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Introduction to Fluid Flow

Fluid Kinematics
Deals with describing
the fluid motion
without considering the
forces and moments
The study of how fluid
flow and how to
describe fluid motion
Fluid Dynamics
Analyze the forces and
moments associated to
the flow motion
Fluid Kinematics
Two distinct ways to describe motion:
Lagrangian description
after the Italian mathematician
Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813)
Eulerian description
after the Swiss mathematician
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
Lagrangian Description
Lagrangian Description
Lagrangian Description
Lagrangian Description
Follow individual fluid particle as
they move
Describe their positions, and
velocities, etc. as a function of time
Not convenient for fluid flow:
o Not easy to define and identify
individual fluid particles as they move
o Fluid is a continuous body, thus
interactions between fluid particles are
not easily described
o Fluid particles continually deform as
they move
Eulerian Description
Define a finite volume (called a flow
domain or control volume)
Fluid flow in and out of the finite
Flow properties, i.e. the field
variables, within the control volume
are defined as the functions of space
(x, y, z) and time (t)
The value of the field variable at a
particular location and time is the
value for whichever fluid particle
happens to occupy that location at
that time
Field Variables
Scalar Field Variables
Pressure field,
Temperature field,
Humidity field, and so on.
Vector Field Variables
Velocity field,
Acceleration field, and so on.
These field variables define the flow field!
Example 1:
A steady, incompressible, two-dimensional velocity field is
given by
Where the x- and y-coordinates are in meters, and
The magnitude of velocity is in m/s
A stagnation point is defined as a point in the flow field
where the velocity is zero
(a) Determine if there are any stagnation points in this flow
field, and if so, where?
(b) Sketch velocity vectors at several locations in the domain
between x = -2 m to 2 m, and y = 0 m to 5 m; qualitatively
describe the flow field
= , = 0.5 + 0.8 + (1.5 0.8)