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Outline of the Lecture

Microcomputers and Microprocessors


Evolution of Intel 80x86 Family Microprocessors
Binary and Hexadecimal um!er "ystems
MI#$O #OM% &'E$" () MI#$O%$O #E""O $"
There are three major parts of a Computer System.
*+ Central Pr o cessing Unit (CPU): Also simply called as the microprocessor acts as the brain
coordinating all activities within a computer.
,+ The M emory : The program instructions and data are primarily stored.
-+ The Input/Output (I/O) Device s : Allow the computer to input information for processing and
then output the results. I/ !evices are also "nown as computer peripherals.
The integrated Circuit #IC$ chip containing the C%& is called the microprocessor and the entire
computer including the microprocessor' memory and I/ is called a microcomputer.
The C%& is connected to memory and I/ devices through a strip of wires called a bus. The bus inside
a computer carries information from place to place. In every computer there are three types of busses(
*+ !!ress "us: The address bus is used to identify the memory location or I/ device the processor
intends to communicate with. The width of the Address )us rages from *+ bits #,+,-$ to .- bits for
#%entium II$.
,+ Data "us: !ata bus is used by the C%& to get data from / to send data to the memory or the I/
devices. The width of a microprocessor is used to classify the microprocessor. The si/e of data bus
of Intel microprocessors vary between ,0bit #,+,1$ to -20bit #%entium$.
-+ Control " u s# 3ow can we tell if the address on the bus is memory address or an I/ device
address4 This where the control bus comes in. 5ach time the processor outputs an address it also
activates one of the four control bus signals( 6emory 7ead' 6emory 8rite' I/ 7ead and I/ 8rite.
The address and control bus contains output lines only' therefore it is unidirectional' but the data bus is
bi!irectional#
There two types of memory used in microcomputers(
9 $M #$andom (ccess Memory. $ead/0rite memory1 is used by the computer for the temporary
storage of the programs that is running. !ata is lost when the computer is turned off. So "nown as
volatile memory.
9 $OM #$ead Only Memory$ the information in 76 is permanent and not lost when the power is
turned off. Therefore' it is called nonvolatile memory.
:ote that 7A6 is sometimes referred as primary storage' where magnetic /optical dis"s are called
secon!ary storage#
(ddress Bus
#%&
$ead.
0rite
$(M $OM
%rinter
)is2
Monitor
)ata Bus
#ontrol Bus
Internal or3anisation of a microcomputer
4ey!oard
Inside the CPU:
A program stored in the memory provides instructions to the C%& to perform a specific action. This
action can be a simple addition. It is function of the C%& to %etch the program instructions from the memory
and e&ecute them.
;. The C%& contains a number of registers to store information inside the C%& temporarily.
7egisters inside the C%& can be ,0bit' ;-0bit' .*0bit or even -20bit depending on the C%&.
*. The C%& also contains rithmetic an! 'ogic Unit ('U). The A<& performs arithmetic #add'
subtract' multiply' divide$ and logic #A:!' 7' :T$ functions.
.. The C%& contains a program counter also "nown as the Instruction Pointer to point the address
of the ne=t instruction to be e=ecuted.
2. Instruction Deco!er is a "ind of dictionary which is used to interpret the meaning of the
instruction fetched into the C%&. Appropriate control signals are generated according to the meaning
of the instruction.
Instruction %ointer
(ddress
Bus
Fla3s
(L&
Instruction $e3ister
Instruction )ecoder
Timing and control
signals are generated
#ontrol
Bus
)ata
Bus
Internal
)usses
$e3ister (
$e3ister B
$e3ister #
$e3ister )
Internal !loc2 dia3ram of a #%&
The >igure below demonstrates the interaction between the C%&' memory and I/ !evices.
Brief History of the C o mputers
? 1946 The first generation of Computer ENIAC was started to be used based on the vacuum tube
technology.
? 1958 the first transistori/ed computer TRADIC was announced by I)6.
? 1959 first IC was invented.
? 196s ICs were started to be used in C!" #oards.
? ;@A+s entire C%& was put in a single chip. #19$1 the first microprocessor of Intel 44 #20bit data bus
and *.++ transistors$
? <ate ;@A+s Intel ,+,+/,1 appeared with ,0bit data bus and ;-0bit address bus and used from traffic light
controllers to homemade computers.
? 1981 >irst !C was introduced by I)6 with Intel 888 microprocessor.
? 6otorola emerged with -,++. Apple 6acintosh computers started to use -,+++ series of
microprocessors.
E5OL&' IO OF I'EL 8 06 86 F(MIL7 MI#$O%$O#E""O $"
%rocessor 7ear
Intro+
'ransistors #loc2 $ate
8MH9+1
External
)ata Bus
Internal
)ata Bus
(dd+ Bus
2++2 ;@A; *'*1+ +.;+, 2 , ;*
,++, ;@A* .'1++ +.*++ , , ;2
,+,+ ;@A2 -'+++ . , , ;-
,+,1 ;@A- -'+++ - , , ;-
,+,- ;@A, *@'+++ ;+ ;- ;- *+
,+,, ;@A@ *@'+++ ;+ , ;- *+
,+*,- ;@,* ;.2'+++ ;*.1 ;- ;- *1
,+.,-!B ;@,1 *A1'+++ .. .* .* .*
,+.,-SB ;@,, *A1'+++ .. ;- .* *2
%entium C ;@@. .';++'+++ -- 0*++ -2 .* .*
%entium 66B ;@@A 2'1++'+++ .++ -2 .* .*
%entium %ro ;@@1 1'1++'+++ *++ -2 .* .-
%entium II ;@@A A'1++'+++ *..021+ -2 .* .-
%entium III ;@@@ @'1++'+++ 11+0A.. -2 .* .-
Itanium *++; .+'+++'+++ ,++0C ;*, -2 -2
BI ($7 ( ) H E6 ()E# IM( L & MB E$ "7" 'EM"
As human being we use base () (!ecimal) arithmetic
Computers use base * (binary) system.
