Anda di halaman 1dari 41

Generator Protections

- requirements and grouping of protections


Generators are power sources, first equipment in power system
hierarchy hence no other equipment protection can provide back up
for generators and are expensive requiring long outages for break
down repairs.
Generator protections have to be reliable and must have adequate
redundancies in both protection functions and tripping functions
Generator abnormal conditions and faults for which protections are
to be provided are many
Tripping functions required are also varied depending on the
protection function. This requires that various functions are classified
under different groups
Protection requirements slightly differ depending on type of prime
mover as steam turbine, hydro, gas and diesel
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Trip functions also differ depending on type of generator connection to
system
As unit system with its transformer
As with generator breaker system having breaker between
generator and transformer
As with a common transformer for more than one generator in
case of small hydro units
As with direct connection with the system in case of captive
plants etc.
Grouping of generator protections are for
Providing different trip logics( Class A,B,C etc)
Providing separate trip supplies and separate tripping relays for
fail safe criterion ( DC sources, trip relays etc)
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in thermal stations
Class A protections- Emergency trips for serious faults requiring immediate
total shut down of prime mover, isolation from grid and de excitation

1. Generator differential 87G
2. Over all differential 87GT
3. Stator earth fault 64G
4. Rotor earth fault second 64F
5. Over voltage
6. Over fluxing trip 99G
7. Restricted EF of transformer 64RE
8. UAT differential 87UAT
9. B/U OCR of UAT 51 UAT
10. Reverse power 32G
11. Buch and PRDS of GT and UATS
12. Inter turn 95G
13. Turbine protections like over speed
14. Trips from excitation system
Trip
86 G
Trip generator breakers
Trip FCB
Trip turbine
Trip UAT breakers and
initiate 6.6KV change
over (If no GCB between
gen. and transformer)
Cut in 60% HPLP bypass
Initiate LBB protection
Block cosing of GCB,
FCB and UAT breakers
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in thermal stations- Class B protections
Non urgent trips for faults not requiring immediate total shut down and which can be
connected for tripping turbine and isolation from grid and deexcitation can be after
consumption of entrapped steam in casing and occurrence of reverse power

1. Under frequency stage 2, 87G
2. Negative sequence stage 2, 46G2
3. Loss of excitation, 40G
4. GT and UAT winding temperature very
high
5. GT and UAT oil temperature very high
6. Turbine trips
7. Initiation from excitation
Trip
86 B
Trip turbine
Trip UAT breakers and
initiate 6.6KV change
over (If no GCB between
gen. and transformer)
Cut in 60% HPLP bypass

Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in thermal stations- Class C protections
Faults external to generator and transformer requiring isolation from grid only and
machine can remain in house load operation if sustained

1. Under frequency stage 1, 87G1
2. GT back up OCR
3. GT back up EFR
4. Back up impedance stage 1, 21G
5. Neg. sequence stage 1, 46G!
6. Pole slip protection 78G
7. Bus bar protection
Trip
86 C

Trip generator breakers
Cut in 60% HPLP bypass
Initiate LBB

Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in Hydel stations
Emergency trips for serious faults requiring immediate total shut down of prime
mover, isolation from grid and deexcitation

1. Generator differential 87G
2. Over all differential 87GT
3. Stator earth fault 64G
4. Rotor earth fault second 64F
5. Over voltage
6. Over fluxing trip 99G
7. Restricted EF of transformer 64RE
8. UAT differential 87UAT
9. B/U OCR of UAT 51 UAT
10. Reverse power 32G
11. Buch and PRDS of GT and UATS
12. Inter turn 95G
13. Turbine protections like over speed
14. Trips from excitation system
Trip
86 Y
Trip generator breakers
Trip FCB
Trip turbine
Initiate LBB protection
Block cosing of GCB,
FCB and UAT breakers
Close main inlet valve if
provided
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in Hydel stations-Control action shut down
Non urgent trips for faults not requiring immediate total shut down and which can be
connected for tripping turbine and isolation from grid and deexcitation can be after
closing of guide vanes




1. GT and UAT winding temperature very
high
2. GT and UAT oil temperature very high
3. Bearing temperatures very high
Trip
86 X

Trip turbine
Trip GCB after guide
vane is fully closed
Trip FCB after tripping of
GCB

Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in Hydel stations stations- Class C protections
Faults external to generator and transformer requiring isolation from grid only and
machine can remain in rated speed and voltage


