MATHS
Quest
MATHS C
FOR QUEENSLAND
S
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C
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N
D
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D
I T
I O
N
11
TEACHER EDITION
Nick Simpson
Catherine Smith
Peter Posetti
Sue Campbell
CONTRI BUTI NG AUTHOR
Robert Rowlan
S
E
C
O
N
D
E
D
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T
I
O
N
YE AR
MATHS
Quest
MATHS C
FOR QUEENSLAND
S
E
C
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I O
N
11
TEACHER EDI TI ON
Second edition published 2009 by
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
First edition published 2001
Typeset in 10.5/12.5pt Times
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2001, 2009
The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.
National Library of Australia
CataloguinginPublication data
Author: Simpson, N. P. (Nicholas Patrick), 1957
Title: Maths Quest: Maths C Year 11 for
Queensland/Simpson, Smith and Posetti.
Edition: 2nd ed.
ISBN: 978 0 7314 0814 6 (pbk.)
978 0 7314 0868 9 (web.)
Notes: Includes index.
Target Audience: For secondary school age.
Subjects: Mathematics Textbooks.
Other Authors/
Contributors: Smith, Catherine, 1969
Posetti, Peter.
Dewey Number: 510
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Maths Quest: Maths C Year 11 for Queensland,
Teacher edition/Simpson, Smith and Posetti.
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978 0 7314 0866 5 (pdf)
Contents
Introduction ix
About eBookPLUS xi
Acknowledgements xii
CHAPTER 1
Matrices 127
Introduction to matrices 128
Operations with matrices 130
Exercise 3A 135
vi
Multiplying matrices 137
Exercise 3B 140
History of mathematics Olga Taussky
Todd 142
Powers of a matrix 143
Investigation Matrix powers 143
Exercise 3C 144
Investigation Applications of matrices 145
Multiplicative inverse and solving matrix
equations 146
Exercise 3D 152
The transpose of a matrix 154
Exercise 3E 154
Applications of matrices 155
Exercise 3F 160
Investigation Matrix multiplication using a
graphics calculator 162
Dominance matrices 164
Investigation Dominance matrices
another application of matrices 165
Exercise 3G 169
Summary 170
Chapter review 172
CHAPTER 4
An introduction to
groups 177
Introduction 178
Investigation Algebraic structures 178
Modulo arithmetic 179
Exercise 4A 180
The terminology of groups 180
History of mathematics Niels Henrik
Abel 183
Exercise 4B 184
Properties of groups 184
Exercise 4C 188
Cyclic groups and subgroups 189
Exercise 4D 191
Investigation Application of groups
permutations 191
Further examples of groups
transformations 192
History of mathematics Arthur Cayley 194
Exercise 4E 195
Investigation Some applications of group
theory 197
History of mathematics
Cryptography 199
Summary 201
Chapter review 202
CHAPTER 5
Transformations using
matrices 249
Geometric transformations and matrix
algebra 250
Exercise 6A 258
Linear transformations 259
Exercise 6B 262
vii
Linear transformations and group
theory 263
Exercise 6C 269
Rotations 270
Exercise 6D 275
Reflections 276
Exercise 6E 283
Dilations 284
History of mathematics Maurits Cornelius
Escher 290
Exercise 6F 291
Shears 291
Exercise 6G 295
Investigation Transformations 295
Summary 296
Chapter review 297
CHAPTER 7
viii
CHAPTER 10
Permutations and
combinations 459
Introduction 460
The addition and multiplication
principles 460
Exercise 10A 465
Factorials and permutations 467
Exercise 10B 474
Arrangements involving restrictions and
like objects 476
Exercise 10C 480
Combinations 482
Exercise 10D 488
Applications of permutations and
combinations 490
Exercise 10E 495
Pascals triangle, the binomial theorem and
the pigeonhole principle 497
Investigation Counting paths 498
Exercise 10F 504
History of mathematics Blaise
Pascal 506
Summary 507
Chapter review 509
CHAPTER 11
Dynamics 513
Displacement, velocity and
acceleration 514
Exercise 11A 521
Projectile motion 524
Exercise 11B 536
Motion under constant acceleration 540
Exercise 11C 544
Summary 547
Chapter review 548
Appendix 553
Answers 591
Index 621
Introduction
Maths Quest Maths C Year 11 for Queensland 2nd edition is one of the
exciting Maths Quest resources specically designed for the Queensland
senior Mathematics syllabuses beginning in 2009. It has been written and com
piled by practising Queensland Maths C teachers. It breaks new ground in
Mathematics textbook publishing.
This resource contains:
a student textbook with accompanying student website (eBookPLUS)
a teacher edition with accompanying teacher website (eGuidePLUS)
a solutions manual containing fully worked solutions to all questions con
tained in the student textbook.
Student textbook
Full colour is used throughout to produce clearer graphs and headings, to pro
vide bright, stimulating photos and to make navigation through the text easier.
Clear, concise theory sections contain worked examples, graphics calculator
tips and highlighted important text and remember boxes.
Worked examples in a Think/Write format provide clear explanation of key
steps and suggest how solutions can be presented.
Exercises contain many carefully graded skills and application problems,
including multiplechoice questions. Crossreferences to relevant worked
examples appear beside the rst matching question throughout the exercises.
Investigations, often suggesting the use of technology, provide further dis
covery learning opportunities.
Each chapter concludes with a summary and chapter review exercise con
taining questions that help consolidate students learning of new concepts.
As part of the chapter review, there is also a Modelling and problem solving
section. This provides students with further opportunities to practise their
skills.
Technology is fully integrated within the resource. To support the use of
graphics calculators, instructions for two models of calculator are presented in
worked examples and graphics calculator tips throughout the text. The two
models of graphics calculator featured are the Casio fx9860G AU and the
TINspire CAS. (Note that the screen shots shown in this text for the TINspire
CAS calculator were produced using OS1.4. Screen displays may vary
depending on the operating system in use.)
For those students using the TI89 model of graphics calculator, an appendix
containing matching instructions has been included at the back of the book.
The Maths Quest for Queensland series also features the use of spreadsheets
with supporting Excel les supplied on the student website. Demonstration
versions of several graphing packages and geometry software can also be
downloaded via the student website.
x
Student website eBookPLUS
The accompanying student website contains an electronic version of the entire
student textbook plus the following additional learning resources:
WorkSHEETs editable Word 97 documents that may be completed on
screen, or printed and completed later.
SkillSHEETs printable pages that contain additional examples and problems
designed to help students revise required concepts.
Test yourself activities multiplechoice quizzes for students to test their
skills after completing each chapter.
Programs included
Graphmatica: an excellent graphing utility
Equation grapher and regression analyser: like a graphics calculator for PCs
GrafEq: graphs any relation, including complicated inequalities
Poly: for visualising 3D polyhedra and their nets
Teacher edition
The teacher edition textbook contains everything in the student textbook and
more. To support teachers assisting students in the class, answers appear in red
next to most questions in the exercises and investigations. Each chapter is
annotated with relevant syllabus information.
Teacher website eGuidePLUS
The accompanying teacher website contains everything in the student website
plus the following resources:
two tests per chapter (with fully worked solutions)
fully worked solutions to WorkSHEETs
a syllabus planning document
assessment tasks (and answers)
fully worked solutions to all questions in the student textbook.
Solutions manual
Maths Quest Maths C Year 11 for Queensland Solutions Manual contains the
fully worked solutions to every question and investigation in the Maths Quest
Maths C Year 11 for Queensland 2nd edition student textbook.
Fully worked solutions are available for all titles in the Maths Quest for
Queensland senior series.
Maths Quest is a rich collection of teaching and learning resources within one
package.
xi
Next generation teaching and learning
About eBookPLUS
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Acknowledgements
The authors and publisher would like to thank the following copyright holders,
organisations and individuals for their assistance and for permission to
reproduce copyright material in this book.
Illustrative material
Screenshots:
TINspire CAS and TI89 screenshots reproduced with permission of Texas Instruments;
Casio fx9860G AU screenshots reproduced with permission of Casio.
Images:
Authors Image, p. 540; Corbis, pp. 2 (bottom)/Matthias Kulka/zefa, 118/
HultonDeutsch Collection, 183/Bettmann, 194/Bettmann; Corbis Corporation,
pp. 169, 299, 320, 456, 495 (ag), 550 (middle); Digital Stock/ Corbis Corporation,
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(top left), 202/Jaroslav, 205, 276, 352, 482; Emerald City Images p. 161/John
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raphy, pp. 444 (left), 455 (bottom); Creative Cohesions, p. 446; John Wiley &
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Software
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Third party software registered full version ordering information
Full versions of third party software may be obtained by contacting the companies
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GraphEq and Poly
Evaluation copies of GraphEq and Poly have been included with permission from
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email: peda@peda.com
Web: www.peda.com
Graphmatica
Reproduced with permission of kSoft, Inc.
345 Montecillo Dr., Walnut Creek, CA 945952654.
email: ksoft@graphmatica.com
Web: www.graphmatica.com
Dot points and Suggested Learning
Experiences (SLEs) appearing
throughout the textbook (overprinted in
red) have been taken from the
Mathematics C Senior Syllabus (2008),
reproduced with permission from the
Queensland Studies Authority,
www.qsa.qld.edu.au.
xiii
Software included is for evaluation purposes only. The user is expected to register
shareware if use exceeds 30 days. Order forms are available at www.graphmatica.com/
register.txt
Equation Grapher with Regression Analyser
Reproduced with permission of MFSoft International.
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Excel
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5_61_08144_MQ11C2E_Prelim Page xiv Monday, November 10, 2008 1:51 PM
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Real and complex number
systems
In this
chapter
1A Classication of numbers
1B Recurring decimals
1C Surds
1D Simplifying surds
1E Addition and subtraction of
surds
1F Multiplication of surds
1G The Distributive Law
1H Division of surds
1I Rationalising denominators
1J Rationalising denominators
using conjugate surds
1K Further properties of real
numbers modulus
1L Solving equations using
absolute values
1M Solving inequations
1
Number
systems: the
Real Number
System
2 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction
The number systems used today evolved from a basic and practical need of primitive
people to count and measure magnitudes and quantities such as livestock, people,
possessions, time and so on.
Early cultures and societies used their body parts, such as
ngers and toes, as a basis for their numeration systems. As
the need for larger numbers grew, symbols were developed to
represent them. Ancient Egyptians, for example, used the
symbol of the lotus ower to represent the number 1000, and
Romans used the letter M to represent 1000. Roman numerals
can be seen today on some clock and watch faces. At the end
of movie credits Roman numerals are often used to indicate
the year in which the movie was made. For example,
MCMXCIX represents the year 1999 and MMIX represents
the year 2009.
As societies grew and architecture and engineering
developed, number systems became more sophisti
cated. Number use developed from solely whole
numbers to fractions, decimals and irrational
numbers.
We shall explore these different types of
numbers and classify them into their specic
groups.
Consider solutions to equations such as:
2x = 10, 3x = 15, 20x = 100
What do they have in common? Each of
the statements is true for a wholenumber
value of x.
This type of equation represents many
reallife situations; for example, how
many people will I need to collect $2
from to cover the cost of hiring a $10
game?
The rst types of numbers to
evolve were the whole numbers. As
you work through this chapter on
the Real Number System and
Chapter 2 you will be introduced
to types of numbers that
evolved to ll other, more
sophisticated needs.
structure of the real number system including rational numbers and irrational numbers
simple manipulation of surds
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 3
The Real Number System
The Real Number System contains the set of rational and irrational numbers. It is denoted
by the symbol R.
The set of real numbers contains a number of subsets which can be classied as shown
in the chart above.
Classication of numbers: rational
and irrational
Rational numbers (Q)
A rational number (rational) is a number which can be expressed as a ratio of two
integers in the form where b 0 and a and b have no common factors.
Rational numbers are given the symbol Q. Examples are:
, , , , 7
Rational numbers may be expressed as terminating decimals. Examples are:
= 0.7, = 0.25, = 0.625, = 1.8
These decimal numbers terminate after a specic number of digits.
Rational numbers may be expressed as recurring decimals (nonterminating or
periodic decimals). For example:
= 0.333 333 . . . or 0.3
.
= 0.818 181 . . . or 0.8
.
1
.
= 0.833 333 . . . or 0.83
.
= 0.230 769 230 769 . . . or 0.2
.
30769
.
These decimals do not terminate, and the specic
digit (or number of digits) is repeated in a pattern.
Recurring decimals are represented by placing a dot
or overscore above the repeating digit or pattern.
Real numbers R
Irrational numbers I
(surds, nonterminating
and nonrecurring
decimals, ,e)
Rational numbers Q
Integers
Z
Noninteger rationals
(terminating and
recurring decimals)
Zero
(neither positive
nor negative)
Positive
(Natural
numbers N)
Z
+
Negative
Z
a
b

1
5

2
7

3
10

9
4

7
10

1
4

5
8

9
5

1
3

9
11

5
6

3
13

3 4 2 1 3 2 1 0 4
3.743
1.63 3.6 2
3
4
1
2
Q
4 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Rational numbers are dened in set notation as: Q = set of rational numbers
Q = { , a, b Z, b 0, g.c.d (a, b) = 1} where means an element of and
g.c.d. (a, b) = 1 means greatest common divisor of (a, b) = 1.
Rational numbers may be represented on the number line (as illustrated on page 3)
and include whole numbers, fractions, and terminating and recurring decimals.
Whole numbers form a set of integers (which is a subset of the set of rational
numbers).
Integers (Z)
The set of integers consists of positive and negative whole numbers, and 0 (which is
neither positive nor negative). They are denoted by the letter Z and can be further
divided into subsets. That is:
Z = {. . . 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}
Z
+
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}
Z
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 . . .}
Positive integers are also known as natural numbers (or counting numbers) and are
denoted by the letter N. That is:
N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}
Integers may be represented on the number line as illustrated below.
Note: Integers on the number line are marked with a solid dot to indicate that they are
the only points in which we are interested.
Irrational numbers (I)
Numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio between two integers are called irrational
numbers. Irrational numbers are denoted by the letter I. Numbers such as surds (for
example , ), decimals that neither terminate nor recur, and and e are
examples of irrational numbers. The numbers and e are examples of transcendental
numbers; these will be discussed briey later in this chapter.
Irrational numbers may also be represented on the number line with the aid of a ruler
and compass.
An irrational number (irrational) is a number which cannot be expressed as a
ratio of two integers in the form where b 0.
Irrational numbers are given the symbol I. Examples are:
, , , , , e
Irrational numbers may be expressed as decimals. For example:
= 2.236 067 977 5 . . . = 0.173 205 080 757 . . .
= 4.242 640 687 12 . . . = 5.291 502 622 13 . . .
= 3.141 592 653 59 . . . e = 2.718 281 828 46 . . .
These decimals do not terminate, and the digits do not repeat themselves in any
particular pattern or order (that is, they are nonterminating and nonrecurring).
a
b

3 2 1 3 Z 2 1 0
The set of integers
N
The set of positive integers
or natural numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 Z
4
3
5
3e
2
3
2
1.75 0.2
3.62
3 4
3
(Irrational
numbers)
Q (Rational numbers)
(Integers)
(Natural
numbers)
= R
I
N
Z
6 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Specify whether the following numbers are rational or irrational.
a b c d 2 e 0.28 f g h
THINK WRITE
a is already in rational form. a is rational.
b Evaluate . b
The answer is an integer, so classify
.
is rational.
c Evaluate . c = 3.316 624 790 36 . . .
The answer is a nonterminating and
nonrecurring decimal; classify .
is irrational.
d Use your calculator to nd the value
of 2.
d 2 = 6.283 185 307 18 . . .
The answer is a nonterminating and
nonrecurring decimal; classify 2.
2 is irrational.
e 0.28 is a terminating decimal; classify it
accordingly.
e 0.28 is rational.
f Evaluate . f = 4
The answer is a whole number, so
classify .
is rational.
g Evaluate . g = 2.802 039 330 66 . . .
The result is a nonterminating and
nonrecurring decimal; classify .
is irrational.
h Evaluate . h =
The result is a number in a rational
form.
is rational.
1
4
 16 11 64
3
22
3 1
8

3
1
4

1
4

1
16 16 4 =
2
16
16
1
11 11
2
11
11
1
2
1
64
3
64
3
2
64
3
64
3
1
22
3
22
3
2
22
3
22
3
1
1
8

3
1
8

3
1
2

2
1
8

3
1
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 7
A graphics calculator can be used to nd the square root, cube root or higher root of a
number.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT (highlight RUNMAT and press ).
2. To calculate the square root of a number (for example, ), press [ ]
followed by the number (8 in this case) and press .
3. To calculate the cube root of a number (for example,
), press [ ] followed by the number
(8 in this case) and press .
4. To calculate a higher root of a number (for example,
), rst enter the type of root (4 in this example),
then press [ ] followed by the number
(81 in this case) and press .
For the TINspire CAS
1. From the Home screen (press c), highlight 1: Calculator and press .
Alternatively, open a new Calculator document. Press /Nand follow the
prompts as to whether you wish to save the previous document. Then press 1to
select 1: Add Calculator.
2. To calculate the square root of a number (for example, ), press /and q,
followed by the number (8 in this case) and press . For the decimal
approximation to this answer, press /and .
3. To calculate the cube root of a number (for example, ), press /and l.
Complete the gaps in the expression on the screen. First enter 3 for the type of root
(n) and then enter the number (8 in this case for x). Use the tab key to move to the
appropriate place in the expression. Press .
4. To calculate a higher root of a number (for example,
), repeat the steps used for the cube root. In this
example, enter 4 for the type of root (n).
(Note that the square and nth root functions can also be
accessed from the Catalog menu. Press k to access
the catalog. Select Option 5 (by pressing 5) then
highlight the required symbol and press .)
Summary of set notation
The following symbols are used to describe relationships in sets.
Consider a group of numbers from 1 to 9 (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). These numbers
can be referred to as a set and denoted by A such that A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. We
can say that 2 is an element of set A and write this as 2 A.
Similarly 0 is not an element of set A and this is written as 0 A.
The elements 2 and 4 both belong to set A and this can be written as {2, 4} A,
where 2 and 4 are a subset of A.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Square, cube and nth roots
MENU EXE
8 SHIFT
EXE
8
3
SHIFT
3
EXE
81
4
SHIFT
8
x
EXE
8
8
3
81
4
8 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Classify each of the following elements of the set
{
5, , 3.9, , ,
}
into the
smallest subset in which it belongs, using Q, I, Z, Z
+
and Z
.
THINK WRITE
The number 5 is a positive whole number;
classify it accordingly.
5 Z
+
(a) Change into a decimal. = 6.5
(b) The fraction can be expressed as a
terminating decimal; therefore it can be
classied as a rational number. The fraction
is in the form , b 0, so it is rational.
Q
The number 3.9 is a terminating decimal,
so classify it accordingly.
3.9 Q
(a) Simplify . = 6
(b) The result is a negative whole number,
so classify accordingly.
Z
5

5

5

5

2
WORKEDExample
1. The real number system (R) contains the set of rational numbers (Q) and the set
of irrational numbers (I).
2. Rational numbers are those that can be written as a ratio of two whole numbers
in the form where b 0. Rational numbers include whole numbers,
fractions, and terminating and recurring decimals.
3. The set of rational numbers includes the set of integers (Z).
4. The set of integers consists of positive whole numbers (Z
+
), negative whole
numbers (Z
B C D E
1A
WORKED
Example
1
4
4
5

7
9
 2 7
0.04
1
2
 5
9
4

100 14.4 1.44
25
9
 21 1000
81 62
3 1
16
 0.0001
3
1
8
 625
11
4

0
8

1
7

81
3
11
1.44
4

8
0

21
3
7
 5 ( )
2
3
3
11

1
100

64
16

2
25

6
2
 27
3
1
4

22
7
 1.728
3
6 4 ( 2)
4
4 6
multiple choice
4
9

9
12
 3
3
multiple choice
81
6
5
 343
3
0.0676 22
multiple choice
7
3
 49
3

7 49
49
7
3
 49
multiple choice
1
2

11
3
 624 99
3
11
3
 624
624 99
3
1
2

624 99
3
1
2

11
3

Q Q Q
I I
Q Q Q I
Q
Q Q I
Q
I
Q Q I
I
I
Q
I
I
Q I
Q
Q
Q Q Q
Q I I I
Undefined
I
I
I
Q
Q
Q
Q
I I Q
Q Q
Q
I I
10 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which it belongs, using Q,
Z
+
and Z
.
8 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which it belongs using Q, I,
Z
+
and Z
.
9
The smallest subset in which 7 + 2 belongs is:
10
The smallest subset in which belongs is:
11
Which of the following statements regarding numbers
{
16, 3 , 0, ,
}
is correct?
A 16 and 0 are the only rational numbers.
B 16, 0 and may be expressed as rational numbers.
C 16 and 0 are positive integers.
D 3 is the only irrational number.
E is the only irrational number.
12
Which of the following statements regarding the given set of numbers
{ , , , , } is correct?
A All of the above numbers in the set are irrational.
B and are the only irrational numbers of the set.
C is a rational number of the set.
D is the only rational number of the set.
E and are the only irrational numbers of the set.
a 5 b 0.621 c d 0.26
.
e
f 0.515 151 . . . g h i j
k l m n o
p 0.4
.
21
.
q r s t
u v w x y
a 6 b 0.3415 . . . c d e
f g h i 0.612 612 . . . j 0.25
k l m n o
p 5 q r s t
u v w x ()
2
y
A Q B I C Z
+
D Z E Z
A Q B I C Z
+
D Z E Z
WORKED
Example
2
1
81
 3 16 +
8
3
42
6
 7 4
27
3

9 144
0
4
 4 ( )
2
9
3

3
2

2
8
2
 32
5
6 ( )
2
6
5

8 2
4
3
 2 ( )
6
100
2
 343
3
7
9
16
 2 25
6 2 49 21 5
144
9
 64
3
11
19

9
144

50
2

16 27
3
3 ( )
3
7 5 6 3 16
16
8
 8 12.5
1
5
 125
3
multiple choice
1
8

3
multiple choice
144
9

512
8

3
multiple choice
2
8
2

8
2

2
multiple choice
2 9 + 11
16 2 32 81
2 9 + 11
2 9 +
81
11 32
Z
+
Z
+
Q
Q
Q
Q
Z
+
Z
+
Z
+
Z
Q
Z
Z
+
Q
Q
Z
+
Z
Z
+
Q
Z
Q Z
+
Z
+
Z
Z
+
I
I
Q
Z
I I Z
Q
Q
Z
+
Z
Q Q Z
+
I
Z
I
I Z
I
Z
+
Q
I
Z
+
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 11
Recurring decimals
A rational number may be converted to a decimal by dividing the numerator by the
denominator. The resulting decimal may be a terminating decimal containing a specic
number of digits, that is:
= 1.4 or = 0.125
or it may be a recurring decimal containing a repeating digit or pattern, that is:
= 0.222 . . . or = 0.538 461 538 461 . . .
For convenience, recurring decimals are represented by placing a dot over the
repeating digit, for example:
1. 0.777 777 7 . . . can be written as 0.7
.
.
2. 0.26666 . . . can be written as 0.26
.
.
If two or more digits repeat the same pattern, then dots or the overscore are
used as shown:
1. 0.454 545 . . . can be written as 0.4
.
5
.
or alternatively .
2. 0.752 137 521 3 . . . can be written as 0.7
.
5213
.
or alternatively .
Note: When using the overscore, place it over the whole pattern. The dots, however, are
placed over the rst and the last digits only of the repeating pattern.
7
5

1
8

2
9

7
13

( )
0.45
0.75213
State which of the following rational numbers can be expressed as recurring decimals.
a b
THINK WRITE
a To convert to a decimal, divide 2
by 27.
a = 0.074 074 074 . . .
Use the overscore to indicate the
repeating pattern.
=
Write your conclusion. can be written as a recurring
decimal.
b Convert to a decimal (divide 5
by 8).
b = 0.625
The resulting decimal terminates, so
state your conclusion.
cannot be written as a recurring
decimal.
2
27

5
8

1
2
27
 2
27

2
0.074
3
2
27

1
5
8
 5
8

2
5
8

3
WORKEDExample
12 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Whole numbers and terminating decimals such as 3, 0.25 and 6.731 can easily be
expressed as rational numbers. For example:
1. we may write 3 as
2. we may write 0.25 as =
3. we may write 6.731 as 6 or .
In each of these cases, the whole number and decimals are expressed in the form .
Recurring decimals are rational numbers. Therefore they can be converted to the
form .
3
1

25
100

1
4

731
1000

6731
1000

a
b

a
b

Express the following recurring decimals as rational numbers in their simplest form.
a 0.4
.
b 0.2
.
1
.
c
THINK WRITE
a Let x represent the recurring
decimal. This is equation [1].
a x = 0.444 444 . . . [1]
We need to multiply both sides of the
equation by a power of 10. The
number of zeros in the power of 10
should be equal to the number of
repeated digits. Since 1 digit is
repeated, multiply both sides of
equation [1] by 10. Label the new
equation [2].
10x = 4.444 444 . . . [2]
Subtract equation [1] from equation
[2]. This removes all the repeating
digits after the decimal point.
[2] [1]:
10x x = 4.444 444 . . . 0.444 444 . . .
9x = 4
Divide both sides of the equation
by 9.
=
x =
Verify the answer using a calculator
and you will obtain the original
value, 0.4
.
.
b Let x represent the recurring
decimal. This is equation [1].
b x = 0.212 121 21 . . . [1]
Since 2 digits are repeated, multiply
both sides of equation [1] by 100
and label the new equation [2].
100x = 21.212 121 21 . . . [2]
1.285
1
2
3
4
9x
9