"ase (+ ,e&a!ecimal number system is a convenient way of represented binary numbers.
ASCII #binary format of the alphanumeric code$ is e=plained.
Decimal an! "inary number systems:
0There is a speculation of the fact that 3umans use base ;+ system is because they have ;+ fingers. )ut
there is no speculation behind the fact that the computers use binary system. The binary system is used in
computers' because ; and /ero represent the two voltage levels of on and off.
There are ;+ digits in !ecimal system( +';'*'.'2'1'-'A','@
There are only * digits in )inary system( +'; #)inary digits are referred as bits$
;;+;+;
*
D !ecimal
;=*
+
D;=; D ;
+=*
;
D+=* D +
;=*
*
D;=2 D 2
+=*
.
D+=, D +
;=*
2
D;=;- D ;-
;=*
1
D;=.* D E .*
1.
3e=adecimal )inary !ecimal
+ ++++ +
; +++; ;
* ++;+ *
. ++;; .
2 +;++ 2
1 +;+; 1
- +;;+ -
A +;;; A
, ;+++ ,
@ ;++; @
A ;+;+ ;+
) ;+;; ;;
C ;;++ ;*
! ;;+; ;.
5 ;;;+ ;2
> ;;;; ;1
Converting %rom !ecimal to binary:
5=ample( Convert *1
;+
to binary(
7emainder
*1/* D ;* ; <S) #least significant bit$
;*/* D - +
-/* D . +
./* D ; ;
;/* D + ; 6S) #most significant bit$
Therefore' *1
;+
D ;;++;
*
Converting %rom binary to !ecimal:
5=ample( Convert ;;+;+;
*
to decimal(
,e&a!ecimal -umber system:
;;+;+;
*
D1.
;+
3e=adecimal system is defined to be the base ;- number system and is used as a convenient representation of
binary numbers.
#onvertin3 from !inary to hex 8hexa d ecim a l1:
5=ample( Convert ;++;;;;;+;+;
*
to he=(
;++; ;;;; +;+;
D @ > 1
Therefore' ;++;;;;;+;+;
*
D @>1 3e=
#onvertin3 from hex to !inary:
5=ample( Convert he= *@) to binary(
* @ )
D ++;+ ;++; ;+;; !ropping /eros' *@) D ;+;++;;+;;
( ; B #arry "um
+ E + + +
+ E ; + ;
; E + + ;
; E ; ; +
#onvertin3 from dec i mal to hex 8hexadecimal1:
5=ample( Convert 21
;+
to he=(
Fuotient 7emainder
21/;- D * ;. #he= !$ <S! #least significant bit$
*/;- D + * 6S! #most significant bit$
Therefore' 21
;+
D *!
;-
D *!3
#onvertin3 from hex to decim a l:
5=ample( Convert -)*
;-
to decimal(
-)*
;-
D !ecimal
* = ;-
+
D * = ; D *
;;=;-
;
D ;;=;- D ;A-
- = ;-
*
D -=*1- D E ;1.-
;A;2 Therefore' -)*
;-
D ;A;2
;+
!!ition an! subtraction in binary numbers:
Addition 5=ample(
;;+;
;++;
E ;+;;+
;+;;++
"u!traction of Binary um!ers:
)inary Addition
Given binary numbers = and y. =Hy is performed by ta"ing *Is complement of y and adding to =.
;;++;++; H ;++;;;+; DJ *Is complement of ;++;;;+;D +;;+++;+ #;Is complement$
E;
+;;+++;; #*Is complement$
;;++;++;
E +;; + ++ ; ;
; ++;+;;++
(ddition a n d su!traction in hex n u m!ers:
Addition 5=ample(
*.!@ <S! ( @ E ;2 D *. *.0;-D A with a carry to ne=t digit
E @2 ) 5 ;E;.E;; D *1 *10;-D @ with a carry to ne=t digit
),@A ;E.E2 D ,
6S! * E @ D )
Subtraction 5=ample(
1@>
H *),
*5A
<S! (
6S!
;1 0 ,
*1 #@E;-$ H ;; #)$
2 #1H;$ H*
D A
D ;2' which is 5
D *
3e= Symbol 3e= Symbol
2; A -; a
2* ) -* b
2* C -* c
22 ! -2 d
21 5 -1 e
2- > -- f
2A G -A g
2, 3 -, h
2@ I -@ i
2A K -A j
2) L -) "
2C < -C l
2! 6 -! m
25 : -5 n
2> -> o
1+ % A+ p
1; F A; M
1* 7 A* r
1. S A. s
12 T A2 t
11 & A1 u
1- N A- v
1A 8 AA w
1, B A, =
1@ O A@ y
1A P AA /
("#II #ode : 8(merican "tandard #ode for Information Interchan3e1
%ome im&ortant terminolog':
!it +
ni!!le ++++
!yte ++++ ++++
<ord ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
dou!le/<ord ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
=uad/<ord ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
; 2ilo!yte is ,
*0
bytes. #Abbreviation L is used$ Some floppy dis"s hold .1-L bytes of data.
; me3a!yte is ,
,0
bytes. #a little over a million ;'+2,'1A-$
; 3i3a!yte is ,
-0
bytes #over ; trillion$
; tera!yte is ,
>0
bytes