1. Under frequency stage 1, 87G1
2. GT back up OCR
3. GT back up EFR
4. Back up impedance stage 1, 21G
5. Neg. sequence stage 1, 46G!
6. Bus bar protection
Trip
86 E


Trip generator breaker

Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in Hydel stations- Electrical shut down
Electrical Faults requiring isolation from grid and de excitation only and machine can
remain in rated speed




1. Under frequency stage 2, 87G2
2. Back up impedance stage 2, 21G
3. Neg. sequence stage 1, 46G!
4. Loss of excitation 40G

Trip
86 Z

Trip generator breaker
Trip FCB
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections
Grouping typical in Hydel stations
Some Protections require closure of penstock gate also
To cut off water in put before guide vane closing time
For governor non functioning when trip is initiated and GV closure is not
assured
Such protections are
Over speed both mechanical and electrical
Governor failure
Machine speed more than 115% and GV has not started closing

Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections

In thermal units the class B trip is always converted to Class A
trip by

If connected to grid motoring starts after turbine trip and entrapped
steam in casing is consumed, causes reverse power and class A
trip

If in isolated grid condition, after turbine trip under frequency occurs
tripping GCB, turbine trip anded with GCB trip causes tripping of
FCB also
Generator Protections
- requirements and grouping of protections

Requirements as per CBIP recommendations

Stator earth fault 95%, Genr. Diff., loss of exctn, rev. power, Over
voltage, U/F, Rotor EF, inter turn (for split phase) for all generators
100% stator earth fault as optional for machines >10 MVA but must
for machines>100 MVA
Back up Z for machines>10 MVA and Voltage controlled over
current for machines<10 MVA
Pole slipping for machines >100 MVA
Over fluxing for machines >10 MVA
Dead machine protection for machines >100 MVA
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Are caused by insulation failure in stator winding, transformer LV
winding, bus duct insulators and all other components connected
to generator terminals
Insulation failure could occur because of defective insulation,
ageing, over voltages
If earth fault is with in stator winding then earth fault current is to
be limited and quickly isolated
Higher and sustained earth fault current flowing from winding to
stator core at the fault causes arcing at the core, loss of core
lamination insulation, welding and erosion of laminations
Such damages to core require extensive down times and high repair
costs
Hence the earth fault currents of the generators are limited by
adopting high resistance grounding of generator neutrals
Total ungrounded system may cause arcing grounds and high
transient over voltages due to ferro resonance
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Generator neutrals are grounded through high resistance grounding
By combination of NGT and NGR for large machines connected to grid
through GT
By resistance directly connected to neutral for smaller machines with
lower generator voltages
NGT and NGR are sized such that the effective resistance connected
at the neutral has
Minimum value to limit the current to about 15 amps
Maximum value not greater than the total residual value of capacitive
reactance(3 times phase value) in the generator circuit comprising
winding capacitance, any surge capacitance connected, all connected
cables capacitances, winding capacitances of transformers
etc.(R<X
c
/3N
2
).This higher limit to avoid reduced capacitance discharge
rate and higher transient voltages
Also if too less resistance then the voltage available across NGR for relay
will be less reducing sensitivity
NGT is a typical single phase distribution transformer with primary winding
rated to 1.5 times generator ph-N voltage or equal to line to line voltage so
that the reactance will be less and withstands voltage surges
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Example:
For generator rated 11 KV and 100 MW,
Total capacitance= Gen. winding C+ Gen.Tr. LV winding C + Surge
capacitance + All cables Capacitance + Bus duct
capacitance+ aux tr. Winding C + any other
connected capacitance
= say 0.3 micro. Farad/ phase
Total residual capacitance= 3*C= 0.9 micro Farad.
Capacitive Imp.= 1/ (2*3.14*50*0.9*10
-6
) = 3538 ohms
The effective resistance in Neutral should not be> 3538.
Taking this as 3538 ohms
The current through resistance with earth fault at line terminal
= 11000/ root 3*3530 = 1.8 amps
The current through the capacitance will also be same1.8 amps
Total fault current = 1.8+J 1.8 = 2.55 amps, hence OK
Earthing Transformer rating
Prim. Voltage = 6.35 KV but considering the field forcing during
faults standard 11 Kv rating chosen
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Example:
Earthing Transformer rating
Prim. Voltage = 6.35 KV but considering the field forcing during faults
standard 11 Kv rating chosen
KVA rating = (1.8*1.3)*( 11) = 25.74 KVA ( Factoring 1.3 for field forced V)
Considering that the transformer duty as 30 seconds max. and transformers
will have 6 times rating for this period, Cont. rating = 25.74/6= 5 KVA,
10 KVA can be chosen
Secondary voltage can be as required and 220 or 110 volt is chosen
Considering relay voltage rating. Say 110 volt is chosen
Earthing resistance rating
The secondary current = 1.8 *1.3*(11000/110) = 234 amps
The resistance on secondary = effective resistance / (Turns)
2
= 3538/ 100
2
= 0.35 ohms , the actual resist. To be connected will be this,
Less transformer winding resistance (This can be neglected)
The resist. is to be 0.35 ohms with a current rating of 234 amps for 30
seconds
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Duty rating of NGT and NGR are for 30 seconds since earth
faults are connected for tripping. 30 seconds rating is normally
met by considering 1/6 of calculated KVA value of NGT
A voltage operated relay connected across NGR detects the
earth faults. Relay set to trip on over voltage threshold
The setting of the relay is to detect faults up to 95% of winding.
This gives 5% of ph-N voltage on NGT secondary as the pick up
to be set. Increasing sensitivity by lesser pick up setting may
cause mal operation. Also time delay of 2-5 sec. adopted to
discriminate for faults on HV side of transformer due to inter
winding capacitance of GT, for VT secondary faults, for
transients etc.
Hence relay is called 95% stator earth fault relay
Relay is tuned to fundamental and immune to third harmonics
Earth fault voltage can also be detected by connecting a similar
relay in open delta of VTs primary of which are in star and
earthed
For larger machines both relays are provided one as main and
other as stand by
Generator Protections- Stator earth fault protection