4
9

4
9

5
1
2
4
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 13
THINK WRITE
Subtract equation [1] from equation [2].
This removes all the repeating digits after
the decimal point.
[2] [1]:
100x x = 21.212 121 21 . . .
0.212 121 21 . . .
99x = 21
Divide both sides of the equation by 99. =
x =
Cancel to the simplest form; that is,
divide through by 3.
x =
Verify the answer using a calculator.
c Let x represent the recurring decimal.
This is equation [1].
c x = 1.285 285 285 . . . [1]
Since 3 digits are repeated, multiply both
sides of equation [1] by 1000 and label
the new equation [2].
1000x = 1285.285 285 285 . . . [2]
Subtract equation [1] from equation [2].
This removes all the repeating digits after
the decimal point.
[2] [1]:
1000x x = 1285.285 285 285 . . .
1.285 285 285 . . .
999x = 1284
Divide both sides of the equation by
999.
=
x =
Cancel to the simplest form; that is,
divide through by 3.
x =
Verify the answer using a calculator.
3
4
99x
99

21
99

21
99

5
7
33

6
1
2
3
4
999x
999

1284
999

1284
999

5
428
333

6
1. Rational numbers can be converted to decimals by dividing the numerator by
the denominator. The resulting decimal can be either terminating or recurring.
2. Terminating decimals contain a specic number of digits.
3. Recurring decimals contain a repeating digit or a repeating pattern of digits.
4. Recurring decimals are represented by placing dots over the rst and the last
digits of the repeating pattern. Alternatively, an overscore can be placed over
the whole pattern that repeats.
5. Recurring decimals are rational numbers and may be expressed as a ratio of
two integers.
remember
14 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Recurring decimals
1 State which of the following rational numbers can be expressed as recurring decimals.
2 Express the following recurring decimals as rational numbers in their simplest form.
3
The recurring decimal 0.7
.
8
.
can be expressed as:
4
The recurring decimal 0.53
.
2
.
can be expressed as:
5
Which statement regarding the fractions , , , , is correct?
A , and are the only fractions which represent terminating decimals.
B and are the only fractions which represent terminating decimals.
C , and are fractions which represent recurring decimals.
D and are the only fractions which represent recurring decimals.
E and are fractions which represent recurring decimals.
6
The recurring decimal 0.3
.
69
.
can be expressed in its simplest form as the following fraction:
7 Irene and Bella are arguing about the correct way of writing the recurring decimal
0.020 20 . . . . Irene says it should be written as 0.020, while Bella thinks it is 0.020.
Which of the girls is right?
a b c d e
f g h i j
k l m n o
p q r s t
u v w x y
a 0.2
.
b 0.7
.
c 0.8
.
d 0.5
.
e 0.4
.
f 0.16
.
g 0.37
.
h 0.42
.
i 0.68
.
j 0.71
.
k 2.62
.
l 0.5
.
3
.
m 0.1
.
2
.
n 1.3
.
4
.
o 3.74
.
1
.
p 0.3
.
61
.
q 0.4
.
27
.
r 0.52
.
13
.
s 0.3
.
23
.
t 3.4
.
56
.
u 0.72
.
v 0.523
.
w 0.624
.
7
.
x 0.6234
.
y 0.1
.
53846
.
A B C D E
A B C D E
A B C D E
1B
WORKED
Example
3
1
8

1
2

1
3

6
19

1
17

4
11

5
9

7
16

9
25

5
7

2
3

1
6

3
4

3
13

5
21

2
31

2
9

41
333

5
8

17
18

8
17

7
23

7
15

3
22

7
33

WORKED
Example
4
multiple choice
71
90

78
90

77
99

71
99

78
99

multiple choice
266
495

479
900

532
999

527
990

532
990

multiple choice
1
2

3
7

11
13

1
3

4
5

1
2

3
7

11
13

3
7

1
3

3
7

11
13

1
3

11
13

1
3

1
2

4
5

multiple choice
369
999

3663
9900

123
333

407
1100

41
111

2
9

7
9

8
9

5
9

4
9

1
6

17
45

19
45

31
45

32
45

2
28
45

53
99

4
33

1
34
99

3
367
495

361
999

427
999

868
1665

323
999

3
152
333

13
18

157
300

1237
1980

5611
9000

2
13

Irene. It can also be written as 0.02.
1 c f g j k l n
o q r t w x y
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 15
Real number investigations
A real number can be dened as a number that can be plotted on a number line.
Even if the position of the number on the line is only an approximate value, as long
as a number can be represented by one point on a line it can be regarded as real.
This is not so with the numbers you will deal with in Chapter 2.
The following steps will enable you to plot irrational numbers such as surds (for
example and ) on a number line.
Materials needed: ruler, a set of compasses, set square.
Step 1 Draw a number line approximately 10 cm long, with unit
divisions of 2 cm. How can we draw a line segment
exactly units long? Using Pythagoras Theorem we
can obtain the triangle shown at right which shows us
that = .
Step 2 Use a set square to construct a rightangled triangle as shown below:
Step 3 Use a set of compasses to transfer the length of the hypotenuse to the
number line.
Step 4 If a second rightangled triangle (of height 1 cm) were constructed on this
hypotenuse, what would be the length of its hypotenuse?
Step 5 Continue constructing in this way to plot on the original number line.
Use your number line to give an approximate value for .
2 5
2
2 1 1 + 1
1
2
1
1 0 1 2 3
2
1 0 1 2 3
1
2
2
1 0 1 2 3
3
1
2
3 2
7
7
16 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Other number systems
Introduction
Throughout early civilisations, numbers have been represented and recorded in a
variety of ways.
Our numeration system uses the 10 digits
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and combinations of
these. It is called the decimal or base 10 system
(possibly inuenced by the fact that we have
10 ngers).
Past civilisations have used base 5 and base 20
systems (again inuenced by the ngers on
one hand and the total number of digits).
Mesopotamians used a base 60 system, which is
still used today for units of time (60 seconds in
1 minute and 60 minutes in 1 hour). Numeration
systems that are used today include a binary or
base 2 system and a modular or base 12 system.
Place value
The place value system was introduced as a means of recording numbers.
Look at the number 285. In our numeration system the base 10 (decimal)
system we interpret the number 285 (base 10) or 285
10
as:
plus 2 lots of 100 or 2 10
2
plus 8 lots of 10 or 8 10
1
plus 5 lots of 1 or 5 10
0
Notice how we need to use zeros to hold each place value.
1 Investigate the following points relating to nonbase 10 numbers, giving
examples in each case:
a How could numbers of different bases be compared to each other?
b How are numbers of the same (nonbase 10) system added and subtracted?
c How are numbers of the same (nonbase 10) system multiplied and divided?
d How are fractions and decimals of a nonbase 10 system represented?
Using the base 5 system
Numbers in the base 5 system use the
digits 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 only. The number
285 (base 10) can be written as a base
5 number in the following way:
2 lots of 125 or 2 5
3
plus 1 lot of 25 or 1 5
2
plus 2 lots of 5 or 2 5
1
plus 0 lots of 1 or 0 5
0
So 285
10
= 2120
5
Using the base 2 system
Numbers in the base 2 system use the
digits 0 and 1 only. The number 285
(base 10) can be written as a base 2
number in the following way:
1 lot of 256 or 1 2
8
plus 0 lots of 128 or 0 2
7
plus 0 lots of 64 or 0 2
6
plus 0 lots of 32 or 0 2
5
plus 1 lot of 16 or 1 2
4
plus 1 lot of 8 or 1 2
3
plus 1 lot of 4 or 1 2
2
plus 0 lots of 2 or 0 2
1
plus 1 lot of 1 or 1 2
0
So 285
10
= 100 011 101
2
See Solutions Manual.
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 17
Surds
A surd is an irrational number which can only be represented exactly using a root
sign or radical, for example: , ,
Examples of surds include: , , ,
Examples that are not surds include:
, , ,
Numbers that are not surds can be simplied to rational numbers, that is:
, , ,
Binary systems
As the name suggests, this
numeration system is based on 2.
In this system, 0 and 1 are the only
two digits used. The binary system
is used in computers.
2 Investigate how the binary
system is used in computers,
circuits or compact discs.
Devise a situation which calls
for the use of a binary system.
Modular arithmetic
Modular arithmetic involves
clock arithmetic where, instead of
saying that the time is 14 oclock,
we say it is 2 oclock. This is called
modular (mod 12) arithmetic. Any
integer can be converted to modular
(mod 12) arithmetic by subtracting
12 or any multiple of 12 from the
integer. The remainder is called the
residue.
For example:
32 = 2 12 + 8 68 = 5 13 + 3 29 = 4 6 + 5
8 (mod 12) 3 (mod 13) 5 (mod 6)
The remainders or residues in this case are 8, 3 and 5 respectively.
3 Investigate the purpose, usefulness and limitations of modular arithmetic.
Include illustrations of how numbers of modular arithmetic are represented via a
clock pattern.
3 4
7 5 11
3
15
4
9 16 125
3
81
4
9 3 = 16 4 = 125
3
5 = 81
4
3 =
18 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Proof that a number is irrational
As part of your Mathematics C course you are required to study a variety of types of
proofs. One such method is called Proof by contradiction.
This method is so named because the logical argument of the proof is based on
an assumption that leads to contradiction within the proof. Therefore the original
assumption must be false.
An irrational number is one that cannot be expressed in the form (where a and b
are integers). The next worked example sets out to prove that is irrational.
Which of the following numbers are surds?
a b c d e f
THINK WRITE
a Evaluate .
The answer is rational (since it is a
whole number), so state your
conclusion.
a = 5
is not a surd.
b Evaluate .
The answer is irrational (since it is a
nonrecurring and nonterminating
decimal), so state your conclusion.
b = 3.162 277 660 17 . . .
is a surd.
c Evaluate .
The answer is rational (a fraction);
state your conclusion.
c =
is not a surd.
d Evaluate .
The answer is irrational (a non
terminating and nonrecurring
decimal), so state your conclusion.
d = 2.223 980 090 57 . . .
is a surd.
e Evaluate .
The answer is irrational, so classify
accordingly.
e = 2.771 488 002 48 . . .
is a surd.
f Evaluate .
The answer is rational; state your
conclusion.
f = 7
is not a surd.
So b, d and e are surds.
25 10
1
4
 11
3
59
4
343
3
1
25
2
25
25
1
10
2
10
10
1
1
4

2
1
4

1
2

1
4

1
11
3
2
11
3
11
3
1
59
4
2
59
4
59
4
59
4
1
343
3
2
343
3
343
3
5
WORKEDExample
a
b

2
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 19
The dialogue included in the worked example should be present in all proofs and is an
essential part of the communication that is needed in all your solutions.
Note: An irrational number written in surd form gives an exact value of the number;
whereas the same number written in decimal form (for example, to 4 decimal places)
gives an approximate value.
Prove that is irrational.
THINK WRITE
Assume that is rational; that is, it
can be written as in simplest form.
We need to show that a and b have no
common factors.
= where b 0
Square both sides of the equation. 2 =
Rearrange the equation to make a
2
the
subject of the formula.
a
2
= 2b
2
[1]
If x is an even number then x = 2n. a
2
is an even number and a must also
be even; that is, a has a factor of 2.
Since a is even it can be written as
a = 2r.
a = 2r
Square both sides. a
2
= 4r
2
[2]
But a
2
= 2b
2
from [1]
Equating [1] and [2] 2b
2
= 4r
2
b
2
=
= 2r
2
b
2
is an even number and b must also be
even; that is, b has a factor of 2.
State your conclusion. Both a and b have a common factor of 2.
This contradicts the original assumption that
= where a and b have no common factor.
is not rational.
It must be irrational.
2
1
2
a
b

2
a
b

2
a
2
b
2

3
4
5
6
7
4r
2
2

8
2
a
b

2
6
WORKEDExample
A number is a surd if:
1. it is an irrational number (equals a nonterminating, nonrecurring decimal)
2. it can be written exactly only by using a radical (or root sign).
remember
SLE 8: Use a proof by contradiction to show that is irrational. 2
20 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Surds
1 Which of the numbers below are surds?
2
The correct statement regarding the set of numbers
{
, , , ,
}
is:
A and are the only rational numbers of the set.
B is the only surd of the set.
C and are the only surds of the set.
D and are the only surds of the set.
E All of the numbers of the set are surds.
3 Prove that the following numbers are irrational, using a proof by contradiction:
a b c
4
Which of the numbers of the set
{
, , , , } are surds?
5
Which statement regarding the set of numbers
{
, , , ,
}
is not true?
E when simplied is a rational number.
6
Which statement regarding the set of numbers
{
, , , , ,
}
is
not true?
a b c d e
f g h i j
k l m n o
p q r 2 s t
u v w x y
A B only C only D and E and only
A is a surd. B and are surds.
C is irrational but not a surd. D and are not rational.
A when simplied is an integer. B and are not surds.
C is smaller than . D is smaller than .
E , , and are surds.
1C
WORKED
Example
5 81 48 16 1.6 0.16
11
3
4

3
27

3
1000 1.44
4 100 2 10 + 32
3
361 100
3
125
3
6 6 + 169
3
7
8

16
4
7 ( )
2
33
3
0.0001 32
5
multiple choice
6
9
 20 54 27
3
9
27
3
9
6
9

6
9
 20
20 54
WORKED
Example
6
3 5 7
multiple choice
1
4

1
27

3
1
8
 21 8
3
1
27

3
21
1
8

1
8
 8
3
1
8
 21
multiple choice
1
49
 12 16 3 1 +
12 12 16
12 3 1 +
1
49

multiple choice
6 7
144
16
 7 6 9 2 18 25
144
16

144
16
 25
7 6 9 2 9 2 6 7
6 7 7 6 9 2 18
1 b d f g h i l
m o q s t w
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 21
7 If a is a multiple of 4, nd the smallest, nonzero rational value of .
8 Find the smallest value of m, where m is a positive integer, so that is not a surd.
Simplifying surds
To simplify a surd means to make a number (or an expression) under the radical ( )
as small as possible. To simplify a surd (if it is possible), it should be rewritten as a
product of two factors, one of which is a perfect square, that is, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64,
81, 100 and so on.
We must always aim to obtain the largest perfect square when simplifying surds so
that there are fewer steps involved in obtaining the answer. For example, could be
written as = 2 ; however, can be further simplied to , so
= 2 2 ; that is = 4 . If, however, the largest perfect square had been
selected and had been written as = = 4 , the same answer
would be obtained in fewer steps.
a
6
16m
3
32
4 8 8 8 2 2
32 2 32 2
32 16 2 16 2 2
Simplify the following surds. Assume that x and y are positive real numbers.
a b c d
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
a Express 384 as a product of two
factors where one factor is the
largest possible perfect square.
a =
Express as the product of
two surds.
=
Simplify the square root from the
perfect square (that is, = 8).
=
b Express 405 as a product of two
factors, one of which is the largest
possible perfect square.
b =
Express as a product of two
surds.
=
Simplify .
=
Multiply together the whole numbers
outside the root (3 and 9).
=
384 3 405
1
8
 175 5 180x
3
y
5
1 384 64 6
2
64 6 64 6
3
64
8 6
1 3 405 3 81 5
2
81 5
3 81 5
3 81 3 9 5
4 27 5
7
WORKEDExample
2 (when
a
=
64)
m
=
4
22 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Simplifying surds
1 Simplify the following surds.
a b c d e
f g h i j
k l m n o
p q r s t
u v w x y
THINK WRITE
c Express 175 as a product of two factors
where one factor is the largest possible
perfect square.
c =
Express as a product of 2
surds.
=
Simplify . =
Multiply together the numbers outside
the square root sign.
=
d Express each of 180, x
3
and y
5
as a
product of two factors where one factor
is the largest possible perfect square.
d =
Separate all perfect squares into one
surd and all other factors into the other
surd.
=
Simplify .
=
Multiply together numbers and the
pronumerals outside the square root
sign.
=
1
1
8
 175
1
8
 25 7
2
25 7
1
8
 25 7
3
25
1
8
 5 7
4
5
8
 7
1 5 180x
3
y
5
5 36 5 x
2
x y
4
y
2 5 36x
2
y
4
5xy
3
36x
2
y
4
5 6 x y
2
5xy
4 30xy
2
5xy
1. To simplify a surd means to make a number (or an expression) under the radical
as small as possible. For example, is equal to, but simpler than, .
2. To simplify a surd, write it as a product of two factors, one of which is the
largest possible perfect square.
2 5 20
remember
1D
WORKED
Example
7a
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Digital docs:
SkillSHEET 1.1
Simplifying surds
EXCEL Spreadsheet
Simplifying surds
12 18 24 56 27
75 125 99 54 60
112 98 68 150 180
338 88 135 162 200
245 320 448 735 405
2 3 3 2 2 6 2 14 3 3
5 3 5 5
3 11 3 6 2 15
4 7 7 2 2 17 5 6 6 5
13 2 2 22 3 15 9 2 10 2
7 5 8 5 8 7 7 15 9 5
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 23
2 Simplify the following surds.
3 Simplify the following surds. Assume that a, b, c, d, e, f, x and y are positive real numbers.
4
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A B C D E
5
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A B C D E
6
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A B C D E 11
7
Assuming that x and y are positive real numbers, when expressed in its
simplest form is equal to:
A B C
D E
a b c d e
f g h i j
k l m n o
p q r s t
u v w x y
a b c
d e f
g h i
j
k
l
m n o
p q r
s t
u
v w x
y z
WORKED
Example
7b, c
2 8 3 50 8 90 6 112 9 80
5 68 7 54 10 32 6 75 3 252
7 80 9 120 16 48
1
3
 90
1
7
 392
1
5
 625
1
9
 162
2
3
 54
1
4
 192
1
6
 288
1
9
 135
5
2
 320
3
10
 175
7
8
 176
4
3
 108
WORKED
Example
7d
16a
2
81a
2
b
2
72a
2
54a
2
b
2
90a
2
b 48a
3
b
338a
4
150a
4
b
2
338a
3
b
3
12a
5
b
7
68a
3
b
5
80x
6
y
125x
6
y
4
3 64x
2
y 5 80x
3
y
2
2 343x
3
y
3
6 162c
7
d
5
3 126c
4
d
5
2 405c
7
d
9
4 294c
10
d
10
1
2
 88ef
1
3
 120e
4
f
6
1
2
 392e
11
f
11
3
20
 175e
12
f
5
1
27
 54x
3
y
9
1
18
 108x
10
y
12
multiple choice
45
3 15 5 9 5 3 9 5 3 5
multiple choice
3 128
6 32 12 8 24 2 16 2 32 3
multiple choice
1
7
 539
49 11 7 11 77 11
multiple choice
1
15
 325x
4
y
3
1
3
 xy 13x
2
y
1
15
 x
2
y 13y
1
3
 x
2
y 13y
3x
2
y 13y 3xy 13x
2
y
4 2 15 2 24 10
24 7
36 5
10 17 21 6 40 2
30 3
18 7
28 5
18 30
64 3 10
2 2
2
2 6
2 3 2 2
1
3
 15
20 5
3
2
 7
7
2
 11
8 3
5
4
a
9
ab 6a 2
3ab 6 3a 10b 4a 3ab
13a
2
2
5a
2
b 6
13ab 2ab
2a
2
b
3
3ab
2ab
2
17ab 4x
3
5y
5x
3
y
2
5 24x y 20xy 5x
14xy 7xy 54c
3
d
2
2cd 9c
2
d
2
14d
18c
3
d
4
5cd 28c
5
d
5
6
22ef
2
3
 e
2
f
3
30 7e
5
f
5
2ef
3
4
 e
6
f
2
7 f
1
9
 xy
4
6xy
1
3
 x
5
y
6
3
24 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Addition and subtraction of surds
Surds may be added or subtracted only if they are alike.
Examples of like surds include , and . Examples of unlike surds
include , , and .
In some cases surds will need to be simplied before you decide whether they are
like or unlike, and then addition and subtraction can take place. The concept of adding
and subtracting surds is similar to adding and subtracting like terms in algebra.
7 3 7 5 7
11 5 2 13 2 3
Simplify each of the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are
positive real numbers.
a
b
c
THINK WRITE
a All 3 terms are alike, since they
contain the same surd , so
group like terms together and
simplify.
a =
=
b Simplify surds where
possible.
b
=
=
=
Add like terms to obtain the
simplied answer.
=
c Simplify surds where
possible.
c
=
=
=
Add like terms to obtain the
simplied answer.
=
3 6 17 6 2 6 +
5 3 2 12 5 2 3 8 + +
1
2

100a
3
b
2
ab 36a 5 4a
2
b +
6 ( )
3 6 17 6 2 6 + 3 17 2 + ( ) 6
18 6
1
5 3 2 12 5 2 3 8 + +
5 3 2 4 3 5 2 3 4 2 + +
5 3 2 2 3 5 2 3 2 2 + +
5 3 4 3 5 2 6 2 + +
2
9 3 2 +
1
1
2
 100a
3
b
2
ab 36a 5 4a
2
b +
1
2
 10 a
2
a b
2
ab 6 a 5 2 a b +
1
2
 10 a b a ab 6 a 5 2 a b +
5ab a 6ab a 10a b +
2
11ab a 10a b
8
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 25
Addition and subtraction
of surds
1 Simplify the following expressions containing surds. Assume that x and y are positive
real numbers.
a b
c d
e f
Determine the perimeter of a rectangle whose length is m and width is
m.
THINK WRITE
Write down the rule for the
perimeter of a rectangle where l is
the length and w is the width.
P = 2l + 2w
Substitute the values of l and w
into the rule.
P =
Expand and simplify where
possible.
=
Simplify surds where possible. =
=
=
Collect like terms. =
State the answer, including the
appropriate unit.
P = m
17 2 50 ( )
5 32 + ( )
1
2
2(17 2 50 ) 2(5 32 + ) +
3
34 4 50 10 2 32 + +
4
34 4 25 2 10 + 2 16 2 +
34 4 5 2 10 2 4 2 + +
34 20 2 10 8 2 + +
5
44 12 2
6
(44 12 2 )
9
WORKEDExample
1. Only like surds may be added and subtracted.
Examples of like surds: , 3 and 5 .
Examples of unlike surds: , and 2 .
2. Surds may need to be simplied before adding and subtracting.
7 7 7
3 5 13
remember
1E
WORKED
Example
8a
3 5 4 5 + 6 2 11 2 +
2 3 5 3 3 + + 6 7 8 7 5 7 + +
8 5 3 3 7 5 2 3 + + + 2 6 9 2 6 2 5 6 + + +
7 5 17 2
8 3 19 7
15 2 7 6 + 15 5 5 3 +
26 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2 Simplify the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are positive
real numbers.
3 Simplify the following expressions containing surds. Assume that a and b are positive
real numbers.
g h
i j
k l
m n
o p
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
k l
m n
o p
q r
s
t
u v
w x
a b
c d
e
f
g h
i j
k l
6 11 2 11 12 13 5 13 2 13
7 2 9 2 3 2 + 3 7 2 5 7 7 9 5 +
9 6 12 6 17 6 7 6 + 5 2 12 2 3 6 8 6 +
12 3 8 7 5 3 10 7 + xy 7 xy 3 xy +
2 x 5 y 6 x 2 y + + 3 x 4 y 7 xy 2 x 9 y + +
WORKED
Example
8b
200 300 18 50 72 +
125 150 600 + 96 5 24 12 +
27 3 75 + 8 18 50 + +
2 20 3 5 45 + 45 20 +
6 12 3 27 7 3 18 + + 44 99 121 3 11 +
150 24 96 108 + + 98 2 50 5 32 +
3 90 5 60 3 40 100 + + 2 99 44 176
5 11 7 44 9 99 2 121 + + 5 3 8 27 4 3 2 147 + +
2 30 5 120 60 6 135 + + 20 50 80 120 60 +
6 ab 12ab 2 9ab 3 27ab + +
1
5
 50
2
7
 98
3
4
 32 +
1
2
 98
1
3
 48
1
3
 12 + +
1
16
 512
5
8
 128
1
6
 72 +
1
8
 32
7
6
 18 3 72 +
1
8
 27
7
16
 12
5
32
 48 +
WORKED
Example
8c
7 a 8a 9 9a 32a + 10 a 15 27a 8 12a 14 9a + +
150ab 96ab 54ab + 16 4a
2
24a 4 8a
2
96a + +
8a
3
72a
3
98a
3
+
1
2
 36a
1
4
 128a
1
6
 144a +
9a
3
3a
5
+ 6 a
5
b a
3
b 5 a
5
b +
ab ab 3ab a
2
b 9a
3
b
3
+ + a
3
b 5 ab 2 ab 5 a
3
b + +
32a
3
b
2
5ab 8a 48a
5
b
6
+ 4a
2
b 5 a
2
b 3 9a
2
b +
4 11 5 13
13 2 10 7 11 5
3 6 7 2 5 6 +
17 3 18 7 5 xy
x 5 y 7 xy +
10 2 3 ( ) 2 2
5 5 6 + ( ) 6 6 2 3 +
7 3 10 2
4 5
5 5
14 3 3 2 + 11 4 11
3 6 6 3 + 17 2
0
+
10
10 15 10 15
8 11 22 + 39 3
12 30 16 15
2 5 5 2 2 30 2 15 +
12 ab 7 3ab +
7
2
 2 2 3 +
0
3 2
15 2
5
8
 3
34 a 6 2a
52 a 29 3a
6 6ab
32a 2 6a 8a 2 + +
a 2a
a 2 2a +
3a a a
2
3a +
a
2
a + ( ) ab
4ab ab 3a
2
b b + 3 ab 2a 1 + ( )
6ab 2a 4a
2
b
3
3a + 2a b
8 x 3 y +
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 27
4
When expressed in its simplest surd form, is equal to:
5
When expressed in its simplest surd form, is equal to:
6
When expressed in its simplest surd form, is equal to:
A B C 5a D E
7
When expressed in its simplest surd form, is equal to:
8
When expressed in its simplest surd form, is equal to:
9 Find the perimeter of the following shapes, giving answers in the simplest surd form.
Specify the units.
Multiplication of surds
To multiply surds, multiply together the expressions under the radicals. For example,
, where a and b are positive real numbers.
When multiplying surds it is best to rst simplify them (if possible). Once this has
been done and a mixed surd has been obtained, the coefcients are multiplied with each
other and then the surds are multiplied together. For example,
A B 5 C 1 D E none of these
A B C
D E
A B C
D E
A B C D E
a b c
d
e
f
multiple choice
112 63
5 7 7
multiple choice
2 40a 6 72ab
2
1
6
 72b
2
+
5a b 2 + 5 2b + 9a 2b + 9a a 2 b +
multiple choice
243a
3
b
6
27a
6ab
3
3a 3ab
3
3a 6ab
3
3ab
3
3 3a 3ab
3
1 ( )
multiple choice
150c
2
d
2
cd 96 c 54d
2
3a
4
b
2
6a
5
b
3
5a
2
b
3
10ac
5
12a
7
b 6a
3
b
4
18a
4
b
3
2a
2
b
5
15x
3
y
2
6x
2
y
3
3 10x
7
y 5x
5
y
3
1
2
 15a
3
b
3
3 3a
2
b
6
1
3
 12a
4
b
2
1
4
 6a
3
b
3
126
14 55 42
6 2
3 7
30 3
180 5
144
2 6
4
3
 5
3 3
2
2
3

