
untuk kepentingan pribadi tidak sah. Penyalahgunaan kekuasaan pemerintah untuk
keperluan lain, seperti represi lawan politik dan kebrutalan polisi umum, tidak dianggap
korupsi politik. Baik adalah tindakan ilegal oleh orang pribadi atau perusahaan tidak terlibat
langsung dengan pemerintah. Sebuah tindakan ilegal oleh officeholder merupakan korupsi
politik hanya jika tindakan secara langsung berkaitan dengan tugas-tugas resmi mereka.
Bentuk korupsi bervariasi, tetapi mencakup penyuapan, pemerasan, kroniisme,
nepotisme, patronase, korupsi, dan penggelapan. Sementara korupsi dapat memfasilitasi
perusahaan kriminal seperti perdagangan narkoba, pencucian uang, dan perdagangan
manusia, tidak terbatas pada kegiatan ini.
Kegiatan yang merupakan korupsi ilegal berbeda tergantung pada negara atau
wilayah. Misalnya, praktik pendanaan politik tertentu yang legal di satu tempat mungkin
ilegal di negara lain. Dalam beberapa kasus, pejabat pemerintah memiliki kekuasaan yang
luas atau buruk didefinisikan, yang membuat sulit untuk membedakan antara tindakan legal
dan ilegal. Di seluruh dunia, penyuapan saja diperkirakan melibatkan lebih dari $
1000000000000 per tahun. Sebuah negara korupsi politik terkendali dikenal sebagai
kleptokrasi, secara harfiah berarti "pemerintahan oleh para pencuri".

The National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental
Illness, along with many other studies, reported that the majority of people who completed
suicide were either unemployed or had a long-term illness (Department of Health, 1999).
Compared with the general population, people who attempt suicide belong more often to the
social categories associated with social destabilisation and poverty.
Gunnell et al(1995) examined the relations between suicide, parasuicide and socio-
economic deprivation. A strong association was found between suicide and parasuicide,
with socio-economic deprivation accounting for much of this relationship. Furthermore,
homicide and suicide occur more frequently in highly populated, deprived areas
(Kennedy et al, 1999). This finding is also supported by Crawford & Prince (1999), who
noted increasing rates of suicide in young unemployed men living in conditions of extreme
social deprivation. It is also true that the mortality rates of overdoses involving cocaine and
opiates are significantly associated with poverty status (Marzuk et al, 1997).


Drugs are not something that is foreign to us. We have often heard and read about the
drug in electronic media and print media. In Indonesia, drug trafficking has become one of
the major issues that must be addressed immediately, drugs are chemicals that change
the way a persons body works. You have probably heard that drugs are bad for you, but
what does that mean and why are they bad? If you have ever been sick and had to take
medicine, you already know about one kind of drugs. Medicines are legal drugs, meaning
doctors are allowed to prescribe them for patients, stores can sell them, and people are
allowed to buy them. But it is not legal, or safe, for people to use these medicines any way
they want or to buy them from people who are selling them illegally.

When people talk about the drug problem, they usually mean abusing legal drugs or using
illegal drugs, such as marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, crystal meth and heroin. Illegal drugs can
damage the brain, heart, and other important organs. For example ecstasy, ecstasy can
make the wearer's body has more energy and can also dehydrate high. The results of
which make our bodies to keep moving. Some people who take ecstasy were found dead
from drinking too much water due to extreme thirst.

Sometimes people try drugs to fit in with a group of friends. Or they might be curious or
just bored. A person may use illegal drugs for many reasons, but often because they help
the person escape from reality for a while. If a person is sad or upset, a drug can -
temporarily - make the person feel better or forget about problems. But this escape lasts
only until the drug wears off. Drugs do not solve problems, of course. And using drugs
often causes other problems on top of the problems the person had in the first place. A
person who uses drugs can become dependent on them, or addicted. This means that the
persons body becomes so accustomed to having this drug that he or she cannot function
well without it. Once a person is addicted, it is very hard to stop taking drugs. Stopping
can cause withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting (throwing up), sweating, and tremors
(shaking). These sick feelings continue until the persons body gets adjusted to being drug
free again.

If someone is using drugs, you might notice changes in how the person looks or acts. Here
are some of those signs. A person using drugs may:

Can not concentrate,Cranky, or worried all the time ask to be left alone a lot have trouble
concentrating sleep a lot (maybe even in class) get in fights have red or puffy eyes lose or
gain weight cough a lot have a runny nose all of the time lose interest in school change
friends (to hang out with those who use drugs) become moody, easily bored.