Voltages during a full line to ground fault across open delta
Generator Protections- Stator earth fault protection


Voltages during a full line to ground fault across open delta
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Because of minimum pick up setting to avoid mal operation of
EFR the relay can detect earth faults only up to some 95% of
winding. Balance 5% winding is blind zone
Though earth fault currents for faults in 95-100% is very less, the
earth faults if left un detected can cause
Higher earth fault currents if a second earth fault occurs and core
damages
System will operate as a direct grounded system by passing NGT
and NGR
Hence for larger units of 100 MVA and above 100% stator earth
fault relay is provided.
To detect faults near to neutral principles used are
Third harmonic detection- A third harmonic voltage of about 1% of
rated voltage is developed which is distributed across winding to
earth capacitance and NGT. Loss of third harmonic voltage or
variation in distribution of third harmonic in NGT and line sensed to
detect earth faults
By injection of voltage signal at NGT
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Relay connected across NGR and tuned to third harmonic and set to
operate as under voltage relay for 100% stator earth fault
These relays require tuning for optimum setting at different load
conditions. Difficult to assess third harmonic voltage generation and
available value across relay. Are found to mal operate hence connected
to alarm at some places
Relays detecting variation in ratio of voltages across neutral and line or
detecting difference between them as differential detection are also
used. This provides better overlap of 95% and 100% relays.
If fault is more nearer to neutral the third harmonic voltage across
neutral is more and across line is less. If fault is more away from
neutral it is vise versa

In injection principle a set of coded pulsed voltage is injected across a
section of NGR and a set as reference to detecting relay. Relay
evaluates the stator insulation resistance by comparing the reference
and the signal across NGR and a fault is detected when the measured
resistance is less than set value.
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection
Third harmonic detection principles which can be used are
Under voltage detection as V
3N
< V
set
Differential as V
3L
* K - V
3N
> V
set
Ratio of difference and sum as a*V
3N
- V
3L
< k*(V
3N
+ V
3L
)


The setting of 0-95% relay and 95-100% relay are to be such that they
overlap for a minimum of 10% for ensuring that fault at any point will not
go undetected
For under voltage type the third harmonic at no load and at min.
operating voltage, at Neutral is to be measured and the setting to be
less than this, 50 to 75%.
Measurements at site of the third harmonic at all load conditions should
be done to decide optimum setting since this values are specific to
machine and its connected system. Better if the relay has a test point to
give this out put.
To avoid un intended operation supervision by
PT connected voltage supervision, 70% voltage setting, so that relay
operates only after voltage is built up
Supervision by GCB contacts
Supervision by FCB contacts
Generator Protections
- Stator earth fault protection