360 3
2 6
10
4 10
10 33
120 3
6
2
5
 6
4 3
5 15
27
96 6
120
x
2
y y
3a
4
b
2
2ab
6a
5
b
2
2b
3x
2
y
2
10xy
9
2
 a
2
b
4
5ab
x
2
y
3
x
5abc
2
2abc
6a
3
b
4
15x
6
y
2
2
1
2
 a
3
b
2
2ab
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 31
3 Find the area of the following shapes. Answers must be expressed in the simplest surd
form and the appropriate units specied.
4
The product of expressed in its simplest form is:
5
The product of expressed in its simplest form is:
6
The product of expressed in its simplest form is:
7
The area of the triangle expressed in its simplest form is:
8 The height of a squarebased pyramid is units and the length of the side of its
base is units. Find the volume of the pyramid, expressing the answer in the
simplest surd form. (Volume = area of base height)
a b c
d e f
A B 90 C D E
A B C D E
A B C D E
A m
2
B m
2
C m
2
D m
2
E m
2
WORKED
Example
11
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Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 1.3
Substitution using
surds 2
7 2 cm
5 3 cm
2 4 m
5 11 m
3 3 m
2 8 m
6 5 m
8 8 m
3 6 m
3 6 m
2 10 m
5 10 m
multiple choice
3 30 5 6
15 36 15 180 45 20 90 5
multiple choice
8x
5
y
2
5x
6
y
3
2x
2
y
5
10xy 40x
11
y
5
2x
5
y
2
10xy 13x
11
y
5
x
5
y
2
13xy
multiple choice
3
8
 x
7
y
2
1
2
 x
4
y
3
3
16
 x
5
y
7
3
16
 x
7
y
5
3
64
 x
3
y
2
xy
3
16
 x
5
y
2
xy
3
16
 x
2
y
3
xy
multiple choice
5 3 m
4 6 m
30 2 60 2 24 12 48 3 20 18
20 8
12 8
1
3
 15 360 2
a
98 cm
2
b
75
cm
2
c
m
2
d
m
2
e
m
2
f
m
2
20 11
6 6
45 96 10 + ( )
72 15
3
32 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The Distributive Law
The Distributive Law states that a(b + c) = ab + ac.
When multiplication of surds involving brackets is required, the Distributive Law is
applied as in the case with algebraic terms. That is:
If there is a negative number outside the bracket, then every term inside the bracket
will undergo a sign change since it has been multiplied by the negative number.
When expanding two binomial brackets the FOIL method is applied; that is, 4 pairs of
terms must be multiplied in the order First, Outer, Inner and Last.
a ( b c) + ab ac + =
Expand and simplify the following where possible.
a b c
THINK WRITE
a Write the expression.
a
Apply the Distributive Law:
Multiply the term outside the bracket
with the rst term inside the bracket,
then multiply the term outside the
bracket with the second term inside
the bracket.
=
Simplify. =
b Write the expression.
b
Simplify . =
Apply the Distributive Law to
remove the brackets.
=
Simplify.
=
c Write the expression.
c
(a) Expand the brackets, using the
Distributive Law.
(b) Be sure to multiply through with
the negative.
=
=
Simplify. =
=
5 ( 6 11) + 7 ( 18 3) 2 3 ( 10 5 3)
1 5 ( 6 11) +
2
5 6 5 + 11
3
30 11 5 +
1 7 ( 18 3)
2
18 7 (3 2 3)
3
7 3 2 7 3 +
4
3 14 3 7
1
2 3 ( 10 5 3)
2
2 3 10 2 3 5 3
2 30 10 9 +
3
2 30 10 3 +
2 30 30 +
12
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 33
Recall the perfect square identities:
(a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
(a b)
2
= a
2
2ab + b
2
The perfect square identities can be applied to surds as follows:
Note that the expansion of in the previous example could also be done by
writing it as a product of two repeated factors, , and applying
FOIL. Naturally, the result would be the same, but the solution would take longer.
Expand . Write your answer in its simplest form.
THINK WRITE
Write the expression.
Apply FOIL.
Multiply the rst terms of each bracket.
Multiply the outer terms of each bracket.
Multiply the inner terms of each bracket.
Multiply the last terms of each bracket.
=
+
Simplify. =
=
=
( 5 3 6 + )(2 3 2)
1
F
L
O
I
( ) ( ) 5 + 3 6 2 3 2
2
5 2 3 5 2 3 6 2 3 + +
3 6 2
3 2 15 10 6 18 3 12 +
2 15 10 6 3 2 3 2 3 +
2 15 10 18 2 6 3 +
13
WORKEDExample
( a b)
2
+ ( a)
2
2 a b ( b)
2
+ + =
a 2 ab b + + =
( a b)
2
( a)
2
2 a b ( b)
2
+ =
a 2 ab b + =
Expand . Write your answer in its simplest form.
THINK WRITE
Write the expression.
Apply the perfect square identity. =
Simplify. =
=
( 19 6)
2
1 ( 19 6)
2
2
( 19)
2
2 19 6 ( 6)
2
+
3 19 2 114 6 +
25 2 114
14
WORKEDExample
( 19 6 )
2
( 19 6 )( 19 6 )
34 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Recall the difference of two squares (DOTS) identity:
(a b)(a + b) = a
2
b
2
The DOTS identity can be applied to surds as follows:
=
= a  b
In the above example the binomial factors which were multiplied together are a conju
gate pair (that is, one bracket contains a sum and the other a difference of the same
terms). Although the terms of the factors are irrational, the answer is not a surd, but an
expression with rational terms.
The product of a conjugate pair of surds (irrational numbers) yields a rational
number.
Note that to nd the product of a conjugate pair (as in Worked example 15), FOIL
could be used as an alternative to the DOTS identity. The latter, however, leads to the
answer much more quickly.
( a b )( a b) + ( a)
2
( b)
2
Expand .
THINK WRITE
Write the expression.
Use DOTS identity for expansion. =
Simplify. =
=
( 5 y 3 2x )( 5 y 3 2x + )
1
( 5y 3 2x )( 5y 3 2x + )
2
( 5y)
2
(3 2x)
2
3
5y 9 2x
5y 18x
15
WORKEDExample
1. When expanding brackets, the Distributive Law is applied:
2. When expanding binomial brackets, FOIL is applied:
3. Perfect square identities:
=
= a + 2 + b
=
=
4. DOTS identity:
=
= a b
5. The product of a conjugate pair of surds is rational.
a( b c + ) ab ac + =
( a b + )( c d + ) ac ad bc bd + + + =
( a b + )
2
( a)
2
2 a b ( b)
2
+ +
ab
( a b )
2
( a)
2
2 a b ( b)
2
+
a 2 ab b +
( a b )( a b + ) ( a)
2
( b)
2
remember
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 35
The Distributive Law
1 Expand and simplify the following, where possible.
2 Expand and simplify where possible.
3 Expand and simplify where possible.
4 Expand and simplify the following where possible.
a b c
d e f
g h i
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
a b c
d e f
g h i
j
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
k l
m n
o p
q r
s t
u v
w x
y z
1G
WORKED
Example
12
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Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 1.4
Algebraic
expansion
3( 7 6 + ) 5( 18 7 ) 5(2 2 )
2( 3 5 + ) 7(3 72 12 ) 6(5 14 4 )
2 2(6 18 7 15 + ) 5 12(3 5 4 8 ) 2 3(4 6 2 3 )
WORKED
Example
13
( 18 5) ( 5 3 + ) ( 7 5 + )(2 5 3 7 )
(4 8 2 6 + )( 8 3 6 ) (3 6 2 5 )(4 2 3 20 )
(7 8 6 3 + )(4 2 5 6 ) ( 11 2 3 )(2 5 8 )
(2 7 3 2 (5 5 7 2 + ) (5 18 3 3 )(2 18 6 )
(5 x 2 y + )(3 x 4 y + ) ( 8x 10y )( 2x 10y + )
WORKED
Example
14 ( 2 5 + )
2
( 6 10 + )
2
( 3 15 + )
2
( 3 5 2 + )
2
( 8 3 3 + )
2
(2 2 3 5 + )
2
(3 6 5 2 + )
2
( 5 3 )
2
( 7 3 )
2
(2 8 5 )
2
WORKED
Example
15
( 3 7 + )( 3 7 ) ( 19 1 + )( 19 1 )
(2 5 3 + )(2 5 3 ) (3 11 7 + )(3 11 7 )
( 8 2 + )( 8 2 ) ( 10 12 + )( 10 12 )
( 13 3 )( 13 3 + ) ( 7 12 )( 7 12 + )
(2 3 5 )(2 3 5 + ) (3 7 12 + )(3 7 12 )
(2 10 14 + )(2 10 14 ) ( 18 19 )( 18 19 + )
( 13 6 )( 13 6 + ) (3 5 2 7 + )(3 5 2 7 )
(6 3 3 5 )(6 3 3 5 + ) (5 2 6 )(5 2 6 + )
(7 2 3 5 )(7 2 3 5 + ) (11 3 2 5 + )(11 3 2 5 )
(6 3 2 8 + )(6 3 2 8 ) (7 2 3 9 )(7 2 3 9 + )
( x y )( x y + ) ( 2x 3y )( 2x 3y + )
(3 x 4 y )(3 x 4 y + ) (2x x 5 y + )(2x x 5 y )
(7x y 3y x )(7x y 3y x + ) (9 x
2
y 5 xy
2
)(9 x
2
y 5 xy
2
+ )
21 6 3 +
3 10 7 5
24 2 12 +
3 10 9 2 5 5 15 +
24 3 18 30 8 10 60 +
2 55 2 22 4 15 4 6 +
126 2 14 3
10 21 4 6
2 5 10
180 30 3 18 6 9 2 +
35 11
112 140 3 24 6 90 2 + 10 35 14 14 15 10 42 +
72 14 30 +
6 10 +
4 40 3
30 15 80 6 +
15x 26 xy 8y + + 4x 2 5xy 10y +
27 10 2 + 16 4 15 +
53 10 6 +
18 6 5 +
35 12 6 + 53 12 10 +
104 60 3 + 14 6 5 10 2 21
37 8 10
46 18
11
50
6
2
10
5
7 51
26
1
7 17
63 44
53 343
76 17
x
y
2
x
3
y
9
x
16
y
4
x
3
25
y
xy
(49
x
9
y
)
xy
(81
x
25
y
)
36 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
5
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
6
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A
B
C
D
E
7
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
8
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A
B
C
D
E
9 Given that , nd:
a
b
Division of surds
To divide surds, divide the expressions under the radicals;
that is, , where a and b are positive real numbers.
When dividing surds it is best to simplify them (if possible) rst. Once this has been
done, the coefcients are divided next and then the surds are divided.
A B C
D E
A B 245 C
D 269 E
multiple choice
15( 5 3 )
5 3 3 5 5 5 3 3 75 45
30 2 2
multiple choice
(5 8 2 7 + )(6 5 3 3 )
30 40 15 24 12 35 6 21 +
60 10 15 24 12 35 6 21 +
60 10 30 6 12 35 6 21 +
30 40 30 6 12 35 6 21 +
60 10 30 6 12 21 +
multiple choice
(7 5 2 3 )
2
49 25 4 9 257 28 15 +
257 28 15
multiple choice
(15 x
2
y 4 xy + )(15 x
2
y 4 xy )
225x
2
y 120 xy 16xy +
15x
2
y 4xy
225 x
4
y
2
16 x
2
y
2
225x
2
y 16xy
225x
2
y 120xy x 16xy +
x 3 5 2 3 =
x
2
x
2
3x 2 + +
a
b

a
b
 =
59 12 15 9 5 6 3 +
57 12 15
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 37
Divide the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form. Assume that x and y
are positive real numbers.
a b c d
THINK WRITE
a Rewrite the fraction, using . a =
Divide numerator by the denominator
(that is, 55 by 5).
=
Check if the surd can be simplied any
further.
b Rewrite the fraction, using . b =
Divide 48 by 3. =
Evaluate . = 4
c Rewrite the surds, using . c =
Simplify the fraction under the radical
by dividing both numerator and
denominator by 11.
=
Simplify the surds. =
Multiply the whole numbers in the
numerator together and those in the
denominator together.
=
Cancel the common factor of 18. =
d Simplify each surd. d =
=
Cancel any common factors in this
case .
=
55
5

48
3

9 88
6 99

36xy
25x
9
y
11

1
a
b

a
b
 =
55
5

55
5

2
11
3
1
a
b

a
b
 =
48
3

48
3

2
16
3
16
1
a
b

a
b
 =
9 88
6 99

9
6

88
99

2
9
6

8
9

3
9 2 2
6 3

4
18 2
18

5
2
1
36xy
25x
9
y
11

6 xy
5 x
8
x y
10
y

6 xy
5x
4
y
5
xy

2
xy
6
5x
4
y
5

16
WORKEDExample
38 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Division of surds
1 Simplify the following surds, expressing answers in the simplest form. Assume that x
and y are positive real numbers.
a b c d
e f g h
i j k l
Find the perpendicular height of a triangle, given that its area is cm
2
and its base
length is cm. The answer must be expressed in the simplest surd form and the
appropriate unit specied.
THINK WRITE
Write the rule for the area of a triangle. A = bh
Substitute the values for A and b into
the rule.
Cancel the 2 and the 6.
Transpose the equation to make h the
subject.
Divide numerator and denominator by
(cancel down).
Simplify and write the answer, using
the appropriate unit.
cm
27 15
6 3
1
1
2

2
27 15
1
2
 6 3 h =
3
27 15 3 3 h =
4
h
27 15
3 3
 =
5
3
9 5 3
3
 =
6
h 9 5 =
17
WORKEDExample
When dividing surds, simplify the surd if possible, then apply the following rule:
= =
where a and b are positive real numbers.
a b
a
b

a
b

remember
1H
WORKED
Example
16
15
3

14
2

8
2

72
6

60
10

90
6

128
8

45
125

18
4 6

2 24
3 3

65
2 13

5 72
12

5 7
2 2 3
3
5

4 15
6
3
4

4 2
3

5
2
 5 6
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 39
2 Simplify the following. Assume that all pronumerals are positive real numbers.
3
Expressed in its simplest form, is:
4
Expressed in its simplest form, is:
5
Expressed in its simplest form, is:
6
Expressed in its simplest form, is:
m n o p
q r s t
u v w x
a b c
d e f
A B C
D
E
A B C D E
A B C D E
A
B
C
D
E
96
8

2 63
5 7

7 44
14 11

336
14

9 63
15 7

540
20

2040
30

12 99
15 11

x
4
y
3
x
2
y
5

x
6
y
11
x
12
y
15

16xy
8x
7
y
9

72x
4
y
3
2xy
2

xy
x
5
y
7

12x
8
y
12
x
2
y
3

6x
2
y
3
27x
4
y
4

3x
7
y
2
3xy
3

2 2a
2
b
4
5a
3
b
6

10a
9
b
3
3 a
7
b

3ab
5
2a
6
b
2

6a
7
b
3
2a
5
b

2mn
3
6m
5
n
2

3m
4
n
6
8mn
3

5 3m
3
n
2 6m
3
n
2

2m
5
n
8
6 mn
5

multiple choice
75
5

70 15 13
5 3
5

17
multiple choice
9 18
21 3

9 6
21

54
7

9 2
7 3

9 6
7

3 6
7

multiple choice
10x
5
y
8
20x
3
y
2

xy
3
2
2

xy
3
10
20

x
3
y 2
2

x
2
y
4
10
xy 20x

x
2
y
6
2

multiple choice
2x
4
y
9xy

6x
7
y
3
4x
3
y
5

y
3
y
x 3

x
12
x
y 3

x
3
3x
3y

x
7
y 3

2x
3
3x
6y

2 3
1
1
5

1 2 6
1
4
5

3 3
2 17
2
2
5

x
y

1
x
3
y
2

2
x
3
y
4
 6x xy
2xy 3y
4 a
3

2x
2
3y

3b
2
2b
2a a

15
2m
2
n
2

2 2
3m
3
n m

40 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 Find the length of the unknown side in each of the following. Answers must be
expressed in the simplest surd form and the appropriate units specied.
8 Velocity v of the object can be found using the formula , where E is the kinetic
energy of the object and m is the mass of the object. Express v as the simplest surd, if:
a E = 80 J, m = 2 kg
b E = 250 J, m = 60 kg
c E = 480 J, m = 120 kg
9 A rectangular sh tank has a base cm by cm and the height h. When of
the tank is lled, the volume of water is 84 L. Find:
a the height of the tank (give the answer as the simplest surd)
b the full capacity of the tank in litres.
(Remember that 1 cubic centimetre holds 1 mL of water.)
Rationalising denominators
If the denominator of a fraction is a surd, it can be changed into a rational number.
In other words, it can be rationalised.
As we discussed earlier in this chapter, squaring a surd (that is, multiplying it by
itself) results in a rational number. This fact can be used to rationalise denominators as
follows.
, (where = 1)
If both numerator and denominator of a fraction are multiplied by the surd contained
in the denominator, the denominator becomes a rational number. The fraction takes on
a different appearance, but its numerical value is unchanged, because multiplying the
numerator and denominator by the same number is equivalent to multiplying by 1.
a b c
d e
f
WORKED
Example
17
7 3 m
A = 28 39 m
2
w
A = 12 30 cm
2
b
3 5 cm
h
6 5 m
A = 21 55 m
2
h
5 2 m
3 6 m
V = 90 21 m
3
h
3 7 cm
V = 315 13 cm
3
h
Area of base = 24 15 cm
2
V = 60 75 cm
3
v
2E
m
 =
20 3 30 6
2
3

a
b

b
b

ab
b

=
b
b

4 5
2 2
5
3

cm 35 2
126 L
a
m
b
cm
c
m
d
m
e
cm
f
cm
4 13
4 6
7 11
3 7
5 13
15
2
 5
7
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 41
Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a b c
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
a Write the fraction. a
Multiply both the numerator and denominator by
the surd contained in the denominator (in this
case ). This has the same effect as multiplying
the fraction by 1, since .
=
=
b Write the fraction. b
Simplify the surds. (This avoids dealing with large
numbers.)
=
=
=
Multiply both the numerator and denominator by .
=
(This has the same effect as multiplying the fraction by
1 since .)
Note: We need to multiply only by the surd part of the
denominator (that is, by , rather than by ).
=
Simplify . =
=
=
Divide numerator and denominator by 6
(cancel down).
=
6
13

2 12
3 54

17 3 14
7

1
6
13

2
13
13
13
 1 =
6
13

13
13

78
13

1
2 12
3 54

2
2 12
3 54

2 4 3
3 9 6

2 2 3
3 3 6

4 3
9 6

3
6
4 3
9 6

6
6

6
6
 1 =
6 9 6
4 18
9 6

4
18
4 9 2
9 6

4 3 2
54

12 2
54

5
2 2
9

18
WORKEDExample
42 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Rationalising denominators
1 Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a b c d
e
f g h i j
k l m n o
THINK WRITE
c Write the fraction. c
Multiply both the numerator and denominator by .
Use brackets so you realise the whole numerator must
be multiplied by .
=
Apply the Distributive Law in the numerator.
a(b + c) = ab + ac
=
=
Simplify . =
=
=
1
17 3 14
7

2
7
7
(
17 3 14
)
7

7
7

3
17 7 3 14 7
7 7

119 3 98
49

4
98
119 3 49 2
7

119 3 7 2
7

119 21 2
7

To rationalise the surd denominator, multiply the numerator and denominator by
the surd contained in the denominator. This has the effect of multiplying the
fraction by 1 and thus the numerical value of the fraction remains unchanged,
while the denominator becomes rational:
a
b

a
b

b
b

ab
b
 = =
remember
1I
WORKED
Example
18a, b
5
2

7
3

4
11

8
6

12
7

15
6

2 3
5

3 7
5

5 2
2 3

4 3
3 5

5 14
7 8

16 3
6 5

8 3
7 7

8 60
28

2 35
3 14

5 2
2

7 3
3

5 6
6

8 21
49

2 21
7

10
2

4 11
11

8 105
7

2 15
5

4 6
3

10
3

3 35
5

4 15
15

5 7
14

8 15
15

C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 43
2 Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
3
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
4
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
5
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
A B C
D E none of these
6
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
7 Solve for x, giving the answers as the simplest surds with rational denominators:
a x
2
= b 3x
2
= 5 c 6x
2
4 = 12
a b c d
e f g h
i j k
A
B
C 48
D
E
A
B C D
E
A
B
C
D E
WORKED
Example
18c
6 12 +
3

15 22
6

6 2 15
10

2 18 3 2 +
5

3 5 6 7 +
8

4 2 3 8 +
2 3

3 11 4 5
18

2 7 2 5
12

7 12 5 6
6 3

6 2 5
4 8

6 3 5 5
7 20

multiple choice
12
3

4 3
3

4 3
12 3
3

6 3
multiple choice
8 5
9 12

40
108

16 15
108

4 5
9

4 15
27

320
972

multiple choice
7 5 6 7
12

6
6
 7 15 21
7 15 6 21
6

7 60 6 84
12

multiple choice
5 5 3 3
8 8

5 10 3 6
32

10 10 6 6
80 10 48 6
64

40 40 24 24
64

10 10 6 6
8

3
7

3 10 2 33
6

12 5 5 6
10

9 10
5

3 10 6 14 +
4

5 6
3

3 22 4 10
6

21 15
3

14 5 2
6

12 10
16

6 15 25
70

21
7

15
3

2 6
3

2 2 +
44 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Rationalising denominators using
conjugate surds
As shown earlier in the chapter, the product of pairs of conjugate surds results in a
rational number. (Examples of pairs of conjugate surds include and ,
and , and .)
This fact is used to rationalise denominators containing a sum or a difference of surds.
To rationalise the denominator which contains a sum or a difference of surds, we
multiply both numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.
Two examples are given below:
1. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction , multiply it by .
2. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction , multiply it by .
A quick way to simplify the denominator is to use the DOTS identity:
=
= a b
6 11 + 6 11
a b + a b 2 5 7 2 5 7 +
1
a b +

a b
a b

1
a b

a b +
a b +

( a b )( a b + ) ( a)
2
( b)
2

4
4 3 +
16 3

4 3 +
13

19
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 45
You might wish to use a calculator to check if the nal answer is correct. To do that,
evaluate the original fraction and the nal one (the one with the rational denominator)
and check whether they both equal the same number.
THINK WRITE
b Write the fraction. b
Multiply the numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of
the denominator.
(Note that .)
=
Apply FOIL in the numerator and
DOTS in the denominator.
=
Simplify.
=
=
=
=
=
=
1
6 3 2 +
3 3 +

2
3 3
3 3

1 =
6 3 2 + ( )
3 3 + ( )

3 3 ( )
3 3 ( )

3
6 3 6 + 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 + +
3 ( )
2
3 ( )
2

4
3 6 18 9 2 3 6 +
9 3

18 9 2 +
6

9 2 9 2 +
6

3 2 9 2 +
6

6 2
6

2
Rationalise the denominators and simplify the following.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
We will rationalise the denominator of
each term and then add them.
Write the rst fraction.
Multiply the numerator and denominator by
the conjugate of the denominator.
=
1
2 6 3

1
3 6 2 3 +
 +
1
1
2 6 3

2
1
2 6 3 ( )

2 6 3 + ( )
2 6 3 + ( )

20
WORKEDExample
46 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The following worked example demonstrates the rationalisation of the denominator
when it is a trinomial (has three terms).
THINK WRITE
Apply the Distributive Law in the numerator
and DOTS in the denominator. (Note that
when squaring , we need to square both 2
and .)
=
Simplify the denominator.
=
Write the second fraction.
Multiply the numerator and denominator
by the conjugate of the denominator.
=
Apply the Distributive Law in the
numerator and DOTS in the denominator.
=
Simplify the denominator.
=
Add the two fractions together.
Bring them to the lowest common
denominator rst.
=
=
Add the numerators.
=
Simplify where appropriate.
=
3
2 6
6
2 6 3 +
2 ( )
2
6 3

4
2 6 3 +
21

5
1
3 6 2 3 +

6
1
3 6 2 3 + ( )