According to Satria Dharma, Chairman of Ikatan Guru Indonesia (IGI) or Indonesian Teachers
Association. Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI) or International School Stubs is
valuaded as failure program. There are several reasons RSBI should be stopped. First, the program
is clearly not preceded RSBI complete research so that the concept is very bad.
Second, RSBI program is the wrong model. Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional (Kemendiknas) or
Ministry of National Education create model guidelines for implementation of the new SBI (news
developed), but it is happening is the development of the schools that already exist (existing
Third, RSBI program have gotten wrong assumption. Kemendiknas assumes that for teaching hard
science in English introduction, a teacher has to have TOEFL more than 500. Fourth, there was
been confussion.
Fifth, the using english language in overall teaching activity is wrong concept. With RSBI labels,
the subject matter to be taught in English, while across the world such as Japan, China, actually
use their national language, but students remain qualified world. Sixth, RSBI considered to have
created discrimination in education. Meanwhile, the weakness of the seven confirmed, that the
RSBI has also made the public schools become very commercial.
RSBI idea originally formed to improve the quality of school graduates as global human. However,
the implementation RSBI more emphasis on the high cost of education, and school facilities are
luxurious. Not on the learning abilities of students. So many people do not approve this program.
Teaching a child to become a global human is important. However, being human does not have to
adopt the global total in the western model of education regardless of the overall condition of the
nations affordable and equitable education for all citizen.

Indonesians Education Problems

Indonesia as one of developed country has many reasons to establish education aspect in
globalization era. Nowdays, however, Indonesians have many problems in their study habit.
First aspect is their ability to choice invansion culture from western. It made them lost their
willingness to read. They prefer play console or watch movie in cinema to read a book. Library, had
been built for support education, was left by society; mall or coffeeshop became very crowded place
for them. The ability to distribute material of study is second aspect. Quality level of teacher should be
asked by society, well being of teacher has became problem in education environment for a long time.
It made Indonesians lost their probability to face modernization. Tools for research in education is so
limited that has made us who are want to make research blocked by it. It is third aspect of problems
in study habit. Professor always work in abroad better than in Indonesia for reaons in years ago. How
poor Indonesia is!

Why People Choose Laptop
Laptop is a kind of computer unit which has same function with PC (Personal Computer), but has
different form. At this time, most people choose laptop because of some reasons and benefits. These
are several benefits of using laptop.
The first, laptop is a portable device. It means that we can move laptop and bring it anywhere. This
portability is very helpful to help your work, study, and other activities. We need not complicated
cable installation to activate laptop.
Next, laptop is enabling for us to use special facility in some areas or places. It is hot spot area. We
can use free internet access in some public places by laptop. Some people like to use this facility to do
their activity which deal with internet.
The last, laptop is efficient use of electric energy consumption. This device also has a battery as the
source of electric energy. We can just charge the battery and use laptop without spend much energy.
It also means that we support the government program to save the energy. Thats why laptop
becomes very popular.


So far I feel English is a difficult language to learn because of some reasons. The first reason
is that English has so many words and also many English words has same sound but they are spelled
differently. For example,holly and holy sound are exactly same, but they are spelled differently ( you
can see by yourself in a dictionary ).
The second reason is that English has so many idioms. There are so many idioms in common
use by English speaker. And the most important reason is English has grammar system. I feel that
English grammar is hard to learn because it has many exceptions. Of course this difficulties will be
effect to our understanding in learning English. But actually, if we learning vocabulary frequently with
open dictionary frequently too and also with the other ways to increase our vocabulary, maybe the
difficulties will be decrease.
English is a difficult language, but English is a unique language and also it has many variation
words. With study frequently, it can help your problems in learning English.

Is Smoking Good For Us?
Before we smoke, it is better to look at the fact of smoking effects, not only for smokers
but also for non- smokers. About 50 thousand people die every year in Britain as a direct result
of smoking. This is seven times as many as deaths in road accidents. Nearly a quarterof smokers
die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent og lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smokers five cigarettes a
day, we are six times more likelyto die of lung cancer than non-smoker. If we smoker twenty
cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen time greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer from
bronchitis are people who smoking. Smoker are two and haft times more likely to die of heart
disease than non-smokers.
Additionally, children of smokers are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia.
In one hour in a smoky room, a non smokers breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if
he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking
habit. Smoking, however , is not good for every body else.

Rural Poverty in Indonesia

More than half of Indonesias 235 million people are poor. Most struggle to survive
on less than US$2 a day, and are at risk of even more severe poverty. Approximately 60
per cent of the populations live in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of
Poverty has always been a concern in Indonesia. First, in the 1970s the country
entered a period of steady economic growth, accompanied by progressive social
development. Then in 1997 and 1998 the Indonesian economy came close to collapse,
when a nancial crisis swept through South-Eastern Asia. Before the crisis, 16.8 per cent
of the countrys families were ofcially classied as poor. At the height of the nancial
upheaval, the proportion of poor households in the country doubled. Although the crisis
hit harder in urban areas, recovery was also more rapid in the cities and towns. Instead, in
rural areas, poverty is greater than it was before the nancial crisis. Millions of small
farmers, farm workers and shers are materially and nancially unable to tap into the
opportunities offered by years of economic growth.
Then, the nancial crisis also took a heavy toll on the governments budget. At a
time when government spending was needed to help reduce economic hardships
weighing on poor people, social expenditures such as spending for health and education
had to be cut. Even today, the governments heavy debt burden means that there are few
resources to help nance poverty reduction programmes.