Zones of protection with 3
rd

harmonic differential detection
Zones of protection with 3
rd

harmonic under voltage detection


Voltage distribution without fault
Voltage distribution with fault near line terminal
Voltage distribution with fault near neutral
For a machine with measured
3
rd
harmonic of
--- 11 V at Neutral and 47 V at
line in no load
--- 141 V at Neutral and 197 V at
line in full load
Generator Protections
- Rotor earth fault protection
Rotor earth faults can be caused by insulation failure in rotor
winding, slip rings, current carrying leads, etc
Rotor DC system is an un earthed system and hence a single
earth fault will not result in any harmful current and machine still
be safely operated
A second earth fault if occurs can cause
High fault currents burning the winding and damage.
A part of rotor winding is shorted resulting in un ablanced magnetic
pull and very high vibrations of machine
Hence the rotor earth faults are to be detected at least to give an
alarm and taken out of service at the earliest opportunity for
rectification
If a second earth fault occurs machine should be immediately
tripped
Provision for detecting first rotor earth fault and second rotor
earth fault required
Generator Protections
- Rotor earth fault protection
Detection of rotor earth fault is by injecting a DC or AC voltage between
one end of rotor winding and earth. A sensitive transductor circuit and
relay detects current flow when rotor earth fault occurs. A pick up value
of 1 ma can be set for sensitivity.
Second rotor earth fault detection is by preparing a wheat stone bridge
circuit with rotor winding from positive to earth, rotor winding from
negative to earth, as two arms and two adjustable potentiometers as
other two arms. Relay is connected as null point detector. If a second
earth fault occurs then bridge is out of balance and relay operates. This
provides a reliable protection.
Alternatively AC voltage is injected with one end to earth and other end
through two coupling capacitors one to positive and other to negative.
RC bridge principle is used. Earth fault causes unbalance of the bridge
which is detected. The setting values are in terms of insulation
resistance 5 K as first stage and 2 K as second stage trip. There is no
second rotor earth fault detection circuit separate.
For brush less excitation system with rotating diodes separate slip rings
for connecting rotor earth fault leads are provided

Generator Protections
- Inter turn fault protection
Caused by turn to turn insulation failure and results in local
heating
With split phase winding inter turn fault protection is provided by
a high impedance differential protection. Cts in each split
winding of a phase are cross connected with a relay across. If no
inter turn fault ther is no circulating current. When inter turn fault
occurs the EMF developed by a faulty split phase winding will be
less than healthy winding and results in circulating current.
Modern large machines are not provided with split phase
winding. For these windings inter turn faults detection is by open
delta VT out put. The VT primaries in star and star point
connected to generator star point directly
Generator Protections
- Loss of excitation protection
Loss of excitation can be caused by extreme under excited
operation, mal operation of AVR, by inadvertant tripping of FCB (
Total loss of excitation)
Loss of excitation condition results in increased load angle and
machine reaching stability limits
Machine running with total loss of excitation runs as induction
generator absorbing MVAR from system, may cause system
loading and under voltages
Higher stator currents and induced currents in rotor and rotor
heating. More pronounced in cylindrical rotors than in salient
pole machines. In salient pole machines the damper winding
provides a path for circulation of rotor induced currents
Hence loss of excitation is to be detected and machine tripped
For very small machines under current relay connected in field
circuit can be provided. Setting of current level which depends
on load is difficult
Generator Protections
- Loss of excitation protection
For all utility machines measurement of impedance seen by the
machine which will be in the fourth quadrant is used.
A distance protection principle is used
Impedance characteristic is off set circle with centre on -X axis
The two points on X axis are determined by half of transient
direct axis reactance and saturated direct axis synchronous
reactance
Immune to recoverable power swings
Time delay of 2-5 seconds provided to discriminate transients
To trip instantly if the terminal voltage dips to less than say 70%
which indicates that grid is not able to supply the reactive power
consumed by the machine
Also an integrated timer provided to take care of oscillating
operating point which enters the characteristic and leaves
momentarily. (Pulsating relay out put)
Generator Protections
- Loss of excitation protection