3 6 2 3 ( )
3 6 2 3 ( )

7
3 6 2 3
3
2
6 2
2
3

8
3 6 2 3
42

9
2 6 3 +
21

3 6 2 3
42
 +
2 6 3 +
21

2
2

3 6 2 3
42
 +
4 6 2 3 +
42

3 6 2 3
42
 +
10
7 6
42

11
6
6

Simplify .
THINK WRITE
Use a set of brackets to group the
trinomial into a binomial.
1
2 2 3 +

1
1
2 2 + ( ) 3

21
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 47
THINK WRITE
Multiply the numerator and denominator
by the conjugate of the denominator; that
is, (2 + ) + . Use brackets around
both factors so that you will recognise
that all terms need to be multiplied.
=
Use FOIL to expand the denominator. =
Expand the squared terms of the
denominator.
=
Group and simplify the denominator. =
Rationalise the denominator as shown
previously. Use brackets as in step 2.
=
Expand the numerator, making sure that
every term in the rst set of brackets is
multiplied by every term in the second set.
=
Group like terms and simplify. =
=
Multiply numerator and denominator
by 1 to eliminate the negative
denominator.
=
2
2 3
1
2 2 + ( ) 3

2 2 + ( ) 3 + [ ]
2 2 + ( ) 3 +

3
2 2 + ( ) 3 +
2 2 + ( )
2
3

4
2 2 + ( ) 3 +
4 4 2 2 3 + +

5
2 2 3 + +
3 4 2 +

6
2 2 3 + + ( )
3 4 2 + ( )

3 4 2 ( )
3 4 2 ( )

7
6 8 2 3 2 4 4 3 3 4 6 + +
9 16 2

8
6 8 8 2 3 2 3 3 4 6 + +
9 32

2 5 2 3 3 4 6 +
23

9
2 5 2 3 3 4 6 + +
23

1. To rationalise the denominator containing a sum or a difference of surds,
multiply both the numerator and denominator of the fraction by the conjugate
of the denominator. This eliminates the middle terms and leaves a rational
number.
2. To simplify the denominator quickly, use the DOTS identity:
3. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction , multiply it by .
4. To rationalise the denominator of the fraction , multiply it by .
( a b )( a b) + ( a)
2
( b)
2
a b = =
1
a b +

a b
a b

1
a b

a b +
a b +

remember
48 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Rationalising denominators
using conjugate surds
1 Rationalise the denominator and simplify.
a b c d
e f g h
i j k l
m n o p
q r s t
u v w x
y z
2 Rationalise the denominator and simplify.
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
1J
WORKED
Example
19
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital docs:
SkillSHEET 1.5
Conjugate pairs
SkillSHEET 1.6
Applying DOTS to
expressions
with surds
1
5 2 +

1
3 6

1
8 5

1
2 6 7

4
2 11 13

7
2 12 2 5 +

5 3
3 5 4 2 +

9 3
2 33 12

2 5
5 7 20

8 3
8 3 +

12 7
12 7 +

11 7 +
22 14

5 3
4 10 3 18 +

2 8 3 2
3 24 2 6

3 6 2 12 +
4 18 3 8 +

5 2 3 3 +
2 6 3 12

4 5 10 +
6 15 20 +

4 15 2 3
2 30 5 2

2 7 5 3 +
5 7 3 3

2 11 3 3
2 11 3 3 +

4 12 3 8
3 6 5 2

3 8 6 3 +
7 2 3

3 11 2 7
3 14 4 11 +

4 15 2 5 +
3 5 15

3 7 5 2
35 2 2 +

3 6 15
6 2 3 +

WORKED
Example
20
1
8 2

1
2 8 2
 +
1
2 7 2 3 +

1
3 7 3 +

3 7
3 5 3

4 8
5 3 3 +

2 3
6 2 3

4 6 3 +
2 6 3 3 +

3 5
7 2 +

7 2 2
5 2 +

2 2 3 +
2 2 3

2 2 3 +
12 2 6 3 +

7 8 +
3 7 3 8

2 8 2 7
3 8 3 7 +
 +
3 7 2 +
2 7 11

5 7 2
7 2 11 +
 +
13 5 +
13 5

11 2 +
11 2

5 6 +
4 5 4 6

2 6 2 5
3 6 3 5

5 2
3 6 +
3

2 2 5 +
3

2 6 7 +
17

9 11 9 +
20

12 2 17
9 2 154 +
4

71 12 33
17

7 3 9 +
3

3
12

6 6 2 10 2 5 + +
2

9 2 8 +
14

16 210 12 14
77

45 15 14 9 10 6 35 + + + ( )
5

9 7 13 3
120

6 7 2
66 24 6 +
5

5 4 14
959 281 77 182 7 6 11 + + +
629

3 7 65 16 11 +
28

41 6 30 + ( )
12

e
f
g
k
o
s
u
v
8 11 4 13 +
31

2 21 35
14

15 15 20 6
13

19 4 21
5

3 3 2 6 +
18

115 31 21 +
148

18 2 10 6 9 3 15 +
102 48 6 +
95

21 5 6 14 5 70 20
27

1
i
m
5 14 2 10 25 7 10 5 +
155

20 2 9 10 4 30 + + 9 6
2

9 154 132 42 2 8 77 + +
50

q
r
12 3 4 3 6 2 +
52

60 2 10 30 6 10 5 6 +
35

p
1
0
3
1
5
6
9
2
2
7
+
+
+
(
)
4
2






































































1
1
1
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 49
3 Rationalise the denominator and simplify.
4
If x = + , then x + when simplied with a rational denominator is equal to:
A B C
D E
5 Given that nd each of the following, giving the answer in surd form
with a rational denominator:
6 Given that nd each of the following, giving the answer in surd form
with a rational denominator:
7 Is a solution for the equation ? Show all working.
8 Solve for x giving answers in surd form with rational denominators.
Further properties of real
numbers modulus
The modulus or absolute value of a number is the magnitude of that number. It rep
resents the distance of the number from the origin (that is, 0 on a number line). The
modulus of x is denoted by  x and is always positive.
Note: Do not confuse the modulus of a number with modular arithmetic (see page 17).
For example,
2 = 2
2 = 2
0 = 0
a b
a b c
a b c
d
e f
g h
a b
WORKED
Example
21
2 3 5 +
3 2 3 2 5 + +

5 3 2
5 3 2 + +

multiple choice
7 11
1
x

3 7 5 11 +
4

5 7 3 11 +
4

5 7 3 11 +
4

3 7 5 11 +
4

3 7 3 11 +
4

x
7 3 5
7 3 5 +
 =
x
1
x
 + x
1
x
 x
2 1
x
2

x 5 2 3 =
x
1
x
 + x
1
x
 x
2
1
x
2
 +
x
2
1
x
2

x
2
6x 3 + + x
2
12x 8 +
x
2
3x +
x 2

x
2
3x
x 2 +

x 5 3 2 + = x
2
10x 7 + 0 =
11x 7 + 8 5x + = 3 5x 10 2 7x 4 + =
6 2 15 3 10 5 6 + +
6

230 257 3 137 5 80 15 +
431

2
14
19

6 35
19

312 35
361

Yes
210 2 120
41

200 2 126
41

99 238 50 400 2
1681

99 120 50 460 2
1681

44
103 90 2
7 2 4 +
295 2 382
49

11 5 +
6

42 5 28 7 +
17

50 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Further properties of real
numbers modulus
1 Evaluate the following where a, b, c, d 0:
a b c
d e f
g
h
i
j
k
l
Evaluate the following where a, b, c, d 0.
a b c d
THINK WRITE
a Write the expression.
a
The modulus sign indicates that we want only the
magnitude of a number and not the sign of it. So the
negative in front of the number should be omitted.
= 50
b Write the expression. b
Evaluate each modulus separately and then simplify.
= 6 3
= 18
c Write the expression. c
Evaluate each modulus separately, then simplify. =
=
d Write the expression. d
Evaluate each modulus separately, then simplify. =
=
=
50 6 3 6a
2
b 2a
3
b
4cd 6cd
12

1 50
2
1 6 3
2
1 6a
2
b 2a
3
b
2
6a
2
b 2a
3
b
12a
5
b
2
1
4cd 6cd
12

2
4cd 6cd
12

24c
2
d
2
12

2c
2
d
2
22
WORKEDExample
1. The modulus (or absolute value) of a number is the magnitude of that number.
It tells us how far the number is from zero, and is always positive.
2. The modulus of x is denoted by  x.
remember
1K
WORKED
Example
22 19
1
4

0.75
15 8 2a
3 4
1
2

3.21
0
2
3

7 3
19
1
4

0.75
15
8 2
a
12
1
2

3.21
0
2
3

4
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 51
2
When simplied, becomes:
3
When simplied, becomes:
4
When simplied, becomes:
5
When simplied, becomes:
6 a Fill in the table below for the function y = 2x 4.
b Use the table to plot (on the same set of axes) the graph of y = 2x 4 and
.
c State the range of each of the two functions.
d Compare the ranges of the two functions and their graphs. Explain the difference.
Solving equations using absolute values
If  x  = 3 then, by denition of absolute values, there are 2 values of x that satisfy this
equation that states that x is three units from 0.
That is, x = 3 or x = 3
m n o
p q r
s t u
v w x
y z
A B 6 C 6 D E 5
A B C D E
A 8 B 14 C 18 D 14 E 8
A B C D E
x 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
y
 y
2 8 + 2 8 a
2
b
2
21 37 3 9 5 3
12 6 18 3 7 14
24 3 6 3 20 9 10 3
2a 6b 4 b 4cd 3cd 2 cd
multiple choice
2 3
6 1
multiple choice
ab
2
a
3
b a
2
b
4
a
2
b

a
4
b
3
a
2
b
4

a
b
2

a
b
2

a
2
b

multiple choice
8 2 5 3 +
multiple choice
6 2 2 5 8
15
8

9
2

15
8

9
2

9
8

y 2x 4 =
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3 units 3 units
10 10
a
2
b
2
16
27 15
72
54
1
2

11
30
3
a
6
cd
R
and
y
0
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
8 6 4 2
0
2
4 6
8
b
y = 2x 4 y = 2x 4
y
x
2
4
4
52 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Therefore, two separate cases need to be considered when solving equations
involving absolute values.
In general:
Case 1:  x  = x when x > 0 (that is, when x is positive)
Case 2:  x  = x when x < 0 (that is, when x is negative)
(Note: There is also a trivial case of  x  = 0 when x = 0.)
So for  x  = 3, the two cases to consider are x = 3 and x = 3 giving a solution of x = 3
or x = 3.
Solve: a  4x  = 16 b  4  3x  = 3.
THINK WRITE
a Write the equation. a  4x  = 16
Remove the absolute value symbols
and write the positive (+ve) and
negative (ve) cases to be
considered.
Case 1: Case 2:
4x = 16 or 4x = 16
4x = 16
Work the two cases side by side. x = 4 x = 4
Verify your solution by substituting
into the original expression. Start
with the lefthand side (LHS) and
ensure that it equals the righthand
side (RHS).
Check:
Using x = 4 Using x = 4
LHS =  4 4 LHS =  4 4
=  16 =  16
= 16 = 16
= RHS = RHS
Solutions are correct for both cases.
State the solution. x can equal either
4 or 4, written 4.
The solution is x = 4.
b Write the equation. b  4 3x  = 3
Remove the absolute value symbols
and write the +ve and ve cases.
Case 1: Case 2:
4 3x = 3 or (4 3x) = 3
Solve for x in both cases. 4 3 = 3x 4 + 3x = 3
1 = 3x 3x = 7
x = x = 2
Verify your solution by substituting
into the original expression. Start
with the LHS and ensure that it
equals the RHS.
Check:
Using x = Using x = 2
LHS =  4 3  LHS =  4 3 
= 4 1 = 4 7
= 3 = 3
= RHS = 3
= RHS
Solutions are correct for both cases.
State the solution. The solution is x = or x = 2 .
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
1
3

1
3

4
1
3

1
3

1
3

7
3

5
1
3

1
3

23
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 53
Solve  x  3  = 3x + 8.
THINK WRITE
Write the equation.  x 3  = 3x + 8
Remove the absolute value
symbols and write the +ve and
ve cases. Use brackets for the
LHS of the ve case.
Case 1: Case 2:
x 3 = 3x + 8 or (x 3) = 3x + 8
Solve for x. 3 8 = 3x x x + 3 = 3x + 8
11 = 2x 3 8 = 3x + x
x = 5 5 = 4x
x = 1
Verify your solution for both
cases by substituting into the
original equation. As the RHS
should always be +ve, the
solution x = 5 is not suitable
and should be ignored.
Notice how important this
verication step is. We have
followed all the correct steps but
logically arrived at an answer that
is not possible.
Verify all results for these
questions.
Check:
Using x = 5
LHS =  5 3  RHS = 3 + 8
=  8  = + 8
= 8 = 16 + 8
= 8
(Not the correct solution since LHS RHS)
Using x = 1
LHS =  1 3  RHS = 3 + 8
=  4  = + 8
= 4 = 3 + 8
= 4
(Correct solution since LHS = RHS)
State the solution. The solution is x = 1 .
1
2
3
1
2

1
4

4
1
2

1
2

1
2

11
2

1
2

33
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
4

1
4

5
4

1
4

15
4

1
4

3
4

1
4

5
1
4

24
WORKEDExample
Solve  x 1  =  2x + 3 .
THINK WRITE
Write the equation.  x 1  =  2x + 3 
Remove all absolute value symbols
and write the +ve and ve cases.
Reassure yourself that there are only
two possible cases.
(x 1) = (2x + 3) is the same as
(x 1) = (2x + 3) and
(x 1) = (2x + 3) is the same as
(x 1) = (2x + 3)
Case 1: Case 2:
x 1 = 2x + 3 or x 1 = (2x + 3)
1
2
25
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
54 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Solving equations using
absolute values
1 Solve for x.
a  2x  = 10 b  x + 1  = 5 c  2x 1  = 2
d  3x + 2  = 4 e  1 + 2x  = 0 f = 3
2 Solve for x.
a  x + 1  = 2x 1 b  3x + 5  = x 3
c  2x + 3  = x 5 d  x 2  = 2x 7
3 Solve the following for x.
a  2x 5  =  x + 1  b  3x 6  =  2x + 4 
c  3x 1  =  2x + 2  d  x 5  =  3x 8 
THINK WRITE
Solve for x for both cases. 1 3 = 2x x x 1 = 2x 3
4 = x x + 2x = 3 + 1
x = 4 3x = 2
x =
Verify the solutions with respect to
the original equation.
Check:
Using x = 4
LHS =  4 1  RHS =  2(4) + 3 
=  5  =  8 + 3 
= 5 =  5 
= 5
(Correct solution since LHS = RHS)
Using x =
LHS = RHS =
=  1  =  1 + 3 
= 1 =  1 
= 1
(Correct solution since LHS = RHS)
State the solution.
Therefore x = 4 and x = are both suitable
solutions.
3
2
3

4
2
3

2
3
 1 2
2
3
 3 +
2
3

1
3

2
3

2
3

2
3

5
2
3

To solve equations with absolute values:
1. remove the absolute value symbols and state the equation as positive and
negative cases
2. verify your solutions by substituting your answer into the original equation.
remember
1L
WORKED
Example
23
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 1.7
Solving equations
x
3

WORKED
Example
24
WORKED
Example
25
x
=
5
x
=
4 or
x
=
6
x
=
1 or
x
=
1
2

1
2

x
=
or
x
=
2
2
3

x
=
1
2

x
=
9
x
=
2 No solutions
No solutions
x
=
5
x
=
6 or
x
=
1
1
3

x
=
10 or
x
=
2
5

x
=
3 or
x
=
1
5

x
=
1 or
x
=
3
1
2

1
4

C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 55
Solving inequations
You have graphed inequations on a number line in your junior mathematics studies.
These examples require more care and you will notice that the verication step is
essential to test the values you obtain.
Solve and graph (x  1)(x + 2) > 0.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Write the inequation. (x 1)(x + 2) > 0
If a b > 0 then either a and b
are both positive (+ve) or a
and b are both negative (ve).
This gives rise to 2 cases.
Rewrite the terms of the
inequation.
Note: > 0 means +ve, and
Note: < 0 means ve
Solve each inequation.
Case 1:
If a and b > 0
(x 1) > 0 and (x + 2) > 0
x > 1 x > 2
Graph both these inequations
and decide which part of the
graph satises both
inequations.
Note that the region graphed in
the last graph (x > 1) satises
both parts of case 1.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for case
2.
Graph both these inequations
and decide which part of the
graph satises both
inequations.
Note that the region graphed
in the last graph (x < 2)
satises both parts of case 2.
Case 2:
If a and b < 0
(x 1) < 0 and (x + 2) < 0
x < 1 x < 2
Either case 1 is true or case 2
is true at the one time but not
both, as they are contradictory.
Combine both cases on one
number line so that either x > 1
(from case 1) or x < 2 (from
case 2).
Either x > 1 or x < 2
1
2
3
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
4
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
5
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
Graphed Graphed Not graphed
26
WORKEDExample
56 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
Use a tabular form to verify
this solution.
Note how the number line is
divided into 3 regions.
When completing this table
choose a number that falls in
each region and work out the
sign only of each expression.
Because the original product
was greater than 0 (or positive)
the table has veried the results
on the graph. We do not want to
include those values between 2
and 1.
The solution is either x > 1 or x < 2.
x < 2
(let x = 3)
2 < x < 1
(let x = 0)
x > 1
(let x = 2)
x 1
x + 2
(x 1)(x + 2)
+
graphed
OK
not
graphed
OK
+
+
+
graphed
OK
Solve and graph:
a < 6 where x 0 b < 0 where x 1.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Write the inequation. a < 6
x can be either +ve or ve. When x is
ve and multiplied across the
inequality sign, the sign must be
reversed.
Case 1: Case 2:
If x > 0, < 6 If x < 0, < 6
3 < 6x 3 > 6x
< x > x
or x > or x <
Draw separate graphs for both
these inequalities, but remember
that in case 2, x < 0 so the only part
that should be graphed is where
x < 0.
Combine these graphs on the one
number line and state your answer.
Remember that an initial condition
of the problem was that x 0 so that
has been satised also.
x < 0 and x >
3
x

x 2
x 1 +

1
3
x

2
3
x

3
x

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

3
1
2
1 0 1 0 1 2
4
1
2
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2

27
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 57
THINK WRITE/DRAW
b Write the inequation. b < 0
Remember that < 0 means ve. If < 0
then either a < 0 or b < 0, but not both at
the one time.
Case 1:
If x 2 < 0 and x + 1 > 0
x < 2 x > 1
Graph both these inequalities.
Since both results from case 1 occur
at the one time combine the two
different graphs that satisfy both parts.
Repeat steps 2 to 4 for case 2. Case 2:
If x 2 > 0 and x + 1 < 0
x > 2 x < 1
Since both results of case 2 occur at
the one time think about how to
combine the two different graphs
that satisfy both results.
Note that x cant be greater than 2
and less than 1 at the same time.
Therefore this solution is impossible.
Reject this solution.
Graph and state the nal solution
(that was obtained in step 4 above).
The solution is 1 < x < 2.
1
x 2
x 1 +

2
a
b

3
2 1 0 0 1 2
4
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
5
6
2 1 0 1 2 3
Case 1 Case 2
7
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
Solve and graph  2x 3  < 2.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Write the inequality.  2x 3  < 2
Consider the positive and negative
cases of the absolute value.
Case 1: Case 2:
2x 3 < 2 or (2x 3) < 2
Solve for x. In case 2, note that
multiplying both sides of an inequality
by a negative number reverses the
inequality sign.
2x 3 < 2 or 2x 3 > 2
2x < 5 or 2x > 1
x < or x >
x < 2
Graph both solutions on separate
number lines.
1
2
3
5
2

1
2

1
2

4
0 1 2 1 2 3
Case 1 Case 2
1
2 2
1
2
28
WORKEDExample
58 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Graph this combined solution and state
the solution.
The solution is < x < 2 .
Verify the 3 regions of this solution. Check:
For x < (let x = 0)
 2 0 3  < 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
For < x < 2 (let x = 2)
 2 2 3  < 2
 1  < 2 (Valid and graphed)
For x > 2 (let x = 3)
 2 3 3  < 2
 3  < 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
5
1
2
1
2 2 1 0 1 2 2 3
1
2

1
2

6
1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

Solve and graph < 2.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Write the inequality. < 2
As with Worked example 28, state the
two cases that are possible.
Solve for case 1.
Draw the graph for this solution.
Case 1: Case 2:
< 2 or < 2
For case 1
if x 3 > 0 (x > 3)
1 < 2(x 3)
1 < 2x 6
7 < 2x
< x
x > 3
Since x > 3 (initial condition) x > 3
satises this condition.
Solve for case 2.
Reverse the inequality sign when you
multiply by a negative.
Case 2
> 2
If x 3 < 0 (x < 3)
1 < 2(x 3)
1 < 2x + 6
5 < 2x
1
x 3

1
1
x 3

2
1
x 3

1
x 3 ( )

7
2

1
2

1
2

1
2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5
3
1
x 3

29
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 59
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Reverse the inequality sign when you
divide by a negative.
Remember to always check with the
initial condition.
2 > x
x < 3 from the initial condition; therefore
x < 2 satises this condition.
Draw the graph for this solution.
Draw the combined graph for these two
solutions and state the answer.
The solution is x < 2 or x > 3 .
Verify the results for the three regions
on the graph.
Check:
For x < 2 (let x = 0)
< 2
< 2 ( Valid and graphed)
For 2 < x < 3
(let x = 3 ; remember x 3)
< 2
< 2
 4  < 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
For x > 3 (let x = 4)
< 2
< 2 (Valid and graphed)
All solutions have been veried. Even
though this verication is a fairly
lengthy step it gives you condence
that your solutions are more than likely
going to be correct.
1
2

1
2

0 1 2 3 4
1
2 2
4
1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2 2
1
2 3
1
2

1
2

5
1
2

1
0 3

1
3

1
2

1
2

1
4

1
3
1
4
 3

1
1
4


1
2

1
4 3

1
1

Solve and graph < 2 where x 3.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Write the inequality. < 2
x 2
x 3 +

1
x 2
x 3 +

30
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
60 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Remember x has the same value in the
numerator and denominator at any one
time. Separate the solution into the
+ve and ve cases for the absolute
value.
Case 1: Case 2:
< 2 or < 2
> 2
If the denominator is ve, then the sign
must be reversed when it is multiplied
across. Therefore, we will have to make
2 subcases for each of case 1 and
case 2.
Graph this rst solution.
Case 1 (+ve): If x + 3 > 0 (that is, x > 3)
x 2 < 2(x + 3)
x 2 < 2x + 6
8 < x
x > 8
But the initial condition is that x > 3, therefore
x > 3 is a valid solution.
Reverse the sign due to the ve
denominator.
Graph this solution.
Case 1 (ve): If x + 3 < 0 (that is, x < 3)
< 2
x 2 > 2(x + 3)
x 2 > 2x + 6
8 > x
x < 8
But the initial condition is that x < 3, therefore
x < 8 is a valid solution.
Determine case 2 as for case 1.
Graph this solution.
> 2
Case 2 (+ve): If x + 3 > 0 (that is, x > 3)
x 2 > 2(x + 3)
x 2 > 2x 6
3x > 6 + 2
x >
But x > 3 from initial condition so x > 1 .
2
x 2
x 3 +

x 2
x 3 +

x 2
x 3 +

3
4 3 2 1 0 1
x 2
x 3 +

9 8 7 6 5
4
x 2
x 3 +

4
3

1
3

2 1 0 1 2
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 61
This type of problem demonstrates higher level reasoning for this study of numbers. All
possibilities need to be carefully considered and examined in a thoughtful, methodical
manner.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Determine case 2 for the ve
denominator.
Remember to reverse the sign when
you multiply by the ve denominator.
Graph this solution.
Case 2 (ve): If x + 3 < 0 (that is, x < 3)
> 2
x 2 < 2(x + 3)
x 2 < 2x 6
3x < 6 + 2
x <
But x < 3 from the initial condition, so
x < 3.
Since the denominator must be either
positive or negative at any one time it is
case 1 (+ve) and case 2 (+ve) that we
need to combine as well as case 1 (ve)
and case 2 (ve) to produce the nal
graph.
Combining case 1 (+ve) and case 2 (+ve) gives:
Combining case 1 (ve) and case 2 (ve) gives:
Combine the two solutions.
The solution is x < 8 or x > 1 .
Verify the solutions by testing within
the 3 regions, using the original
inequality.
Check:
For x < 8 (let x = 9)
< 2
< 2 (Valid and graphed)
For 8 < x < 1 (let x = 2)
< 2
< 2 (Not valid and not graphed)
For x > 1 (let x = 0)
< 2
< 2 (Valid and graphed)
x 2
x 3 +

4
3

5 4 3 2 1 0
5
4 3 2 1 0 1
10 9 8 7 6 5
6
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
1
3

7
9 2
9 3 +

11
6

1
3

2 2
2 3 +

4
1

1
3

0 2
0 3 +

2
3

62 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Solving inequations
1 Solve and graph the following inequations.
a (x 1)(x 2) < 0 b (x 2)(x + 2) > 0
c (2x 3)(x 2) < 0 d 3x
2
10x + 4 < 2x
2
5x 2
2 Solve and graph the following inequations.
a < 2 (where x 0)) b < 3 (where x 1)
c < 2 (where x 3) d < 3 (where x 2)
3 Solve and graph the following.
a  x  < 4 b  x + 4  < 1
c  2x 5  < 1 d < 2
4 Solve and graph the following.
a < 3 (where x 1) b < 2 (where x 1 )
c < (where x 6) d < 2 (where x 1)
e > 2 (where x 3) f > 4 (where x 4)
1. When solving inequations reverse the inequality sign when you multiply or
divide by a negative expression.
2. In any equation if the product of a and b (that is a b) is positive then a and b
are either both positive or both negative.
3. If a product a b is negative then either a or b is negative.
4. If x a is positive then x a > 0 and x > a.
5. If x a is negative, then x a < 0 and x < a.
remember
1M
WORKED
Example
26
WORKED
Example
27
4
x

1
x 1

3
x 3

x 1
x 2

WORKED
Example
28
x 1
5

WORKED
Example
29, 30
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 1.2
1
x 1 +

1
2x 3

1
2

1
x 6

1
3

x 1
x 1 +

x 1 +
x 3

x
x 4

SLE 2: Solve simple inequality
statements such as 
z

a
 >
b
in
the real system, and be able to
give a verbal description of the
meaning of the mathematical
symbolism.
a
1 <
x
< 2
b
x
> 2 or
x
<
2
c
1 <
x
< 2
d
2 <
x
< 3
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 1 2 3
1
2

0 1 1 2 3 4
1
2
1
0 1 2 3 4
1
2
a
x
<
0
o
r
x
>
2
b
x
<
1
o
r
x
>
1
c
x
<
3
o
r
x
>
4
d
x
>
2
o
r
x
<
2
0
1
1
2
3
4
1 3

0
1
2
3
1 3
1
1 2

1
2
3
4
5
1 2
4
1 2

0
1
2
3
4
1 2
2
4 <
x
< 4
0 4 5 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 5
5 <
x
<
3
0 4 5 6 3 1 2
2 <
x
< 3
5 2 1 0 3 4
9 <
x
< 11
10 0 5 10 5
1 <
x
< 7,
x
3
2
3

5 3 1 2 4 0 6 7 8
2
3
1
3 <
x
< 5 ,
x
4
1
5

1
3

6 4 5 3 7
1
3
5
1
5
3
x
<
3
o
r
x
>
1 3

1
2
0
4
2
1 3
_
x
< 3 or
x
> 9
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2
x
<
1 or
x
>
1
3

2
3

0 1 2 3 1 2
1
3
1
2
x
<
1
o
r
x
>
1
1 4

3 4

2
1
0
3
1 4
1
3 4
1
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 63
Approximations for p
Research the following historical approximations for and present your ndings in
concise form.
1 3000 BC Egypt: The pyramids are built. The sides and heights of the pyramids
of Cheops and Sneferu at Giza are constructed in the ratio of 11:7. Hence the
ratio of one perimeter to 2 heights is 22:7. The value of is approximately .
2 2000 BC Egypt: The Rhind Papyrus, the oldest mathematical text in existence,
gives the following rule for constructing a square having the same area as a
given circle:
Cut oneninth off the circles diameter and construct a square on the
remainder. Using this method, is found to equal ( )
2
.
3 240 BC Greece: Archimedes, engineer, architect, physicist and mathematician,
constructs polygons of 96 sides to show that 3 < < 3 .
4 20 BC Italy: Vituvius, architect and engineer, measures distances using a
wheel and determines that is equal to 3 .
5 AD 125 Greece: Ptolemy writes his famous work on astronomy, Syntaxis
Mathematica. He nds that is equal to 3 + + .
6 AD 480 China: Tsu Chungchih, expert in mechanics and interested in
machinery, gives the value of as .
7 AD 1150 India: Bhaskara writes on astronomy and mathematics and gives
several values of , the most accurate is .
8 AD 1579 France: Vieta nds correct to nine decimal places by considering
polygons of 6.5
16
= 393 216 sides. He also discovers that
= .
In this and the next two series, examine how the approximation improves as the
number of terms is increased.
9 AD 1650 England: John Wallis uses a complicated and difcult method to
obtain from =
10 AD 1699 England: Sharp calculates to 72 decimal places by evaluating the
series = +
11 AD 1913 India: The mathematician Ramanujan presents the following as an
approximation for : = .
22
7

16
9

10
71

1
7

1
8

8
60

30
60
2

355
113

3927
1250

2

2
2

2 2 +
2

2 2 2 + +
2

4

3 3 5 5 7 7 9 9
2 4 4 6 6 8 8

6

1
3

1
3

3
3

1
3

5
5

1
3

7
7

9
2
19
2
22
 +
4
SLE 9: Investigate some of
the approximations to
p
which have been used.
64 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Real numbers application
and modelling
1 Solve the following inequality and graph the solution on a number line
< 1.
2 Rationalise the denominator for .
3 Solve the inequation > 0.
4 By noting the expansion of ( + )
2
and the fact that
12 + 2 = 7 + 5 + 2 , determine .
Hence, determine .
5 If the integer points, n, and the points midway between them, n + , are
mapped on a number line, how far away from the nearest of these points can
any point on the number line be?
Find an integer m such that  m < and an integer k such that
 k  < .
Explain the signicance of these results with respect to the topic of
approximation of irrationals to rationals. (Your response should not rely on
calculator computations.)
6 The most common way students learn to nd the greatest common divisor of
two integers is to factorise both numbers into their prime factors and take the
common prime factors. For example, to nd the greatest common divisor of
45 024 and 5712 we can write:
45 024 = 2
5
3 7 67
5712 = 2
4
3 7 17
So the greatest common divisor is 2
4
3 7 = 336.
However, nding the prime factors is not always that straightforward and
Euclid developed an algorithm that produces the greatest common divisor. To
apply it we divide the smaller integer into the larger integer.
Consider the integers 45 024 and 5712 again. When 45 024 is divided by
5712 the result is 7 with a reminder of 5040. Thus
45 024 = 7 5712 + 5040
Now divide the remainder (5040) into the divisor (5712)
5712 = 1 5040 + 672
and the new remainder into the previous remainder, and so on:
5040 = 7 672 + 336
672 = 2 336 + 0
The last nonzero remainder is the greatest common divisor, because it divides
both 45 024 and 5712 and every divisor of both 45 024 and 5712 must also
divide it.
2x 1 +
x 2

a b
a b +

2x 5
2x 7 +

a b
35 7 5 12 2 35 +
17 6 8 +
1
2

2
1
2

1
4

5
1
2

1
4

g.c.d.
=
225 7
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
13
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
<
x
<
2 2
a b ( ) a
2
b
a
2
b

x
R
,
x
3 ,
x
2
1
2

1
2

+
, 3
+
2 7 5 2
,
m
=
3,
k
=
4
1
4

2
0 1
2.4
2 3 1 2
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 65
We can rewrite the previous equations as
= 7 + = 1 + = 7 + = 2
which can be combined as a continued fraction as = 7 + and can
also be written as 7, 1, 7, 2 (whole numbers obtained at each division step).
Express the quotient 327 600 42 075 as a continued fraction and hence state the
greatest common divisor of these two integers.
7 Show that + < 2 (Do not use your calculator.)
8 Show that = 1 + and hence deduce that
= 1 + = 1 +
Now write the next two terms in such a sequence.
9 Diophantus of Alexandria, born between AD 75 and AD 250, was the author of
Arithmetica and wrote many papers investigating only whole numbers. Diophantine
equations are involved in many reallife situations, due to their whole number
solutions. The solutions are often found by trial and error. The following problem,
which you might like to try, is based on Diophantine equations. (The answer is given
at the end of the problem.)
Five men and a monkey were shipwrecked on an island and they set out to collect
as many coconuts as they could on their rst day so that they would have provisions
until they were rescued. After many hours collecting coconuts they piled them all
together and went to sleep.
Later that night, while the others slept one man woke up, and started to worry
about whether the coconuts would be divided fairly. He decided to take his onefth
share of the nuts and gave the one remaining coconut to the monkey.
Throughout the night all of the men did likewise; they took their fth share of
what was left of the nuts and gave the one remaining nut to the monkey. In the
morning they met to divide the nuts into ve equal shares. Each man knew that
there were some nuts missing but none admitted he had some extras, of his own,
hidden away.
How many nuts were there to start with? (Solution)
The Diophantine equations that lead to the solution of this problem simplify to
1024x 8404 = 15 625y where x is the original amount collected and y is the
number each is given in the morning.
The smallest possible value for x is 3121 with other values at intervals of 15 625.
45 024
5712

1
5712
5040


5712
5040

1
5040
672


5040
672

1
672
336


672
336

45 024
5712

1
1
1
7
1
2
 +
 +

2 2 + 2 2 2
2
1
1 2 +

2
1
2
1
1 2 +
 +

1
2
1
2
1
1 2 +
 +
 +

2 1 +
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 2 +
 +
 +
 +
 =
2 1+
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 2 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 =
and
The next 2 terms would be
66 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The Real Number System
The set of real numbers (R) is divided into two main sets: rational and irrational
numbers. These sets may be further divided into smaller subsets as illustrated on
the chart and Venn diagram below.
Rational numbers (Q) can be expressed in
the form , where a and b are integers
with no common divisors and b 0. They
may also be expressed as whole numbers,
terminating decimals and recurring
decimals.
Irrational numbers (I) cannot be expressed
in the form . They can be expressed only
as nonterminating and nonrecurring
decimals and include surds and numbers such as and e.
Recurring decimals are rational numbers which may be expressed as a ratio of two
integers.
Surds are irrational numbers which can only be represented exactly using a root
symbol (or radical), that is:
, , and so on.
and e are examples of irrational numbers which may be converted to non
terminating and nonrecurring decimals; however, they are not surds.
Set notation
Set notation is used when dening the Real Number System.
The following symbols are useful when working with sets:
{ }set
is an element of
is not an element of
is a subset of
summary
Real numbers R
Irrational numbers I
(surds, nonterminating
and nonrecurring
decimals, ,e)
Rational numbers Q
Integers
Z
Noninteger rationals
(terminating and
recurring decimals)
Zero
(neither positive
nor negative)
Positive
(Natural
numbers N)
Z
+
Negative
Z
(Irrational
numbers)
Q (Rational numbers)
(Integers)
(Natural
numbers)
= R
I
N
Z
a
b

a
b

3 4
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 67
Working with surds
To simplify a surd, it should be written as a product of two factors, one of which is
the largest perfect square.
Like surds may be added and subtracted; surds may need to be simplied before
adding and subtracting.
Surds may be multiplied according to the rules:
When a surd is multiplied by itself (squared), the result is the number under the
radical:
Multiplication involving brackets:
1. The Distributive Law:
2. FOIL:
3. Perfect squares:
4. Difference of two squares DOTS:
The product of a conjugate pair of surds is rational.
Surds may be divided according to the rule:
Rationalising denominators:
1. If the denominator contains a surd, multiply both numerator and denominator by
the surd part of the denominator:
2. If the denominator is a sum or difference of surds, multiply both the numerator
and the denominator by the conjugate of the denominator:
a b ab =
m a n b mn ab =
( a)
2
a =
a( b c + ) ab ac + =
( a b + )( c d + ) ac ad bc bd + + + =
( a b + )
2
a 2 ab b + + =
( a b )
2
a 2 ab b + =
( a b + )( a b ) a b =
a b
a
b
 =
a
b
 =
a
b

a
b

b
b
 =
ab
b
 =
1
a b

1
a b

a b +
a b +
 =
a b +
a b
 =
68 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modulus
The modulus (or absolute value) of a number is the magnitude of that number and
is always positive.
The modulus of x is denoted by  x .
 x  = x if x < 0
= 0 if x = 0
= x if x > 0
Solving equations using absolute values
First remove the absolute value symbols and state the equation as positive and
negative alternative cases.
Verify your solutions for all these questions by substituting your answer into the
original equation.
Solving inequations
Remember that if x > 0 then x is positive, and if x < 0 then x is negative.
If a product of two factors is greater than 0 then both factors must be either positive
or negative.
Likewise, if a product of two factors is less than 0 then only one of the factors must
be positive and the other must be negative,
Organise your solution into two cases that will develop arguments for all possible
values.
The two values that result for each case are values that should occur at the one time.
The graph you draw must be a combination of these two solutions for each case.
Verify your solutions by choosing values that fall in each of the regions of your
graph.
When you multiply or divide by a negative factor across an inequality sign,
remember to reverse the sign.
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 69
1
Which of the given numbers, , , 5, 3.26, 0.5
.
, , are rational?
2 For each of the following, state whether the number is rational or irrational and give the
reason for your answer:
3
Which of the following statements is not correct?
4
Which of the following statements regarding the given set of numbers,
{5, 0.7
.
, , 21, , }, is correct?
A 5, , , Z
+
B , cannot be expressed as rational numbers.
C 5, 0.7
.
and 21 are the only rational numbers of the set.
D , and cannot be expressed as rational numbers.
E None of the above.
5 Classify each of the following into the smallest subset in which they belong using Q, I, Z,
Z
+
and Z
E (5)
2
Z
+
a b c d
A , , B , , C , D E , ,
A B C D E
CHAPTER
review
1A
multiple choice
6
12
 0.81
5

3
12

0.81
3
12

6
12

5

6
12
 0.81
3
12

6
12

1A
12 121
2
9
 0.08
3
1A
multiple choice
9
81

8
4

0
4
 125
3
1A
multiple choice
64 8 20
64 20
8 20
64 8 20
1A
4
1
125

3
0.2
4
2 0.01

15
8

15
2

8
9

2
25
 +
1B
multiple choice
1
17

3
13

5
12

1
5

2
3

1
17

1
5

2
3

3
13

5
12

2
3

3
13

5
12

1
5

1
17

1
5

3
13

1B
multiple choice
18
25

73
100

73
99

4
5

8
11

a
Irrational, since equal to nonrecurring
and nonterminating decimal
b
Rational, since can be expressed as a
whole number
c
Rational, since given in a rational form
d
Rational, since it is a recurring decimal
e
Irrational, since equal to nonrecurring
and nonterminating decimal
2
Z
Z
+
Q I
70 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
8 Express the following recurring decimals as fractions in the simplest form.
a 0.6
.
2
.
b 0.374
.
c 0.95
.
1
.
9
Which of the following numbers of the given set,
{ , , , , , }, are surds?
A All of these
B ,
C and only
D , and only
E , , and
10 Which of , , , , , are surds
a if m = 4?
b if m = 8?
11
The expression may be simplied to:
12
The expression may be simplied to:
13 Simplify the following surds. Give the answers in the simplest form.
a
b
14
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
15 Simplify the following, giving answers in the simplest form.
a
b
A B C D E
A B C D E
A B C D E None of these
1B
1C
multiple choice
3 2 5 7 9 4 6 10 7 12 12 64
9 4 12 64
3 2 7 12
3 2 5 7 6 10
3 2 5 7 6 10 7 12
1C
2m 25m
m
16

20
m
 m
3
8m
3
1D
multiple choice
250
25 10 5 10 10 5 10 25 5 50
1D
multiple choice
392x
8
y
7
196x
4
y
3
2y 2x
4
y
3
14y 14x
4
y
3
2y 14x
4
y
3
2 14x
4
y
3
2xy
1D
4 648x
7
y
9
2
5

25
64
 x
5
y
11
1E
multiple choice
2 98 3 72
4 2 4 2 4 4 2
1E
7 12 8 147 15 27 +
1
2
 64a
3
b
3
3
4
ab 16ab
1
5ab
 100a
5
b
5
+
62
99

337
900

157
165

a , , ,
b , ,
2m
20
m
 m
3
8m
3
25m
m
16

20
m

10
72x
3
y
4
2xy
1
4
 x
2
y
5
xy
25 3
3ab ab
C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 71
16 Determine the length of the unknown side, giving the answer in the simplest form and
specifying the appropriate unit.
17
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
18 Simplify the following, giving answers in the simplest form.
a
b
19
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
20
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
21
When expanded and expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
22
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
a b
c d
A B C D E
A B C D E
A B C D E
A B C D 39 E
A B C D E
1E
1F
P = 80 m
l
10 cm
P = 44 8 6 cm
x
6 + 2 3 m
P = 64 + 4 3 8 2 m
y
c
11 3 cm
11 cm
1F
multiple choice
9 12 3 5
27 60 15 54 18 5 54 15 6 15
1F
1
5
 675 27
10 24 6 12
1G
multiple choice
12( 8 6 )
4 6 6 2 96 72 4 3 6 24 2 6 3 2
1G
multiple choice
9 x
2
y 7x ( ) 9 x
2
y 7x + ( )
9x
2
y 7x
2
32y 32x
2
y 7x
2
81x
2
y 49x
2
2x
2
y
1G
multiple choice
(2 8 7 )
2
39 16 14 39 8 14 25 8 14 25 16 14
1H
multiple choice
8x
3
32

x x
2

x
3
4

x
3
2

x x
4

x
3
4

a
m
b
cm
c
m
d
22
cm
5
17 4 6 ( )
26 4 2 ( )
27
720 2
16
72 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
23
When expressed in its simplest form, is equal to:
24 Determine the length of the unknown side of a rectangle, given its area is cm
2
and its width is cm.
25
When expressed in its simplest form with a rational denominator, is equal to:
26 Express the following with a rational denominator, giving the answer in the simplest form.
27 Express the following with a rational denominator, giving answers in the simplest form.
Assume that a, b, x and y are positive real numbers.
28
When expressed in its simplest form with a rational denominator, is equal to:
29
If then is equal to:
30 Given that nd:
31 Express the following with a rational denominator, giving the answer in the simplest form.
A B C D E
A B
C D
E
a b c
A B C D E
A B C D E 23
a b
c
1H
multiple choice
6x
2
y
3
12x
4
y
5

8xy
10x
2
y

10x
25x
2
y

10 x
5x
2
y

x 10
5x
2
y

x
5xy

10x
5x
2
y

1H
7 18 2 3
2 3 +
1I
multiple choice
18
63

2
7

2
7

14
7

7
14

2
1I
7 56 3 126
32

1I
5x
3
y
2 x

20x
5
y
3
10xy

9a
2
b
b

1J
multiple choice
1
3 8 5 +

3 8 5
77

6 2 5
77

3 8 5
67

3 3
67

6 2 5
67

1J
multiple choice
x 11 = 3 x
2
8x 5 + +
1 6 11 2 11 22 + 2 11 1 + 22 5 11
1J
x 2 7 = 3 2
x
2
1
x
2
 + x
2
1
x
2

x
2
9x 5 +
1J
1
2 7 2 3

1
3 3 7

( ) cm 23 6 48
5 7
4

x 5y
2
 x
2
y 2
3
a
a
b
c
2323 594 14
50

2277 606 14
50

51 12 14 18 7 27 2 +
30
3 7 3
40

C h a p t e r 1 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : t h e R e a l N u m b e r S y s t e m 73
32 Determine the area of the triangle at right, expressing the
answer with a rational denominator in the simplest surd form.
Measurements are in metres.
33
When expressed in its simplest form with a rational denominator, is
equal to:
34 Simplify the following.
35
Which of the given values of x solve the equation  3 2x = 2?
A x = B x = C x = , D x = 2, E x = 2
36
Which of the given values of x solve the equation  x + 3  = 2x + 7?
A x = 4, 3 B x = 4, 1 C x = 3 D x = 1, 4 E x = 2
37
Which of the following values of x solve the equation  x 3  =  2x 1 ?
A x = 2, B x = 2, 1 C x = 2, 1 D x = , 1 E x =
38
Which values of x are a solution for the equation (x + 1)(x 2) < 0?
A 1 < x < 2 B x < 1 or x > 2 C 1 < x < 0 D 1 < x < 1 E x > 2
39
Which values of x are a solution for < 4?
A 0 < x < B 0 < x < C x < 0 or x > 3 D x < 0 or x > E x > 1
40
Which of the following values of x are a solution for < 3?
A < x < 2 B x < or x > 2 C 1 < x < 2 D x < 1, x > 2 E x > 1
A B C D E
a
b
6 + 15
2
1
5
+
1J
1K
multiple choice
2 3 7 3
3 6

7 2 2 7
14
2
 7 2
7 18
3

1K
7 4
3 5 4
6 6 +

8
1L
multiple choice
1
2

5
2

1
2

5
2

2
5

1L
multiple choice
1
3

1
3

1
3

1L
multiple choice
2
3

1
3

2
3

1
3

1
3

1M
multiple choice
1M
multiple choice
2
x

1
4

1
2

1
2

1M
multiple choice
x 1 +
x 1

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

m
2
3
2

11
3
74 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modelling and problem solving
1 The electrical current I in amps, delivering electrical power P, through resistor R, is given by
the rule . Express the current as a surd in the simplest form when:
a P = 500, R = 18
b P = 425, R = 6
c P = 729, R = 0.38
d P = 1700, R = 8
2 An icecream cone with measurements as shown is completely lled with icecream, and has
a hemisphere of icecream on top.
a Determine the height of the icecream cone in simplest surd form.
b Determine the volume of the icecream in the cone.
c Determine the volume of the icecream in the hemisphere.
d Hence, nd the total volume of icecream.
3 A gold bar with dimensions of , and cm is to be melted down into a
cylinder of height cm.
a Find the volume of the gold, expressing the answer in the simplest surd form and
specifying the appropriate unit.
b Find the radius of the cylinder, expressing the answer in the simplest surd form and
specifying the appropriate unit.
c If the height of the cylinder was cm, what would be the new radius? Express your
answer in the simplest surd form.
I
P
R
 =
175 cm
27 cm
5 20 3 12 2 6
4 10
3 40
Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 1
eBookplus eBookplus
amps
5 10
3

amps
amps
5 102
6

135 38
19

amps
5 34
2

cm 2 37
cm
3
18 37
cm
3
54 3
cm
3
18 37 3 3 + ( )
cm
2 15

cm
3 10

cm
3
360 10
In this
chapter
2A Introduction to complex
numbers
2B Basic operations using
complex numbers
2C Conjugates and division
of complex numbers
2D Radians and coterminal
angles
2E Complex numbers in polar
form
2F Basic operations on complex
numbers in polar form
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Real and complex number
systems
2
Number
systems:
complex
numbers
76 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction to complex numbers
In 1545, the Italian mathematician Girolamo Cardano proposed (what was then) a start
ling mathematical expression:
This was a valid expression, yet it included the square root of a negative number,
which seemed impossible.
What is a number such as or and how does it relate to a real number, and
what does it signify in mathematics?
Back in Chapter 1, you may recall that our denition of real numbers included
whole numbers, fractions, irrational and rational numbers as subsets of the real
number set. Whenever the square root of a negative number was encountered was
this classied as real? Where did we sometimes encounter such numbers in calcu
lations? Solution of quadratic equations sometimes brought these numbers to the
foreground. What was the difference between these two situations: x
2
+ 3x 6 = 0
and x
2
+ 3x + 1 = 0? How did the solutions to these equations relate to properties
of the associated parabolas?
In terms of the mathematics that you have studied so far, these square roots of nega
tive numbers have some signicance.
But why did the square roots of negative numbers become central to the study of a
new set of numbers called the complex numbers? It was partly curiosity and partly
because mathematicians such as Diophantus (the Greek mathematician) and Leibniz
(the German mathematician) found that real numbers could not solve all equations.
Eventually scientists and engineers discovered their uses. Complex numbers are now
used extensively in the elds of physics and engineering in areas such as electric cir
cuits and electromagnetic waves. Combined with calculus theory, complex numbers
form an important part of the study of mathematics known as complex analysis.
Square root of a negative number
The quadratic equation x
2
+ 1 = 0 has no solutions for x in the Real Number System R
because the equation yields and there is no real number which, when
squared, gives 1 as the result. If, however, we dene an imaginary number denoted
by i such that i
2
= 1, then becomes x = = i. For the general case
x
2
+ a
2
= 0, with a R, we can write:
x =
=
=
= ai
Powers of i will produce i or 1. We have i
2
= 1, i
3
= i
2
i = 1 i = i,
i
4
= i
2
i
2
= 1 1 = 1, i
6
= (i
2
)
3
= (1)
3
= 1 and so on. The pattern is quite obviously
that even powers of i result in 1 or 1 and odd powers of i result in i or i.
Denition of a complex number
A complex number (generally denoted by the letter z) is dened as a quantity
consisting of a real number added to a multiple of the imaginary unit i. For real
numbers x and y, x + yi is a complex number. This is referred to as the standard or
Cartesian form.
40 (5 15 + )(5 15 ) =
1 15
x 1 =
x 1 = i
2
a
2
1 a
2
i
2
a
2
denition of complex numbers
including standard and
trigonometrical (modulus
argument) form
algebraic representation of
complex numbers in
Cartesian, trigonometric and
polar form
geometric representation of
complex numbers Argand
diagrams
operations with complex
numbers including addition,
subtraction, scalar
multiplication, multiplication
of complex numbers,
conjugation
simple, purely mathematical
applications of complex
numbers
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 77
C = {z: z = x + yi where x, y R} denes the set of complex numbers.
The real part of z is x and is written as Re (z). That is, Re (z) = x.
The imaginary part of z is y and is written as Im (z). That is, Im (z) = y.
Note: Every real number x can be written as x + 0i and so the set of real numbers is a
subset of the set of complex numbers. That is, R C.
Using the imaginary number i, write a simplied expression for:
a b .
THINK WRITE
a Express the square root of 16 as the product of
the square root of 16 and the square root of 1.
a =
Substitute i
2
for 1. =
Take the square root of 16 and i
2
. = 4i
b Express the square root of 5 as the product of
the square root of 5 and the square root of 1.
b =
Substitute i
2
for 1. =
Simplify. =
16 5
1
16 16 1
2
16 i
2
3
1
5 5 1
2
5 i
2
3
i 5
1
WORKEDExample
Write down the real and imaginary parts of the following complex numbers, z.
a z = 3 + 2i b z = i
THINK WRITE
a The real part is the noni term.
a Re (z) = 3
The imaginary part is the coefcient of
the i term.
Im (z) = 2
b The real part is the noni term.
b Re (z) = 0
The imaginary part is the coefcient of
the i term.
Im (z) =
1
2