Offset mho characteristic (single)
traditionally used.
Offset mho characteristic (single)
traditionally used.
2 zone Offset mho characteristic
recommended for present day
large machines with X
d
> 1 pu. Z1
with time delay of 0.1s and Z2
with time delay of 05-08 s.
Generator Protections
- Negative sequence protection
Negative sequence currents are caused by unbalanced loading
of generator, a broken conductor in transmission line or extreme
condition by pole discrepancy in the breaker
Causes double frequency eddy currents induced in rotor surface
and excessive local heating of rotor body, retaining ring etc.
Prolonged negative sequence operation may require dismantling
and inspection of rotor
The negative sequence heating limit of the rotor is stated by
machine manufacturer as
Continuous allowable negative sequence current
Constant K which is equal to I
2
2
*t giving the heating constant. K is
about 8 to 10 for turbo alternators and 20 for Hydro
A relay to detect the negative sequence current through negative
sequence filter is provided. One element to alarm with a definite
time delay of 5 seconds and one to provide trip on inverse
characteristic are provided

Generator Protections
- Back up protection
Back up protection for generator for un cleared line faults or bus
faults when bus bar protection does not operate
A back up EFR connected in transformer neutral provides back
up for un cleared earth faults in the system
Back up impedance relay connected to generator side currents
and voltages provides back up protection for ph-ph faults on HV
side of transformer
Alternatively for generators directly connected to loads voltage
controlled OCR provides back up protections. Voltage restrained
over current for smaller sets as back up protections.
Impedance is set to reach up to end of longest line connected to
bus. Time delay of 1.5 to 2 seconds to allow line protections to
operate in zone3 time.
Phase shift of GT is compensated by aux. VT connected in same
vector group for the relay to see correctly the ph-ph faults on HV
side
Generator Protections
- Pole slipping protection
Occurs when machine goes out of step with the system caused by
delayed fault clearance or by operation of machine in severe under
excited condition
Results in pulsating torque on rotor shaft and system disturbance. More
pronounced in turbo alternators which have lesser angular moment of
inertia and weight per MVA. Hydro machines have higher values and
hence pole slipping is not critical.
In large turbo machines pole slipping protection provided to trip the
machine
Over current supervision provided for pole slipping to avoid mal
operation
Detection of pole slip condition by measuring time taken for the operating
point to move from one directional relay characteristic (blinder) to
another is measured. If the time taken is more than set value pole slip is
detected. During power system faults the operating point moves almost
instantly.
Alternatively pole slip condition is sensed by counting the no. of slips.
Whenever operating point crosses impedance line connecting point of
transient reactance of generator and point of system reactance. No. of
slips to trip and angle of operating point are set. Min slip frequency is
also monitored for decision to trip.