1
2
1
2
1
2

2
WORKEDExample
Write i
8
+ i
5
in the form x + yi where x and y are real numbers.
THINK WRITE
Simplify both i
8
and i
5
using the lowest
possible power of i.
i
8
= (i
2
)
4
= (1)
4
= 1
i
5
= i
4
i = (i
2
)
2
i = (1)
2
i = 1 i = i
Add the two answers.
i
8
+ i
5
= 1 + i
1
2
3
WORKEDExample
78 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Simplify z = i
4
2i
2
+ 1 and w = i
6
3i
4
+ 3i
2
1 and show that z + w = 4.
THINK WRITE
Replace terms with the lowest possible
powers of i (remember i
2
= 1).
i
4
2i
2
+ 1 = (i
2
)
2
2 1 + 1
= (1)
2
+ 2 + 1
= 4
i
6
3i
4
+ 3i
2
1 = (i
2
)
3
3(i
2
)
2
+ 3 1 1
= (1)
3
3(1)
2
3 1
= 1 3 3 1
= 8
Add the two answers. z + w = i
4
2i
2
+ 1 + i
6
3i
4
+ 3i
2
1
z + w = 4 8
z + w = 4
1
2
4
WORKEDExample
Evaluate each of the following.
a Re (7 + 6i) b Im (10) c Re (2 + i 3i
3
) d Im
THINK WRITE
a The real part of the complex number
7 + 6i is 7.
a Re (7 + 6i) = 7
b The number 10 can be expressed in
complex form as 10 + 0i and so the
imaginary part is 0.
b Im (10) = Im (10 + 0i)
= 0
c Simplify 2 + i 3i
3
. c Re (2 + i 3i
3
) = Re (2 + i 3i i
2
)
= Re (2 + i + 3i)
= Re (2 + 4i)
The real part is 2.
= 2
d Simplify the numerator of
.
d Im = Im
= Im
Simplify by dividing the numerator by 2.
= Im
= Im (1 i)
The imaginary part is 1.
= 1
1 3i i
2
i
3
2

1
2
1
1 3i i
2
i
3
2

1 3i i
2
i
3
2

1 3i 1 i + +
2

2 2i
2

2 2 1 i ( )
2

3
5
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 79
Introduction to
complex numbers
1 Using the imaginary number i, write down expressions for:
2 Write down the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of the following complex
numbers, z.
3 Write each of the following in the form x + yi, where x and y are real numbers.
4 Simplify z = i
6
+ 3i
7
2i
10
3 and w = 4i
8
3i
11
+ 3 and show that z + w = 5.
5 Evaluate each of the following.
6 Write in the form x + yi, where x and y are real numbers.
7
a The value of Re (i + i
3
+ i
5
) is:
b The value of Im [i(2i
4
3i
2
+ 5i)] is:
c The expression i + i
2
i
3
+ i
4
i
5
+ i
6
simplies to:
d If which one of the statements below is true?
8 If n is an even natural number show that .
a b c d
e f g h
a 9 + 5i b 5 4i c 3 8i d 11i 6
e 27 f 2i g 5 + i h 17i
a i
9
+ i
10
b i
9
i
10
c i
12
+ i
15
d i
7
i
11
e i
5
+ i
6
i
7
f i(i
13
+ i
16
) g 2i i
2
+ 2i
3
h 3i + i
4
5i
5
a Re (5 + 4i) b Re (15 8i) c Re (12i )
d Im (1 6i) e Im (3 + 2i) f Im (8)
g Re (i
5
3i
4
+ 6i
6
) h Im
A 2 B 1 C 3 D 1 E 0
A 0 B 5 C 5 D 10 E 4
A i B 0 C i 1 D i + 2 E i
A f(i) = 2 + i B Re [f (i)] = 5 C Im [f (i)] =
D f(i) = 1 i E f(i) = 0
1. The imaginary number i has the property that i
2
= 1.
2. A complex number z is of the form z = x + yi where x, y R.
3. The real part of z is x and is written as Re (z).
4. The imaginary part of z is y and is written as Im (z).
remember
2A
WORKED
Example
1
9 25 49 3
11 7
4
9

36
25

WORKED
Example
2
WORKED
Example
3
WORKED
Example
4
WORKED
Example
5
4i
9
5i
14
2i
7
3

3
i
3
i 2 +
i
2
i
4

multiple choice
f i ( )
1 i i
2
i
11
+ + + +
4
 =
1
4

1 ( )
n
2

i
n
=
3
i
5
i
7
i 3i
i
6
5
 11i 7i
i
2
3

9, 5 5,
3,
6, 11
27, 0
0, 2
5, 1 0,
17
1
+
i
1
+
i
1
i
0
+
0
i
1
+
2
i
1
+
i
1
+
0
i
1
2
i
z
=
2
3
i
,
w
=
7
+
3
i
5 15 0
6 2 0
9 2
4
i
Check with your teacher.
80 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Basic operations using complex
numbers
Complex numbers can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided. In general, the
solutions obtained when performing these operations are presented in the standard form
z = x + yi.
Argand diagrams
We know that an ordered pair of real numbers (x, y) can be represented on the Cartesian
plane. Similarly, if we regard the complex number x + yi as consisting of the ordered
pair of real numbers (x, y), then the complex number z = x + yi can be plotted as a point
(x, y) on the complex number plane.
This is also referred to as the Argand plane or an Argand diagram in recognition of
the work done in this area by the Swiss mathematician JeanRobert Argand.
Complex numbers in
quadratic equations
In your junior mathematics studies you graphed quadratics and found the real roots
of the expressions using the formula for the solution of a general quadratic
equation of the form ax
2
+ bx + c. Sometimes the values for a, b and c meant that
the value under the radical sign was negative; that is, it had a negative discriminant
(for example, ). You might have been told that this meant there were no real
roots for this quadratic. That was correct, but only half the answer. Follow the
steps below and you will hopefully develop a better understanding of the results
you obtain.
The following formulas are included for your assistance:
x = , turning point occurs where x =
Step 1 Use the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation to nd the roots
of:
y = x
2
2x 3 ....................(A)
Interpret this result.
Step 2 Use the formula for the xcoordinate of the turning point and substitute
this into the original quadratic to nd the ycoordinate of this turning
point.
Step 3 Graph this quadratic equation using the information from steps 1 and 2.
Repeat steps 13 with the following quadratic equations. Note the effect of the
negative discriminant in equation (C).
y = x
2
2x + 1 .................................. (B)
y = x
2
2x + 2 .................................. (C)
Graphically, we can see that there are no real values of x that satisfy the equation
x
2
2x + 2 = 0.
16
b b
2
4ac
2a

b
2a

Equation A:
y
=
x
2
2
x
3
Roots are
1 and 3, hence
there are two
x
intercepts
at
x
=
1 and
x
=
3. The
discriminant is positive
(
b
2
4
ac
=
16).
(1,
4)
1
3
1 3
0
y
y = x
2
2x 3
(1, 4)
1
1
0
x
y
y = x
2
2x + 1
3
2
1
Equation B:
y
=
x
2
2
x
+
1
Root is 1, hence there is
one
x
intercept at
x = 1.
Discriminant is 0
(b
2
4ac = 0).
(1, 0)
3
2
1
Equation C: y = x
2
2x + 2
No real roots, hence there
are no xintercepts.
Discriminant is negative
(b
2
4ac = 4).
(1, 1)
3
2
1
In the complex system,
x
2
2x + 2 = 0 has roots
1 + i and 1 i.
(1, 1)
1
1
2
0
x
y
y = x
2
2x + 2
SLE 1: Solve quadratic
equations whose discriminant
is negative.
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 81
The horizontal axis is referred to as the Real axis
and the vertical axis is referred to as the Imaginary
axis.
The points A, B, C, D and E shown on the
Argand diagram at right represent the complex
numbers 3 + 0i, 0 + 2i, 4 + 5i, 3 4i and 2 2i
respectively.
This method of representation is a useful way of
illustrating the properties of complex numbers
under the operations of addition, subtraction and
multiplication.
Addition of complex numbers
Addition is performed by adding the real and imaginary parts separately.
If z = a + bi and w = c + di then z + w = (a + c) + (b + d)i
where Re (z + w) = Re (z) + Re (w) and Im (z + w) = Im (z) + Im (w).
Geometric representation
If z
1
= x
1
+ y
1
i and z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
i then z
2
+ z
1
= (x
2
+ x
1
) + (y
2
+ y
1
)i. If a directed line
segment connects the origin (0 + 0i) to each of the points z
1
, z
2
and z
1
+ z
2
, then the
addition of two complex numbers can be associated with standard methods of addition
of the directed line segments.
The gure at right illustrates the situation for z
2
+ z
1
,
with, say, positive values for x
1
, x
2
, y
1
, y
2
and x
1
< x
2
and
y
1
< y
2
.
Note: The origin, z
1
, z
2
and z
2
+ z
1
form a parallelogram.
You will use this concept later in this course when you
study vector addition.
Subtraction of complex numbers
If we write z w as z + w we can use the rule for addition of complex numbers to
obtain z + w = (a + bi) + (c + di)
= a + bi c di
= (a c) + (b d)i
If z = a + bi and w = c + di then z w = (a c) + (b d)i.
Geometric representation
If z
1
= x
1
+ y
1
i and z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
i then z
2
z
1
= (x
2
x
1
)
+ (y
2
y
1
)i. If a directed line segment connects the
origin (0 + 0i) to each of the points z
1
, z
2
and z
2
z
1
then the subtraction of two complex numbers can also
be associated with standard methods of the addition of
directed line segments. The gure at right illustrates
the situation for z
2
z
1
, again with positive values for
x
1
, x
2
, y
1
, y
2
and x
1
< x
2
and y
1
< y
2
.
4 321 4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
Im(z) (Imaginary axis)
(Real axis)
Re (z)
C
D
E
A
B
x
1
x
2
(y
1
+ y
2
)
(x
1
+ x
2
)
y
2
y
1
z
1 z
2
z
1
+ z
2
0
Im(z)
Re (z)
x
1
x
2
(y
2
y
1
)
(x
2
x
1
)
y
2
y
1
z
1 z
2
z
1
z
2
0
Im(z)
Re (z)
SLE 4: Use geometry to
demonstrate the effect of
addition, subtraction and
multiplication of complex
numbers.
82 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Multiplication by a constant (or scalar)
If z = x + yi and kR
then kz = k(x + yi)
= kx + kyi
For k > 1, the product kz can be illustrated as shown at
right. The ratio of corresponding sides of the two triangles
is k:1.
A similar situation exists for k < 1.
So when a complex number is multiplied by a constant, this produces a directed line
segment in the same direction (or at 180 degrees if k < 0) which is larger in length if
k > 1 or smaller if 0 < k < 1. Geometrically this is called a transformation or dilation,
which means magnifying or decreasing by a constant factor.
For z = 8 + 7i, w = 12 + 5i and u = 1 + 2i, calculate:
a z + w b w z c u w + z.
THINK WRITE
a Use the addition rule for complex numbers. a z + w = (8 + 7i) + (12 + 5i)
= (8 12) + (7 + 5)i
= 4 + 12i
b Use the subtraction rule for complex
numbers.
b w z = (12 + 5i) (8 + 7i)
= (12 8) + (5 7)i
= 20 2i
c Use both the addition rule and the
subtraction rule.
c u w + z = (1 + 2i) (12 + 5i) + (8 + 7i)
= (1 + 12 + 8) + (2 5 + 7)i
= 21 + 4i
6
WORKEDExample
x kx
z
kz ky
y
0
Im(z)
Re (z)
If z = 3 + 5i, w = 4 2i and v = 6 + 10i, evaluate:
a 3z + w b 2z v c 4z 3w + 2v.
THINK WRITE
a Calculate 3z + w by substituting values
for z and w.
a 3z + w = 3(3 + 5i) + (4 2i)
= (9 + 15i) + (4 2i)
Use the rule for adding complex numbers. = (9 + 4) + (15 2)i
= 13 + 13i
b Calculate 2z v by substituting values for
z and v.
b 2z v = 2(3 + 5i) (6 + 10i)
Use the rule for subtraction of complex numbers. = 6 + 10i 6 10i
= 0 + 0i
= 0
c Calculate 4z 3w + 2v by substituting
values for z, w and v.
c 4z 3w + 2v
= 4(3 + 5i) 3(4 2i) + 2(6 + 10i)
Use the addition rule and the subtraction
rule to simplify.
= 12 + 20i 12 + 6i + 12 + 20i
= 12 + 46i
1
2
1
2
1
2
7
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 83
Multiplication of two complex numbers
So far we have shown that complex numbers can be plotted on an Argand diagram;
adding and subtracting them is geometrically equivalent to adding and subtracting
directed line segments and multiplication by a positive constant is equivalent to
extending or shrinking the directed line segment without altering the direction.
What geometrical interpretation, if any, can be given to multiplication of two (or
more) complex numbers?
The multiplication of two complex numbers also results in a complex number.
If z = a + bi and w = c + di
then z w = (a + bi)(c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
= (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i (since i
2
= 1)
If z = a + bi and w = c + di then z w = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i.
If z = 6 2i and w = 3 + 4i express zw in standard form.
THINK WRITE
Expand the brackets. zw = (6 2i)(3 + 4i)
= 18 + 24i 6i 8i
2
Express in the form x + yi by substituting 1 for i
2
and simplifying the expression using the addition
and subtraction rules.
= 18 + 24i 6i + 8
= 26 + 18i
1
2
8
WORKEDExample
Simplify (2 3i)(2 + 3i).
THINK WRITE
Expand the brackets. (2 3i)(2 + 3i) = 4 + 6i 6i 9i
2
Substitute 1 for i
2
and simplify the expression. = 4 9 1
= 13
1
2
9
WORKEDExample
Determine Re (z
2
w) + Im (zw
2
) for z = 4 + i and w = 3 i.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
Express z
2
w in the form x + yi. z
2
w = (4 + i)
2
(3 i)
= (16 + 8i + i
2
)(3 i)
= (16 + 8i 1)(3 i)
= (15 + 8i)(3 i)
= 45 15i + 24i 8i
2
= 53 + 9i
The real part, Re (z
2
w) is 53. Re (z
2
w) = 53
1
2
10
WORKEDExample
84 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Equality of two complex numbers
If z = a + bi and w = c + di then z = w if and only if a = c and b = d.
The condition if and only if (sometimes written in short form as iff ) means that both
of the following situations must apply.
1. If z = w then a = c and b = d.
2. If a = c and b = d then z = w.
Plotting complex numbers
You will need 1 cm square grid paper, a ruler and a protractor.
For z = 3 + 2i and w = 5 + i
1 Accurately plot z and w on an Argand diagram.
2 Find zw and plot this on the same diagram.
3 Measure each length and angle from the positive end on the Real axis. Do you
notice any pattern between the numbers you started with and your result?
4 Try this with some other complex numbers. Plot your original complex
numbers accurately and plot the product. Test your original hypothesis.
THINK WRITE
Express zw
2
in the form x + yi. zw
2
= (4 + i)(3 i)
2
= (4 + i)(9 6i + i
2
)
= (4 + i)(8 6i)
= 32 24i + 8i 6i
2
= 38 16i
The imaginary part, Im (zw
2
), is 16. Im (zw
2
) = 16
Calculate the value of
Re (z
2
w) + Im (zw
2
).
Re (z
2
w) + Im (zw
2
) = 53 16
= 37
3
4
5
Find the values of x and y that satisfy (3 + 4i)(x + yi) = 29 + 22i.
THINK WRITE
Write the lefthand side of the equation. LHS = (3 + 4i)(x + yi)
Expand the lefthand side of the equation. LHS = 3x + 3yi + 4xi + 4yi
2
Express the lefthand side in the form a + bi. LHS = (3x 4y) + (4x + 3y)i
1
2
3
11
WORKEDExample
Im (z)
0
Re (z)
zw = 17 + 7i
w = 5 + i
z = 3 + 2i
zw
=
17
+
7
i
(see gure at left)
Length of
z
=
, length of
w
=
,
length of
zw
=
=
11.31,
=
146.31,
=
157.62
Length of
zw
=
length of
z
length of
w
;
13 26
338
1
2
3
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 85
Multiplication by i
Let us examine the effect on z = x + yi after
multiplication by i, i
2
, i
3
and i
4
.
z = x + yi
iz = i(x + yi) = y + xi
i
2
z = 1z = x yi = z
i
3
z = i(i
2
z) = y xi = iz
i
4
z = i(i
3
z) = x + yi = z
The ve points are shown on the complex plane
at right.
It is observed that multiplying z by i
n
, n N
produces an anticlockwise rotation of 90n degrees.
THINK WRITE
Equate the real parts and imaginary parts to
create a pair of simultaneous equations.
3x 4y = 29 [1]
4x + 3y = 22 [2]
Simultaneously solve [1] and [2] for x and y. 9x 12y = 87 [3]
Multiply equation [1] by 3 and equation [2]
by 4 so that y can be eliminated.
16x + 12y = 88 [4]
Add the two new equations and solve for x. Adding equations [3] and [4]:
25x = 175
x = 7
Substitute x = 7 into equation [1] and solve
for y.
Substituting x = 7 into equation [1]:
3(7) 4y = 29
21 4y = 29
4y = 8
y = 2
State the solution. Therefore x = 7 and y = 2.
Check the solution by substituting these values
into equation [2].
Check: 4 7 + 3 2 = 22.
4
5
6
7
8
9
x iz
z or i
4
z
i
3
z
i
2
z
x x y y
Im(z)
Re (z)
If z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c, dR then:
1. z + w = (a + c) + (b + d)i
2. z w = (a c) + (b d)i
3. kz = ka + kbi, for kR
4. z w = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i
5. z = w if and only if a = c and b = d.
(Note: If and only if can be written as iff.)
remember
86 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Basic operations using
complex numbers
1 Represent each of the following complex numbers on an Argand diagram.
2 For z = 5 + 3i, w = 1 4i, u = 6 11i and v = 2i 3 calculate:
3 If z = 3 + 2i, w = 4 + i and u = 8 5i, evaluate:
4 Using z, w, u and v from question 2 express each of the following in the form x + yi.
5 Simplify the following.
6 For z = 1 3i and w = 2 5i calculate z
2
w.
7 Determine Re (z
2
) Im (zw) for z = 1 + i and w = 4 i.
8 For z = 3 + 5i, w = 2 3i and u = 1 4i determine:
9 Find the values of x and y that satisfy each of the following.
10
If z = 8 7i and w = 3 + 4i, then:
a Re (zw) is equal to:
b Im (w
2
) + Re (z
2
) is equal to:
c 3z 2w is equal to:
11 If z = 2 + i and w = 4 3i then represent each of the following on an Argand diagram.
12 If z = 3 + 2i, represent each of the following on the same Argand diagram.
z, iz, i
2
z, i
3
z, i
4
z, i
5
z, iz, i
2
z
a 3 + i b 4 5i c 2 6i
d 3i + 7
e f
a z + w b u z c w + v
d u v e w z u f v + w z
a 3w b 2u + z c 4z 3u
d 3z + u + 2w e 2z 7w + 9u f 3(z + 2u) 4w
a zw b uv c wu
d zu
e u
2
f u(wv)
a (10 + 7i)(9 3i) b (3 4i)(5 + 4i) c (8 2i)(4 5i)
d (5 + 6i)(5 6i) e (2i 7)(2i + 7)
f (9 7i)
2
a Im (u
2
) b Re (w
2
)
c Re (uw) + Im (zw)
d Re (zu) Im (w
2
)
e Re (z
2
) Re (zw) Im (uz) f Re (u
2
w) + Im (zw
2
)
a (2 + 3i)(x + yi) = 16 + 11i b (5 4i)(x + yi) = 1 4i
c (3i 8)(x + yi) = 23 37i d (7 + 6i)(x + yi) = 4 33i
A 4 B 4 C 5 D 11 E 52
A 76 B 39 C 105 D 56 E 32
A 30 13i B 30 29i C 18 29i D 24 13i E 18
a z
2
b zw c z + w d w z
e 3z + w f 2w 4z
g (z + w)
2
h (w z)
3
2B
5 2i 8 i 3 +
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 2.1
Operations with
complex numbers
WORKED
Example
6
WORKED
Example
7
WORKED
Example
8
WORKED
Example
9
WORKED
Example
10
WORKED
Example
11
multiple choice
4
i
1
14
i
2
i
9
13
i
12
+
4
i
9
5
i
12
+
3
i
19
8
i
12
+
23
i
25
+
3
i
50
48
i
41
28
i
7
23
i
4
+
45
i
50
13
i
63
37
i
85
132
i
176
61
i
111
+
33
i
31
8
i
22
48
i
61
53 32
126
i
14
+
52
i
9 35
30
115
x
=
5,
y
=
2
,
x
21
41
 = y
16
41
 =
x
=
1
, y
=
5
x
=
2,
y
=
3
321 3 2 1
3
2
1
1
0
2
3
i
2
z
iz, i
5
z
i
3
z, iz
z, i
4
z, i
2
z
Im (z)
Re (z)
a Im (z)
1 2 3
0
1 3 + i
Re (z)
f
0
2
1
8
8 + i 3
Im (z)
Re (z)
a
0
4
3
3 + 4i
Im (z)
Re (z)
e
0
10
Im (z)
Re (z)
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 87
Conjugates and division of
complex numbers
The conjugate of a complex number
The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary
component.
If z = x + yi, the conjugate of z is dened as = x yi.
Conjugates are useful because the multiplication (or addition) of a complex number
and its conjugate results in a real number.
Multiplication: zz
= (x + yi)(x yi)
= x
2
+ y
2
where x, y R, and x yi and x + yi are conjugates. You will use this result when
dividing complex numbers.
Note: Compare this expression with the formula for the difference of two squares
(a b)(a + b) = a
2
b
2
Addition: z + z
= x + yi + x yi
= 2x
Graphing complex conjugates
As seen earlier, z and its conjugate can be written as
z = x + yi and z
= x yi
The geometrical representation of z and z
is
shown at right.
Notice that the conjugate z
appears as
a reection of z in the Real axis.
Other properties of conjugates include:
1. z
= z
2. z
1
z
2
= z
1
z
2
3. z
1
z
2
= z
1
z
2
4. = where z
2
0.
z z
x
z = x + yi
z = x yi
y
y
Re (z)
Im(z)
z
1
z
2

z
1
z
2

Write the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.
a 8 + 5i b 2 3i c
THINK WRITE
a Change the sign of the imaginary component. a 8 5i
b Change the sign of the imaginary component. b 2 + 3i
c Change the sign of the imaginary component. c
4 i 5 +
4 i 5
12
WORKEDExample
88 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Division of complex numbers
The application of conjugates to division of complex numbers will now be investigated.
Consider the complex numbers z = a + bi and w = c + di. To nd in the form x + yi
we must multiply both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of w to make
the denominator a real number only.
(You might need to review rationalisation of the denominator which was discussed in
Chapter 1.)
=
= Multiply by the conjugate of c + di.
= Simplify the expressions in the numerator
and in the denominator.
= Express in the form x + yi.
Thus we can state:
If z and w are complex numbers in the form x + yi, then can also be expressed
in the form x + yi by simplifying:
and . z
Add z to w.
Write down the conjugate of z + w.
The conjugate of z + w equals z
. = z
z w + z w + =
1
w w + 5 2i + ( ) 7 i + ( ) + 12 3i + = =
2 z w + 5 2i ( ) 7 i ( ) + 12 3i = =
3 z w + 12 3i + =
4
z w +
z w + w +
13
WORKEDExample
z
w

z
w

a bi +
c di +

a bi +
c di +

c di
c di

ac bd + ( ) bc ad ( )i +
c
2
d
2
+

ac bd +
c
2
d
2
+

bc ad ( )i
c
2
d
2
+
 +
z
w

z
w

w
w

Express in standard form.
THINK WRITE
Multiply both the numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of 2 i
to make the denominator real.
=
2 i +
2 i

1
2 i +
2 i

(2 i) +
(2 i)

(2 i) +
(2 i) +

14
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 89
Multiplicative inverse of a complex number
Given a nonzero complex number z, there exists a complex number w such that zw = 1,
with w being the multiplicative inverse of z denoted by .
This example shows that if z = a + bi then .
Complex numbers can be used to generate fractal patterns such as the Julia Set shown.
THINK WRITE
Expand the expressions obtained in the
numerator and denominator.
=
Substitute 1 for i
2
and simplify the
expression.
=
=
=
2
4 4i i
2
+ +
4 i
2

3
4 4i 1 +
4 1 +

3 4i +
5

3
5

4i
5
 +
w z
1
1
z
 = =
If z = 3 + 4i, determine z
1
.
THINK WRITE
Write z
1
as a rational expression: z
1
=
Multiply both the numerator and denominator
by the conjugate of 3 + 4i.
=
=
Write the expression in the form x + yi.
=
1
z
1
1
z
 =
1
z

1
3 4i +
 =
2
1
(3 4i) +

(3 4i)
(3 4i)

3 4i
25

3
3
25

4i
25

15
WORKEDExample
z
1
a bi
a
2
b
2
+
 =
90 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
If z = 3 + i and , determine Im (4z w).
THINK WRITE
Substitute for z and w in 4z w.
Express 4z w with a common
denominator.
4z w =
=
=
=
Remove i from the denominator by
multiplying the numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of 4 i.
=
=
Simplify the expression so that it is in
the form x + yi.
=
State the imaginary component of
4z w.
Im (4z w) =
w
2
4 i
 =
1
2
4 3 i + ( )
2
4 i

4 3 i + ( ) 4 i ( ) 2
4 i

4 13 i + ( ) 2
4 i

50 4i +
4 i

3 (50 4i) +
(4 i)

(4 i) +
(4 i) +

196 66i +
17

4
196
17

66i
17
 +
5
66
17

16
WORKEDExample
Prove that z
1
z
2
= z
1
z
2
.
THINK WRITE
When asked to Prove you should not
use actual values for the pronumerals.
State the general values of z
1
, z
2
,
z
1
and z
2
.
Let z
1
= a + bi
z
1
= a bi
Let z
2
= c + di and z
2
= c di
Generally, in a proof do not work both
sides of the equation at once. Calculate
the LHS rst.
LHS = (a + bi) (c + di)
LHS = ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
LHS = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i
LHS = (ac bd) (ad + bc)i
Calculate the RHS and show that it
equals the LHS.
RHS = (a bi)(c di)
RHS = ac adi bci + bdi
2
RHS = (ac bd) (ad + bc)i
RHS = LHS
Hence z
1
z
2
= z
1
z
2
1
2
3
17
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 91
Conjugates and division
of complex numbers
1 Write down the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.
2 Graph the following complex numbers and their conjugates on an Argand diagram.
a 3 i b 1 + 3i c 4 5i
3 If z = 6 + 3i and w = 3 4i, show that = z
.
4 Express in the form x + yi.
5 Express each of the following in the form x + yi.
6 Determine z
1
if z is equal to:
7 If 676z = 10 24i, express z
1
in the form x + yi.
8 If z = 2 i and w = determine each of the following:
9 Write in the form x + yi.
10 Simplify .
11 Determine the conjugate of (5 6i)(3 8i).
a 7 + 10i b 5 9i c 3 + 12i
d e 2i + 5 f 6
a b c
d e f
a 2 i b 3 + i c 4 3i
d 5 + 4i e 2i 3 f
a Re (z + w) b Im (w z) c Re (z
1
+ w
1
)
d Im (3z + 2w) e Re (4w 2z)
If z = a + bi and w = c + di, for a, b, c, d R, then:
1. The conjugate of z is z
= a bi.
2. .
3. The multiplicative inverse of z is z
1
= = .
z
w

ac bd +
c
2
d
2
+

bc ad ( )i
c
2
d
2
+
 + =
1
z

a
a
2
b
2
+

b
a
2
b
2
+
i
remember
2C
WORKED
Example
12
7 3i i 11
WORKED
Example
13
z w w
WORKED
Example
14
2 i +
3 i

1 i
1 i +

3 2i
2 3i +

2 5i +
4 3i

4 3i
5 2i +

4 5i
2 7i

2 i 3 +
5 i 2

WORKED
Example
15
3 i 2
WORKED
Example
16
1
3 i +

2 i +
1 i +

9 2i
2 i

7 i +
1 i
 + +
2 5i + ( )
2
5i 2 ( )
3 4 7i + ( ) 2 5 8i + ( )

7
10
i
5
+
9
i
3
12
i
7 3i +
5
2
i 6 11 i +
Check with your teacher.
+
i
1
2

1
2

0
i
0
i
+
i
7
25

26
25

i
14
29

23
29

+
i
43
53

18
53

2 5 6
7

2 2 15 +
7
i +
a
c
2 i +
5

4 3i +
25

3 2i
13

3 2i +
5

10
+
24
i
23
10

9
10

17
5

16
5

14
5

+
i
17
2

9
2

29
33
+
58
i
b
3 i
10

5 4i
41

6
= 4 5i
= 4 + 5i
Im (z)
z
z
Re (z)
a
b
Im (z)
Re (z)
= 3 i
= 3 + i z
z
= 1 + 3i
= 1 3i
Im (z)
z
z
Re (z)
2
92 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
12
If z = 5 12i, w = 9 i and u = 15 6i, then:
a Re (z
1
) is:
b Im is equal to:
c The expression is equal to:
13 If z = 6 + 8i and w = 10 3i:
a show that =
b generalise the result by letting z = a + bi and w = c + di.
14 Use the result = to prove that
n
= ( )
n
.
15 If z = 4 + i and w = 1 + 3i
a show that
b generalise the result by letting z = a + bi and w = c + di.
16 If z = 5 4i and w = 2i, calculate Re (z + w).
17 If z
1
= 2 + 3i, z
2
= 4 i and z
3
= 5 i nd:
18 If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di show that (z
1
z
2
)
1
= z
1
1
z
2
1
.
19 a If z = 1 + i, nd z
4
, z
8
and z
12
.
b Deduce from your results in a that z
4n
= (2i)
2n
, n N.
20 If z = x + yi, nd the values of x and y such that .
21 Find values for a and b so that z = a + bi satises .
22 If z = x + yi, determine the values of x and y such that .
23 If z = 2 3i and w = 1 2i
a nd i zz
ii ww
iii =
c nd i ii d z
2
+ w
2
e z + zw f z
1
w
1
A 5 B 12 C D E
A 33 B 103 C 113 D 70 E 0
A 26 7i B 64 + 41i C 46 29i D 34 41i E 64 19i
a 2z
1
z
2
4z
3
b z
1 2
+ z
2 3
c
1 2 3
multiple choice
12
169

5
169

12i
169

zw ( )
2z w 3u +
zw z
w
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 2.2
Complex numbers and
their conjugates
zw z
w
z z
z
w

z
w
 =
w
z
z z z
1
z
2
z
3
z z z
z 1
z 1 +
 z 2 + =
z i +
z 2 +
 i =
z 3 4i + =
WORKED
Example
17
z w +
z w
zw w
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 2.1
z
w

z
w

1
z

1
w

Check with your teacher.
16
12
+
11
i
30
19
i
0
Check with your teacher.
4, 16, 64
x
=
1,
y
=
2
a
=
,
b
=
1
2

1
2

x
=
2,
y
=
1;
x
=
2,
y
=
1
13 5
i
2
13

3
13

i
1
5

2
5

8
+
16
i
2
+
10
i
4 7i +
65

Check with your teacher.
Check with your teacher.
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 93
Operations with complex numbers, nding the real and imaginary parts of a complex
number and nding the complex conjugate can be achieved with a graphics calculator.
You may not need to use a graphics calculator with simple complex numbers but it can
be useful in more complicated questions.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
Operations with complex numbers
1. Press to display the MAIN MENU. Use the
cursor keys to highlight RUNMAT. Select it by
pressing .
To perform simple algebra on complex numbers, use
the standard keys to enter the expression. To enter i,
press [i ]. (The i is located above the zero
key.) Press to obtain the answer. For example:
(a) Input (2 2i)(1 + 3i) and then press .
(b) Input (2 2i) (1 + 3i) and then press .
(c) Input (2 2i)^3 and then press .
Notice that we include a multiplication symbol when entering 2i and 3i in these
examples. The calculator will generally assume that 2i means 2 i. However, with
some terms, the calculator may not read it as you intend so it is good practice to
press the multiplication key each time the multiplication operation is needed. Try
calculating with and without including a multiplication sign for .
2. A complex number can be stored and then retrieved
if a number of operations need to be performed on it.
Input 2 2i and then press followed by
[Z] to store this expression as the variable z. Press
.
Input 1 + 3i and then press followed by
[W] to store this expression as the variable w. Press
.
3. We can now calculate expressions involving z and/or
w; for example, z w, z w and z^3. Press to
obtain each answer.
Features of a complex number
1. To nd the complex conjugate, the real part or the
imaginary part of a complex number or expression,
rst press then (CPLX). You will see a
row of complex number options. There is also a
second row of options available. Press ( ) to
move between the two rows.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Simple algebra of
complex numbers
MENU
EXE
SHIFT
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXE
1 2i ( )
2
2i
ALPHA
EXE
ALPHA
EXE
EXE
OPTN F3
F6
s
94 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2. You may then select (Conj) for the complex
conjugate or ( ) followed by (ReP) for the
real part or ( ) followed by (ImP) for the
imaginary part as required. Type the complex
number within brackets and press .
3. Alternatively, you can enter an expression, for
example (2 2i)(1 + 3i), and then press
followed by [A] to store the output as the
variable A. Press .
4. To access the complex number options, rst press
then (CPLX). Remember that you can
move between the two rows of complex number
options by pressing ( ).
(a) To nd , press (Conj). Key
in the variable assigned to the stored data (A in
this case) and press .
(b) To nd Re [ ], press ( ) to access the second row of options
and then press (ReP). Key in the variable assigned to the stored data and
press .
(c) To nd Im [ ], press ( ) to access the second row of options
and then press (ImP). Key in the variable assigned to the stored data and
press .
For the TINspire CAS
Operations with complex numbers
1. Open a new Calculator document.
To perform simple algebra on complex numbers, use
the standard keys to enter the expression. Use the j
button located on the left of the calculator. Press
to obtain the answer. For example:
(a) input and then press .
(b) input and then press .
(c) input (2 2i)^3 and then press .
Notice that a multiplication symbol (a dot) appears on the screen for any
multiplication operations in these examples. The calculator has assumed that 2i
means 2 i. However, if there were two or more variables in a term, the calculator
may not read it as you intend so it is good practice to press the multiplication key
each time the multiplication operation is needed.
2. A complex number can be stored and then retrieved
if a number of operations need to be performed on it.
Input 2 2i and then press /hand Zto store
this expression as the variable z. Press .
Input 1 + 3i and then press /hand Wto store
this expression as the variable w. Press .
We can now calculate expressions involving z and/or
w; for example, z w, z w and z^3. Press to
obtain each answer.
F4
F6
s
F1
F6
s
F2
EXE
ALPHA
EXE
OPTN F3
F6
s
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( ) F4
EXE
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( ) F6
s
F1
EXE
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( ) F6
s
F2
EXE
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 95
Features of a complex number
1. To nd the complex conjugate, the real part or the
imaginary part of a complex number or expression,
press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools. A list of complex number options
will be displayed.
2. You may then select 1: Complex Conjugate or
2: Real Part or 3: Imaginary Part as required.
Type in the complex number, close the brackets
and press .
3. Alternatively, you can enter an expression, for
example, (2 2i)(1 + 3i), and then press /hand
Ato store the output as the variable a. Press .
(a) To nd , press band select
2: Number, then 8: Complex Number Tools and
1: Complex Conjugate. Key in the variable
assigned to the stored data (Ain this case) and
close the brackets. Press .
(b) To nd Re [ ], press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools and 2: Real Part. Key in the variable assigned to the stored data
and close the brackets. Press .
(c) To nd Im [ ], press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools and 3: Imaginary Part. Key in the variable assigned to the stored
data and close the brackets. Press .
Radians and coterminal angles
When a complex number is expressed in a geometrical representation, we use a
directed line segment which has length (modulus) and which lies in a certain direction
with respect to the positive Real axis. This angle formed with the positive Real axis is
called the argument. The argument of a complex number z is written as arg (z) and arg
(z) = .
Before we look at complex numbers in polar form (in the next section), a new unit of
measuring angles is needed, the radian.
Radian measure
A radian is the angle subtended by an arc the length of the radius of
a circle, as shown in the diagram on the right.
Because the circumference of a circle is given by c = 2r, there are
2 radians in one complete circle. Taken in an anticlockwise
rotation from the positive end of the xaxis as shown, the common
angles have radian equivalents.
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
r
r
r
1 radian
96 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Therefore, if 2 radians = 360, 1 radian = g 57.3.
So an arc of 2r subtends an angle of 2 radians.
Coterminal angles
Consider the angle 420. This angle is made up of a full
revolution, 360 plus 60. When using degrees as our unit
of angle measure, 420 and 60 are said to be coterminal
angles; that is, angles which differ by a multiple of 360.
Radians and coterminal angles
1 Draw a circle with a set of axes through its centre. Mark the following on the circum
ference of the circle.
a 0, , , , 2 b , , , c , ,
2 Convert the following common angle measures to radians.
a 45 b 60 c 135 d 270 e 150
3 Convert the following radian measures to degrees.
a b c d
4 Draw the following sets of coterminal angles:
a 30, 390 b 60, 420 c 135, 495
d , e , f ,
Complex numbers in polar form
The modulus of z
The magnitude (or modulus or absolute value) of the
complex number z = x + yi is the length of the line segment
joining the origin to the point z. It is denoted by
z, x + yi or mod z.
The modulus of z is calculated using Pythagoras theorem.
z = so that we have .
360
2

2
0
2D
2

3
2

4

3
4

5
4

7
4

6

5
6

7
6

7
6

5
4

4
3

5
3

6

13
6

11
6

23
6

5
4

13
4

Im(z)
0
Re (z)
P(x, y)
z = x + yi
y
y
x
x
z= x
2
+ y
2
x
2
y
2
+ zz z
2
=
Find the modulus of the complex number z = 8 6i.
THINK WRITE
Calculate the modulus by rule.
Because it forms the hypotenuse of a right
angled triangle, the modulus is always
greater than or equal to Re (z) or Im (z).
z =
=
= 10
8
2
6 ( )
2
+
100
18
WORKEDExample
2
0
Im (z)
Re (z)
5
6

4

3

3
4

3
2

210 225 240 300
(b)
(a) (d)
(e)
(f)
(c)
Im (z)
Re (z)
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 97
The argument of z
The argument of z, arg (z), is the angle measure
ment anticlockwise of the positive Real axis.
In the gure at right, arg (z) = , where
sin = and cos = or tan =
As seen in the previous section, for nonzero z
an innite number of arguments of z exist since,
for a given z {: = 2n, n N} also represents
the position of point P in the gure at right
because a clockwise or anticlockwise rotation
consisting of multiples of 2 radians (or 360)
merely moves P to its original position.
If z = 4 + 2i and w = 7 + 6i, represent the position of w z on an Argand diagram and
calculate w z.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Calculate w z.
w z = 7 + 6i (4 + 2i)
= 3 + 4i
Represent it on an Argand
diagram as a directed line
segment OP.
Use Pythagoras theorem to
determine the length of OP.
So w z = 5
1
2
w
w z
z
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Im(z)
P
Re (z) O
3 OP
2
3
2
4
2
+ 25 = =
OP 5 =
19
WORKEDExample
Represent z
1
= 2 + 3i, z
2
= 5 2i and z
3
= 4 2i on the complex number plane and
calculate the area of the shape formed when the three points are connected by straight
line segments.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Show the connected points on the complex
number plane.
Calculate the area of the triangle obtained.
The length of the base and height can be
found by inspection (base = 9, height = 5).
Area of triangle = 9 5
Area of triangle = 22.5 square units.
1
432 4 5 3 2 1
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
Im(z)
Re (z)
z
1
z
2
z
3
2
1
2

20
WORKEDExample
y
z

x
z

y
x

Im(z)
0
Re (z)
P(x, y)
z = x + yi
y
y
x
x
z
98 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
To ensure that there is only one value of corresponding to
z we refer to the principal value of and denote it by Arg (z).
Note the capital A.
Arg (z) is the angle in the range < or (, ].
Exact values
cos = , sin = , tan = 1
cos = , sin = , tan =
cos = , sin = , tan =
Some useful triangles
It will be easier if you remember these 2 triangles only not the ratios shown above.
Draw a quick sketch and work out each trigonometric ratio when you need to.
4

1
2

4

1
2

4

3

1
2

3

3
2

3
 3
6

3
2

6

1
2

6

1
3

1
2 3
3
1
1 2
4
Find the Argument of z for each of the following in the interval (, ].
a z = 4 + 4i b z = 1
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Plot z.
Sketch the triangle that has sides in this
1:1 ratio.
a
From the diagram
=
Arg (z) =
This result can be veried using an
inverse trigonometric ratio, = tan
1
.
Check:
= tan
1
=
3i
1
2
1
1
2
4
4
Im(z)
Re (z)
4

4

3
y
x

4
4

4

21
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 99
THINK WRITE/DRAW
b Plot z.
Sketch the triangle that has sides in this
ratio.
b
From the diagram
=
Arg (z) =
This result can be veried using an
inverse trigonometric ratio, = tan
1
.
Check:
= tan
1
=
1
2
1
2
3
3
Im(z)
Re (z)
3

3

3
y
x

3
1

3

Convert each of the following into Arguments. a b
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Sketch the angle. a
Since the given angle is positive,
subtract multiples of 2 until it lies in
the range (, ].
Arg (z) =
=
b Sketch the angle. b
Since the given angle is negative, add
multiples of 2 until it lies in the range
(, ].
Arg (z) =
=
7
4

5
2

1 Im(z)
Re (z)
2
7
4
 2
4

1 Im(z)
Re (z)
2
5
2
 2 +
2

22
WORKEDExample
100 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the modulus and Argument for each of the following complex numbers.
a b
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Plot z.
This triangle has sides
in the same ratio as
a
z = 2
Arg (z) =
These results can be veried by
calculating the modulus and Argument
by rule.
Check:
z =
=
= 2
= tan
1
=
b Plot z. b
Find the modulus.
z =
z =
z =
The triangle in the third quadrant will
be used to nd but the answer will be
nally expressed as and Arg (z).
= tan
1
= tan
1
= 0.955
= + 0.955
Remember Arg (z)
can be thought of as
the quickest way to
get to z.
Arg (z) = 2.187
3 i + 1 2i
1
2
1
3
Im(z)
Re (z)
6

3
3 ( )
2
1
2
+
4
1
3

6

1
1
2
Im(z)
Re (z)
2
1 ( )
2
2 ( )
2
+
1 2 +
3
3
y
x

2
1

4
23
WORKEDExample
1
2
3
Arg (z)
z
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 101
Your graphics calculator is also able to calculate the modulus and Argument of a
complex number. Consider and from Worked example 23.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
Modulus (or absolute value) of a complex number
1. Press to display the MAIN MENU and select
RUNMAT. Press then (CPLX) to display
the complex number options. To select the modulus
or absolute value option, press (Abs).
2. (a) Enter ( ) and press . (Press
[ ] and type in 3 for .)
(b) The modulus of is also shown in the
screen at right.
(c) The modulus of a stored complex number can
also be calculated. For example, using the
expression from the previous graphics calculator
tip where we assigned the variable A to
, we can obtain the value as
shown in the screen at right.
Argument of a complex number
1. Decide whether you want the angle to be shown in radians or degrees. See the
instructions below for changing the system settings for Angle.
2. As before, press then (CPLX) to display the complex number options. To
select the Argument option, press (Arg).
3. Enter the required complex number within
brackets and press to obtain the answer. If the
calculator is set to radians, the answer will be shown
as the decimal equivalent to . If the calculator is set
to degrees, the answer will be shown as 30 for 30.
4. (a) The Argument of is shown in degrees
as a decimal in the screen at right.
(b) To convert this angle to degrees, minutes and
seconds, we can rst press [Ans] and
to display the decimal answer again. (This
step is optional and used to show both answers on
the screen.) Press and then ( ) for
more options. Press (ANGL) followed by
( ) to obtain the answer in degrees,
minutes and seconds.
(c) The Argument of a stored complex number can also be calculated. See the screen
above for the Argument of the variable A where A is assigned to
. The calculator is set to degrees for this example.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Modulus and
Argument
3 i + 1 2i
MENU
OPTN F3
F2
3 i + EXE SHIFT
3
1 2i
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
OPTN F3
F3
3 i +
EXE
6

1 2i
SHIFT
EXE
OPTN F6
s
F5
F5
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
102 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Changing the system settings for Angle
To change the settings for Angle, press [SET
UP] and use the down arrow to highlight Angle. Press
(Deg) to set degrees or press (Rad) to set
radians.
For the TINspire CAS
Modulus (or magnitude) of a complex number
1. Press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools and 5: Magnitude. A pair of modulus
signs appears with a box to enter the required
complex number.
2. (a) To enter , press /then qand type in 3
for . Use the right arrow of the NavPad to move
the cursor out from under the square root sign.
Press +and j to complete the expression.
Again use the right arrow of the NavPad to move
the cursor to the right of the second modulus sign.
Press to obtain the answer.
(b) The modulus of is also shown in the
screen at right.
(c) The modulus of a stored complex number can also be calculated. For example,
using the expression from the previous graphics calculator tip where we assigned
the variable a to , we can obtain the magnitude as shown in the
screen above.
Argument of a complex number
1. Decide whether you want the angle to be shown in radians or degrees. See the
instructions below for changing the system settings for Angle.
2. Press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools and 4: Polar Angle.
3. Enter the required complex number , close the
brackets and press to obtain the answer. If the
calculator is set to radians, the answer will be shown
as . If the calculator is set to degrees, the answer
will be shown as 30 for 30.
4. (a) The Argument of is shown as an exact
answer in radians in the screen at right.
(b) For an approximate answer, press /then .
The answer is now shown as a decimal in radians.
(c) To convert this angle in radians to degrees,
minutes and seconds, rst press /then vand
select DMS in the catalog (press k, select 1,
scroll down to DMS and press ).
Now that you are back in the calculator screen, press to obtain the answer.
Note: You can convert degrees to radians by selecting Rad in the catalog.
SHIFT
F1 F2
3 i +
3
1 2i
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
3 i +
6

1 2i
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 103
5. (a) The Argument of a stored complex number can
also be calculated. See the screen at right for the
Argument of the variable a where a is assigned to
. The exact answer is shown.
(b) For the approximate answer, press /then .
The calculator is set to degrees for this example.
Changing the system settings for Angle
1. To change the settings for Angle, press the home key
(c) and select 8: System information and then
2: System Settings. Use the tab key (e) to move
down to Angle and then use the down arrow to select
Degree or Radian as required.
2. Press to accept your selection. Tab to OK and
press . A message will appear asking whether to
apply these system settings to current document
settings. Select Yes and press .
Note that you can also change the settings for
Angle by accessing the setup menu (press /[#])
and selecting 1: File and then 6: Document
Settings.
Expressing complex numbers in polar form
Suppose z = x + yi is represented by the point P(x, y)
on the complex plane using Cartesian coordinates.
Using the trigonometric properties of a right
angled triangle, z can also be expressed in polar
coordinates as follows. We have:
cos = or x = r cos
sin = or y = r sin
where z = r = and = Arg (z).
The point P(x, y) in polar form is shown at right.
Now z = x + yi in Cartesian form becomes
z = r cos + r sin i (after substitution of x = r cos ,
y = r sin )
= r (cos + i sin )
= r cis , where cis is the abbreviated form of
cos + i sin .
(Note: The acronym cis is pronounced sis.)
2 2i ( ) 1 3i + ( )
Im(z)
0
Re (z)
P(x, y)
y
y
x
r = z
x
r

y
r

x
2
y
2
+
Im(z)
0
O
Re (z)
y
r sin
rcos
rsin ) P(rcos ,
r
104 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Express each of the following in polar form, r cis q, where q = Arg (z).
a z = 1 + i b z = 1
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Plot z. a
The ratio of the sides of
this triangle matches the
following special
triangle:
From the diagram
z =
=
These results can be veried by rule:
Check:
(a) Find the value of r using
.
r =
=
(b) Determine tan from tan and
hence nd .
tan =
= 1
The angle is in the range (, ], which is
required.
=
Substitute the values of r and in
z = r cos + r sin i = r cis .
z =
z =
b Sketch z. b
The ratio of the sides of
this triangle is the same
as that in the following
special triangle:
From the diagram
r = 2
=
Arg (z) =
3i
1
1
1
Im(z)
Re (z)
2
2
4

3
r z x
2
y
2
+ = =
1
2
1
2
+
2
y
x
 =
1
1

4
4

5
2 cos
4
 2 sin
4
i +
2 cis
4

1
1
3
Im(z)
Re (z)
2
3

3

24
WORKEDExample
1
1
2
1
2
3
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 105
Complex numbers in Cartesian form (also known as rectangular form) can be written in
polar form if we know the modulus and the Argument. Consider 1 + i and
from Worked example 24.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press to display the MAIN MENU and
select RUNMAT. Press then (CPLX)
to display the complex number options. To access
the second row of complex number options, press
( ).
2. Enter the complex number in Cartesian form. To
convert the number to polar form, press
( r ). Press to show the modulus and
Argument.
For 1 + i, we can see that the modulus is
1.41421 (which is the decimal equivalent to
) and the Argument is 45 (as the calculator is
set to degrees). For , the modulus is 2 and
the Argument is 60.
3. If the calculator is set to radians, the Argument
will be displayed in radians as a decimal.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
These results can be veried by rule: Check:
(a) Calculate the value of r. r =
r = 2
(b) Determine the appropriate value of . tan =
=
=
Substitute for r and in
z = r cos + r sin i and write in the form
r cis .
z =
=
3
1 ( 3)
2
+
3
1

3
3

4
2 cos
3

2 sin
3

i +
2 cis
3

Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Expressing complex
numbers in polar form
1 3i
MENU
OPTN F3
F6
s
F3
q EXE
2
1 3i
106 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
For the TINspire CAS
1. From the home screen, select 1: Calculator. Enter
the complex number in Cartesian form. Press b
and select 2: Number, then 8: Complex Number
Tools followed by 6: Convert to Polar. Press to
show the modulus and Argument. For 1 + i, we can
see that the modulus is and the Argument is 45
(as the calculator is set to degrees). For , the
modulus is 2 and the Argument is 60.
2. If the calculator is set to radians, the answer is
shown in a different format but we can still see
the modulus and Argument. Another way of
expressing cis (the polar form of 1 + i) is .
(This is beyond the scope of this course.)
Expressing complex numbers in Cartesian form
Complex numbers in polar form can be written in Cartesian form by entering both the
modulus and the Argument into the calculator. Consider 3 cis from Worked
example 25.
The modulus is 3 and the Argument is or 45.
2
1 3i
2
4
 2e
i
4

Express 3 cis in Cartesian (or standard a + ib) form.
THINK WRITE
Sketch z.
Express 3 cis in Cartesian form.
Simplify using exact values from the
following triangle:
3 cis =
= 3 + 3 i
=
=
4