Generator Protections
- Reverse power and low forward power
Reverse power condition may occur due to failure of prime mover with
machine on grid and with or with out excitation
Turbine tripping or mal operation of governing or inadvertent closing of
control valves etc.
Inadvertent closing of penstock gate in case of hydro units
For sequential tripping without load throw off and for consuming
entrapped steam in turbine casing the planed outage of thermal units
is done by tripping the turbine first allowing the unit to run till reverse
power condition occurs.
Reverse power or low forward power in case of thermal units is
undesirable because no or reduced steam flow with rotor rotating causes
over heating of turbine blade tips. Due to its importance two channels are
provided for reverse power protections
Low forward protection has breaker close condition supervision with about
10 sec. time delay
Reverse power trip has two logics. One to trip with 1 sec. delay when
turbine has already tripped. Other logic is to trip with about 10 sec. delay
when there is no turbine trip.
For hydro units it is less detrimental but in reaction turbines churning of
water in pit occurs. Reverse power condition other than when intended
syn.condenser operation is done is not desirable . Hence rev. power
protection is being provided for hydro units also now.
The motoring power consumed is 1 % for thermal and 2 % for hydro. It is
as high as 40% for gas turbine
Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
Numerical generator protection are widely used now a days. Numerical
relays were initially introduced for distribution, motor, transmission lines.
Due to conservative requirement of reliability and cost consideration for
development of hardware and soft ware considering lesser quantities in
demand it has taken time for Numerical generator protection relay
coming into service.
Numerical relays are multi functional, one relay providing many
protection functions and other ancillary functions
Are built around microprocessor( Mainly DSP with digital filters), A to D
converters, multiplexers. All input signals are first digitized with
adequate sampling rate and all protection function computation are
mathematically performed on these digitized signals using DSP
algorithms like ,DFT, Walsh functions, FFT, least squares method etc.
Sampling rate of A to D converter to be at least twice the frequency of
signals to be computed. Normally 12 to 16 samples per cycle adopted
Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
Numerical generator relay has the following advantages that come with
any digital system
Multi functional, one relay provides many protection functions
resulting in reduction of space and spares.
Less drift in accuracy over time, temperature, frequency variation,
ageing etc. which are pronounced for analog devices and electro
mechanical parts
Protection characteristics can be more adoptive since they can be
implemented by mathematical DSP algorithms
Can be immune to transients, CT saturation etc. PF and frequency
independent functioning in cases like reverse power detection at low
pf etc possible
Imposes very less burden on CT and PT
Self diagnostic feature which carries out diagnostic routine and
annunciates relay non availability
Logics built around soft ware blocks and hence easily configurable
and can be changed at site with out any wiring modifications. Can
accept external logic in puts with isolation
Wide and universal range of settings available and and need not be
specific regarding setting range for reordering
Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
Ease of testing and commissioning
Provides following ancillary functions in addition to protection functions
Measurements and display of parameters. Al input values and also
computed values like PF, negative sequence , differential current,
residual voltage, residual current etc can be displayed which are
very useful for commissioning and fault finding
Can store events in non volatile memory with time stamping which
can be retrieved for analysis. Time synchronising with external time
base like GPS is possible for correct event time
Settings are soft ware built and hence can be changed with out
requiring adjustments of pots etc and retesting. More than one
group of settings can be stored and switched from one group to
another as per requirement
Can provide disturbance recording feature also
Communication capability to communicate with a PC, a central PC
from where all up loading and down loading of relay data can be
done. Integration with other devices and station SCADA with
industry standard protocols are becoming a possibility
Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
Numerical relays have following disadvantages
Multi functional and hence one relay failure leads to loss of many
protection functions. Any change of settings is to be carefully down
loaded and prone to human errors etc.
Faulty relays can not be replaced easily like draw out type discreet
relays and requires disconnection and reconnection of many wires.
Module wise replacement is not still recommended
Configuration of numerical relays to be carefully chosen to provide
required reliability and optimum cost
For large machines
Two numerical generator relays as main 1 & 2
Separate transformer numerical relay
Discreet relays for back up OCR and EFR
For medium sized machines
One numerical relay and set of discreet relays for some important
functions like 64G, 21G etc
For small size machines one numerical relay may be adequate



Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
The following are to be considered while selecting a numerical
generator relay
What are the protection functions provided. This varies depending
on the number of analog inputs relay can take. Ideally it shall take at
least 10- 6 current, 3 voltage and one NGT voltage to be able to
provide the standard functions
Whether each protection function meets the requirement for ex. Rev
power could be a single phase measurement instead of 3 phase,
under impedance is circular with origin centre which may result in
load encroachment when set to reach longest line etc.
HMI user friendliness and ease of scrolling and reading values.
Primary requirement is to be able to note the trip operated with ease
and quickness from the relay front. Function tripped measuremnts
associated with that function to be easily readable with out
connecting PC
Parameters displayed
Event log memory and disturbance recording features
Ease of programming and PC soft ware with GUI features to build
logics

Generator Protections
- Application of Numerical relays
Networking capability of relays with regard to connecting all relays
to central PC. Some times same manufacturer supplies diferent
version numerical relays for generator, transformer nad line which
may not be possible to be connected to common bus
Communication ports preferably with out any converters
Adoptability of universal protocols like IEC-60870-5-101 to 105 and
DNP 3 etc for connection to third party devices
Pass word security with different levels
In numerical relays more functions load the processor computing
capability.
The functions are processed sequentially one after the other
The repetition rate of computation of a function in a cycle decided
by priority, time delay, operating speed etc. The requirements are to
be met

Generator Protections
- Initial commissioning
Initial commissioning is important phase when all functions get
checked dynamically establishing correct CT/PT connections,
polarities, trip functions etc.
Sequence of commissioning
Generator short circuit run conducted with generator terminals
shorted and excitation built up slowly
Measurements of all CT currents, stability and operation check of
generator differential, negative sequence
Generator and transformer short circuit run conducted with
transformer terminals shorted
Stability and operation of over all differential, impedance protections etc
Single phase ground at HV terminal run
Stability and operation of restricted earth fault
Stator earth fault run with ground on one stator terminal and slow
excitation
Stator earth fault operation check