1
3
4
Im(z)
Re (z)
2
4

3
4
 3 cos
4
 3 sin
4
i +
1
2

1
2

3
2

3
2

i +
3
2
 1 i + ( )
25
WORKEDExample
1
1
2
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Expressing complex numbers in
Cartesian form
4

4

C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 107
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press to display the MAIN MENU and select
RUNMAT. Press then (CPLX) to display
the complex number options. Access the second row
of complex number options by pressing ( ).
2. Enter the modulus (3 in this case) and then press
[] and enter the Argument in radians ( in
this case) or degrees (45) as appropriate to the
calculator setting. The screen at right shows the
angle in radians. To convert to Cartesian form
(a + bi form), press ( a + bi). Press to
show the complex number.
3. If the calculator is set to degrees with the Argument
entered as 45, the same result is obtained.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document. Enter the
modulus (3 in this case) then access the symbol
palette (press / then k) and highlight the angle
symbol .
2. Press . Complete the entry line by entering the
angle in radians ( in this case) or degrees (45) as
appropriate to the calculator setting. The screen at
right shows the angle in radians. Press )to close
the set of brackets.
3. Press band select 2: Number, then 8: Complex
Number Tools followed by 7: Convert to
Rectangular. Press .
The fraction is equivalent to
(shown with a rational denominator).
4. If the calculator is set to degrees with the Argument
entered as 45, the same result is obtained.
MENU
OPTN F3
F6
s
SHIFT
4

F4
EXE
4

3
2

3 2
2

108 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
History
of mathematics
ABRAHAM DE MOIVRE
(26 May 1667 27 November 1754)
During his lifetime. . .
Christopher Wren nishes
St Pauls Cathedral.
Blackbeard the pirate is
killed.
The rst successful
appendectomy is performed.
People are put to death, as
witches, in Salem.
Abraham De Moivre was born in the
French town of Vitry but from the age of
eighteen he lived in England. The son of a
doctor, he was educated at the Protestant
Academy at Sedan and then attended college
in Paris. In 1685 his family emigrated to
England to escape the growing tensions
between Catholics and Protestants in
France.
De Moivre contributed to the development
of analytic geometry and to the theory of
probability. One of his most famous books,
The Doctrine of Chances, was published in
1718 and contained major advances in
probability theory. In 1725, after investigating
mortality statistics, he published Annuities on
Lives. Insurance companies of the day used
his work to calculate the probabilities of
various events. He is best known to students
for his formula (r cis )
n
= r
n
cis n which
can be used to work out the powers of
complex numbers.
It is said that De Moivre was inspired to
further research by reading Isaac Newtons
book Principia. He had little spare time so
he tore out pages and carried them around
with him, studying them in any free moment.
Later in life he became involved in the
controversy about whether Newton or Leibniz
had been the rst to discover
calculus. He was appointed by the
Royal Society to the commission
set up to investigate the rival
claims.
De Moivre always had
difculty earning money, but
was able to eke out a living by
working as a private tutor and by
writing books. Unlike many other
mathematicians of the time, he could
not nd a rich patron to support him
because he was a foreigner. Even though he
was made a fellow of the Royal Society in
1697 and had famous friends such as Newton
and Halley, he was always poor and
eventually died in poverty.
Apparently, De Moivre predicted the time
of his own death. Near the end of his life he
noticed that he needed to sleep for an extra
15 minutes each night. He calculated the date
when the cumulative result of this would
mean that he was asleep for 24 hours. He died
in his sleep on that day.
Questions
1. What was the subject of De Moivres
book The Doctrine of Chances?
2. Why couldnt De Moivre nd a
patron?
3. How did De Moivre make a living?
4. Which famous mathematician played a
major role in his life?
5. What was unusual about the date he
died?
Research
Investigate how insurance companies use
probability to work out how much each
insurance policy costs you.
Probability
He was a foreigner.
Tutoring students
and writing books
Newton
De Moivre predicted it.
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 109
Complex numbers in polar
form
In the following questions give arg (z) or Arg (z) correct to 3 decimal places where the
angle cannot be easily expressed as a common multiple of .
1 a Represent z = 4 + 8i on an Argand diagram.
b Calculate the exact distance of z from the origin. (Do not use your calculator.)
2 Find the modulus of each of the following.
3 If z = 3 + i, w = 4 3i and u = 2 + 5i then:
i represent each of the following on an Argand diagram
ii calculate the magnitude in each case.
4 a Show the points z
1
= 3 + 0i, z
2
= 2 + 5i, z
3
= 7 + 5i and z
4
= 9 + 0i on the complex
number plane.
b Calculate the area of the shape formed when the four points are connected by
straight line segments in the order z
1
to z
2
to z
3
to z
4
.
5 a Show the points z = 1 + 3i, u = 3 and w = 3 + 12i on the complex number plane.
b Calculate the area of the triangle produced by joining the three points with straight
line segments.
6 Find the Argument of z for each of the following in the interval (, ]. (Give exact
answers where possible.)
a z = 5 + 12i
b z =
c z = 4 + 7i
d z = 3 6i
e z = f z = (2 + i)
2
a z w b u + z c w u
d w + z e z + w u
f z
2
a z = 3 + 2i
b z =
c z = 5 5i d z = 4 + 8i
e z = 2
f z = 6 10i g z = 3i
h z =
i z = 6i j z = 55
1. The magnitude (or modulus or absolute value) of z = x + yi is the length of the
line segment from (0, 0) to z and is denoted by z, x + yi or mod z.
2. z = and z = .
3. arg (z) = where tan = . = tan
1
.
4. z i
n
, n N produces an anticlockwise rotation of 90n degrees.
5. z = r cos + r sin i = r cis in polar form.
6. Arg (z) is the angle in the range < .
x
2
y
2
+ z z
2
y
x

y
x

remember
2E
WORKED
Example
18 5 2i
3 2i +
WORKED
Example
19
WORKED
Example
20
WORKED
Example
21
3 i +
2 3i 7
1 a
4
8
0
z = 4 + 8i
Im (z)
Re (z)
z 4 5 =
13
3
65
3 5
5
5
3
a i
0
4
1
z w
Im (z)
Re (z)
ii 17
ii 37
ii
10
ii 53
ii 130
ii
10
b i
0
6
1
u + z
Im (z)
Re (z)
c i
0
8
6
w u
Im (z)
Re (z)
3 d i
0
2
7
w + z
Im (z)
Re (z)
4 a
4 2 10 2 4 6 8
4
6
z
3
z
2
z
4
z
1
2
Im (z)
Re (z)
42.5 square units
5 a
4 2 2 4 6 8
2
0
4
6
8
10
12
z
w
u
Im (z)
Re (z)
24 square units
0.588
6

4

2.034
2
3

1.030
2

2

0
3 e i
f i
0
7
9
z + w u
Im (z)
Re (z)
0
6
8
z
2
Im (z)
Re (z)
110 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 Convert each of the following into Arguments.
8 Find the modulus and Argument of each of the following complex numbers.
9 Express each of the following in the polar form, z = r cis , where = Arg (z).
10 Express each of the following complex numbers in Cartesian (or standard a + ib) form.
11
If z = 3 50i and w = 5 + 65i, the value of z + w is:
12
The perimeter of the triangle formed by the line segments connecting the points
2 4i, 14 4i and 2 + i is:
13
The Argument of is:
14
In polar form, 5i is:
15
The Cartesian form of cis is:
a b c d
e f g h
a 3 3i b 5 + 5i
c 1 d
e 7 10i f 6i 2
g
a z = 1 + i
b z = c z = d z =
e z =
f z =
a 2 cis b 3 cis c d 4 cis
e f 8 cis
g cis
A 64 B 15 C 17 D 225 E 289
A 13 B 30 C 10 D 17 E 25
A B C D E
A cis B cis 5 C cis D 5 cis 5 E 5 cis
A B C D E
WORKED
Example
22
3
2

11
6

15
8

5
4

19
6

20
7

18
5

13
12

WORKED
Example
23 3i 4 3 4i +
3 i + ( )
2
WORKED
Example
24 6 2i + 5 5i 5 15i
1
2

3
2
i
1
4

1
4
i +
WORKED
Example
25
2
3

4
 5 cis
5
6

3

7 cis
7
4

2

3
multiple choice
multiple choice
multiple choice
4 3 4i
6

3

5
6

6

3

multiple choice
2

5
2

2

multiple choice
3
7
6

1
2

3
2
i +
1
2

3
2
i +
3
2

1
2
i +
3
2

3
2
i +
3
2

1
2
i
2

6

8

3
4

5
6

6
7

2
5

11
12

3 2
4
 , 5 2
3
4
 ,
2
2
3
 , 8
6
 ,
149 2.182 , 2 10 1.893 ,
4
3
 ,
10
a
b
(1
+
i
)
c
d
e
(1
+
i
)
f
8
i
g
1 3i +
3 2
2

5
2
 3 i + ( )
2 2 3 i
14
2

3
2 5 cis
3

cis
2
3

2
4
 cis
3
4

e
a 2 cis
3
4

b 2 2 cis
6

c 10 cis
3
4

C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 111
Basic operations on complex numbers
in polar form
Addition and subtraction
In general there is no simple way to add or subtract complex numbers given in the polar
form r cis . For addition or subtraction, the complex numbers need to be expressed in
Cartesian form rst.
Multiplication in polar form
In earlier sections we performed multiplication and division on complex numbers
in standard form. This is quite a lengthy process for both these operations.
However, as is the case in many aspects of mathematics, patterns exist that make
the job so much easier. Work through the following investigation that will form the
basis of future work.
1 Given that z = 1 + i and w = 2 + 2i:
a nd zw in standard form
b express the product from part a in polar form
c verify that  zw =  z  w
d verify that arg (zw) = arg (z) + arg (w).
2 Given that z = 1 i and w = 2 2 i:
a nd zw in standard form
b express the product from part a in polar form
c verify that  zw =  z  w
d verify that arg (zw) = arg (z) + arg (w)
3 Given that z = a + bi and w = c + di
a nd zw in standard form
b verify that  zw =  z  w
c For z = r
1
cis = r
1
(cos + i sin ) and w = r
2
cis = r
2
(cos + i sin ),
show that zw = r
1
r
2
[(cos cos sin sin ) + i(cos sin + sin cos )]
4 Using the trigonometric identities:
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
sin (A + B) = cos A sin B + sin A cos B
verify that zw = r
1
r
2
[cos( + ) + i sin ( + )]
= r
1
r
2
cis ( + )
This investigation illustrates the following useful facts concerning multiplication
of complex numbers in polar form:
If z and w are two complex numbers, then
 zw =  z  w and arg (zw) = arg (z) + arg (w)
Similarly, for division of complex numbers:
= and arg = arg (z) arg (w)
The proofs required to establish these rules are outside the Mathematics C
syllabus and will not be included in this chapter on complex numbers.
3
3
z
w

z
w

z
w

2
2
+
2(
+
1)
i 3 3
4 cis 2
7
12

2
2(
+
1)
i 3 3
4 cis 2
7
12

SLE 3: Use polar forms to
demonstrate multiplication
and division of complex
numbers.
112 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Express 5 cis in the form r cis where (, ].
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Simplify using the multiplication rule
zw = r
1
r
2
cis ( + ) (see part 4 on
page 111).
=
= 10 cis
Sketch this number.
Subtract 2 from to express the
answer in the required form.
10 cis = 10 cis
4

2 cis
5
6

1
5 cis
4
 2 cis
5
6
 5 2 ( ) cis
4

5
6
 +
13
12

2
Im(z)
Re (z)
11
12
13
12
3
13
12

11
12

26
WORKEDExample
Express z
1
z
2
in Cartesian form if and .
THINK WRITE
Use z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis (
1
+
2
).
Write the result in standard form.
z
1
z
2
=
=
=
= 2 cos + 2 sin i
= 2 0 + 2 1i
=
z
1
2 cis
5
6

= z
2
6 cis
3

=
1
2
2 cis
5
6
 6 cis
3

( 2 6) cis
5
6

3

2 3 cis
2

3
2
 3
2

3 3
2 3i
27
WORKEDExample
If and , express the product zw in polar form.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Sketch z.
z 5 3 5i + = w 3 3 3i + =
1
5
3 5
Im(z)
Re (z)
28
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 113
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Write z in polar form. Use the special
triangle below:
The ratio of sides in z is 5 times that of
the sides in this triangle.
Let z = r
1
cis
1
.
r
1
= 5 2 = 10
1
=
Verify this by rule if you wish. Alternatively:
= tan
1
, so
Therefore z =
Sketch w.
The ratio of sides in w is 3 times that of
the sides in the special triangle shown
in step 2.
Write w in polar form. Let w = r
2
cis
2
r
2
= 3 2 = 6
2
=
Verify this by rule if you wish. Alternatively:
tan , so
Therefore
Determine zw using
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis (
1
+
2
).
zw =
=
=
2
1
2
3
6

3
r
1
(5 3)
2
5
2
+ 10 = =
5
5 3

1
6
 =
10 cis
6

4
3
33
Im(z)
Re (z)
5
3

6
r
2
3
2
(3 3)
2
+ 6 = =
2
3 3
3
 3 = =
2
3
 =
w 6 cis
3
 =
7
10 cis
6
 6 cis
3

60 cis
6

3
 +
60 cis
2

114 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Powers of complex numbers
Whole powers of z
As with real numbers, powers of complex numbers can be written as:
z
n
= z z z z z to n factors.
Since z = a + bi is a binomial (containing two terms) we can express z
n
using Pascals
Triangle to generate the coefcients of each term.
1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
5th row 1 5 10 10 5 1 and so on.
(a + bi)
5
can therefore be expanded using the elements of the fth row of Pascals
Triangle:
(a + bi)
5
= 1a
5
+ 5a
4
(bi)
1
+ 10a
3
(bi)
2
+ 10a
2
(bi)
3
+ 5a(bi)
4
+ (bi)
5
(a + bi)
5
= 1a
5
+ 5a
4
bi + 10a
3
b
2
i
2
+ 10a
2
b
3
i
3
+ 5ab
4
i
4
+ b
5
i
5
(a + bi)
5
= 1a
5
+ 5a
4
bi 10a
3
b
2
10a
2
b
3
i + 5ab
4
+ b
5
i
(a + bi)
5
= 1a
5
10a
3
b
2
+ 5ab
4
+ 5a
4
bi 10a
2
b
3
i + b
5
i
(a + bi)
5
= 1a
5
10a
3
b
2
+ 5ab
4
+ (5a
4
b 10a
2
b
3
+ b
5
)i grouped into standard form.
Re [(a + bi)
5
] = 1a
5
10a
3
b
2
+ 5ab
4
Im [(a + bi)
5
] = 5a
4
b 10a
2
b
3
+ b
5
Express 10 cis cis in the form r cis where (, ].
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Simplify using the division rule. (See
part 4 on page 111.)
=
=
Sketch this number.
State , the principal Argument.
Arg (z) =
State the result in polar form.
Arg ()z = 2 cis
3

5
5
6

1
10 cis
3

5 cis
5
6
 2 cis
3

5
6

2 cis
7
6

2
7
6
5
6
2
Im(z)
Re (z)
3
5
6

4
5
6

29
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 115
The coefcients of each term of the expansion of (a + bi)
n
can be found using your
graphics calculator. For example, the coefcients of the expansion of (a + bi)
5
can also
be written as:
5
C
0
a
5
+
5
C
1
a
4
(bi)
1
+
5
C
2
a
3
(bi)
2
. . .
5
C
5
(bi)
5
where
5
C
0
,
5
C
1
, . . .,
5
C
5
represent the coefcients.
The following steps show how to calculate
5
C
3
using a graphics calculator.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT. Press and
then ( ) for more options.
2. Press (PROB) and you will see the function nCr.
Enter 5 (for n), then press (nCr) and enter 3
(for r). Press to display the value.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Press kto access the catalog and press 1for the
list of functions. Scroll down to select nCr(. You can
do this more quickly by rst pressing N.
2. Press and then complete the entry line to obtain
nCr(5,3). Press to display the value.
Note that with this calculator, we can obtain the actual
expansion of (a + bi)
5
.
1. Open a new Calculator document.
2. Press band select 1: Actions and then 4: Clear
az. This sets the variables az to their default values
and makes them ready for use. Accept OK by
pressing .
3. Enter (a + bi)^5 and press . You will see a
small arrow at the end of the answer line
indicating that there are more terms. Use the
arrows on the NavPad to see more of the
expansion. The full expansion is shown as
a(a
4
10a
2
b
2
+ 5b
4
) + (5a
4
10a
2
b
2
+ b
4
)bi.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Pascals Triangle coefficients
MENU OPTN
F6
s
F3
F3
EXE
116 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Negative powers of z
Your earlier studies have shown that z
1
= . Similarly, z
3
= .
Fractional powers of z
Fractional powers of complex numbers generally follow the same rules as with real
numbers.
=
Our discussion here will deal only with the square root of z, where .
Use Pascals Triangle to expand (2  3i)
3
.
THINK WRITE
Use the third row of Pascals Triangle
to expand (1 3 3 1).
Use brackets to keep the negative sign of
the second term.
(2 3i)
3
= 1(2
3
) + 3(2)
2
(3i) + 3(2)(3i)
2
+ (3i)
3
Simplify the expression. = 8 36i + 54i
2
27i
3
= 8 36i 54 + 27i
= 46 9i
1
2
30
WORKEDExample
1
z

1
z
3

Evaluate (3  i)
4
.
THINK WRITE
First nd the expansion with a positive
power. Use the fourth row of Pascals
Triangle to expand (1 4 6 4 1).
(3 i)
4
= 3
4
+ 4(3)
3
(i) + 6(3)
2
(i)
2
+ 4(3)(i)
3
+ (i)
4
(Use brackets to keep the negative sign
with the second term.)
= 81 108i 54 + 12i + 1
Simplify to obtain the standard form. = 28 96i
Express this as the denominator then
multiply by the complex conjugate.
(3 i)
4
=
(3 i)
4
=
(3 i)
4
=
Write the nal expression in standard
form.
(3 i)
4
= + i
1
2
3
1
28 96i ( )

28 96i + ( )
28 96i + ( )

28 96i +
784 9216 +

28 96i +
10 000

4
7
2500

6
625

31
WORKEDExample
z
p
q

z
p
q
z z
1
2

=
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 117
Express in standard form.
THINK WRITE
Let be a complex number such
as (a + bi), where a, b R.
Let = a + bi
All dialogue given in the write
column should appear as
communication in your working.
Square both sides:
3 + 4i = (a + bi)
2
3 + 4i = a
2
+ 2abi b
2
Equating real and imaginary terms:
3 = a
2
b
2
[1]
4 = 2ab [2]
a = = from [2] [3]
Substitute for a into [1]
3 = b
2
3 = b
2
3b
2
= 4 b
4
b
4
+ 3b
2
4 = 0
(b
2
1)(b
2
+ 4) = 0
Therefore, b
2
= 1, b = 1
or b
2
= 4, b = 2i
Since a and b are real numbers discard b = 2i.
Substitute for b = 1 into [3]
When b = 1, a = = 2
When b = 1, a = = 2
State the nal result in standard form. Therefore = 2 + i or 2 i
= (2 + i)
Verify this result. Check:
[(2 + i)]
2
= 4 + 4i 1 = 3 + 4i
Alternatively, you can use a graphics
calculator (such as a TINspire CAS
calculator) to verify this result.
3 4i +
1
3 4i + 3 4i +
2
4
2b

2
b

2
b

2
4
b
2

2
1

2
1

3
3 4i +
4
5
32
WORKEDExample
118 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
History
of mathematics
WI LLI AM ROWAN HAMI LTON ( 1 8 0 5 1 8 6 5 )
During his life . . .
Charles Darwin developed his theory
of evolution.
Charles Babbage developed the
rst automatic digital computer.
Gregor Mendel laid the
mathematical foundation for the
science of genetics.
Sometimes considered the second
greatest mathematician of the English
speaking world, after Sir Isaac Newton,
William Hamilton was born in Dublin, Ireland,
on 3 August 1805. Even the fact that Hamilton
did not attend school before he entered college
did not deter his thirst for knowledge. By the
age of three he was skilled at reading and
arithmetic, by the age of ve he read and
translated Latin, Hebrew and Greek, and by the
age of 14 he could speak 14 languages.
By the age of 21 he published a paper entitled
ATheory of Systems of Rays, introducing and
developing concepts that created the eld of
mathematical optics. Propelled by the success of
this work, at 22 he was unanimously voted into
the chair of the professor of astronomy at Trinity
College (Dublin), even though he was still an
undergraduate and had not applied for the
position.
In 1833 Hamilton further
developed his work on complex
numbers and in 1843 he released
what he considered to be his
greatest discovery the algebra
of quaternions. With these
ordered sets of four numbers,
magnitude and direction in
3dimensional space could be
determined. The fact that
multiplication of quaternions is
not commutative led to the
development of the rst ring in which
the commutative property does not hold.
This inspiration came to him while he was
crossing the Brougham Bridge in Dublin and
he left the inscription i
2
= j
2
= k
2
= ijk = 1
in a stone in the bridge. A stamp featuring
these quaternions was issued in Ireland in
1983.
His work also led to the development of the
concepts of vectors, scalars and tensors, which
you will encounter later in your studies.
Plagued throughout his life with alcoholism,
he died in 1865.
Research
1. Find out more about quaternions.
2. Research the notion of rings.
1. If z
1
= r
1
cis
1
and z
2
= r
2
cis
2
, then:
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis (
1
+
2
)
cis (
1
2
).
2. A complex number z
n
= (a + bi)
n
can be expanded using Pascals Triangle to
generate the coefcients of each term.
3. Negative powers of z: z
n
=
4. Fractional powers of complex numbers:
z
1
z
2

r
1
r
2
 =
1
z
n

z
p
q

z
p
q
=
remember
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 119
Basic operations on complex
numbers in polar form
1 Express each of the following in the form r cis where (, ].
a 2 cis cis
b 5 cis cis
c 6 cis cis
d cis cis
e cis cis
2 Express the resultant complex numbers in question 1 in standard form.
3 Express the following products in polar form.
a (2 + 2i)( + i)
b ( 3i)(2 2i)
c (4 + i)(1 i)
4 Express each of the following in the form r cis where (, ].
a 12 cis
b 36 cis
c
d
e
5 If z = and w = 2 cis then express each of the following in:
i polar form ii standard form.
6 If z = 1 i and w = , write the following in standard form.
a z
3
b w
4
c z
4
d w
5
a z
4
b w
3
c z
3
d w
5
e f z
2
w
3
2F
WORKED
Example
26
4
 3
2

2
3
 4
3

3
4
 5
3
5
6

2
2

7
7
12

2
5
12

WORKED
Example
27
WORKED
Example
28 3
3 3
4 3
WORKED
Example
29
5
6
 4 cis
3

3
4
 9 cis
6

20 cis
2

5 cis
5

4 3 cis
4
7
 6 cis
11
14

3 5 cis
7
12

2 10 cis
5
6

WORKED
Example
30
3 cis
3
4

4

WORKED
Example
31
3 i +
z
3
w
4

6 cis
3
4

20 cis
3

6 5 cis
4

6 cis
2
3

2 7 cis
6

2 a
b
c
d
e
3 2 3 2 i +
10 10 3 i +
3 10 3 10 i
6
2

3 2
2
 i +
21 7 i
4 2 cis
5
12

8 3 cis
2

8 2 cis
12

3 cis
2

4 cis
11
12

2 cis
3
10

2 2 cis
3
14

3 2
4
 cis
7
12

5 a i
ii
b i
16 cis
ii
16
c i
9 cis
ii
9
d i ii
3 3 cis
4

3 6
2

3 6
2
i +
32 cis
3
4
 16 2 + 16 2i
1
4

i
1
8

+
i
1
4

1
4

3
64

1
64
i
0.171 0.046
i
16
120 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 Determine in standard form.
8 Write in the form x + yi.
9
a is equal to:
b If then is:
c If and w = 2 + 2i then is equal to:
10 If and , nd the modulus and the argument of .
11 If z = 4 + i and w = 3 2i, determine (z + w)
9
.
12 Find z
6
+ w
4
, if and w = 2 2i.
13 If , and , nd the modulus and
the argument of .
14 Express each of the following in standard form:
A B C D 6i E
A 1 + i B C (1 i) D E
A 4 + 4i B C 2 D 4i E 8
a b
c d
Complex numbers: applications
1 Choose a complex number that falls in the rst quadrant of the complex plane.
Calculate the rst 8 powers of this number and investigate any pattern that
exists between the modulus of each of the powers. Plot each power on an
Argand diagram. What do you notice?
2 Let z = r cis , a complex number. Find, in terms of r and :
a iii z
2
= z.z ii z
3
= z.z
2
iii z
4
= z.z
3
iv z
5
= z.z
4
v z
6
= z.z
5
vi z
7
= z.z
6
b Write the moduli of the powers of z as a sequence.
c What do you notice about the sequence given in part b?
2 2i + ( )
2
1 3i ( )
4
3 i ( )
6
2 2 3i ( )
3

multiple choice
5 cis
3

8 cis
6

6 2i 2 10i 6 3 6 6
z ( 6 2) + ( 6 2 )i + = 2z
3
2i
1
64
 2 i + 1 2i
z 1 3i =
w
4
z
3

2 3
z 2 cis
3
4
 = w 3 cis
6
 =
z
6
w
4

z 2 2i =
z
1
5 cis
2
5

= z
2
2 cis
3
8
 = z
3
10 cis
12
 =
z
1
2
z
2
3
z
3
4

WORKED
Example
32
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Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 2.2
5 12i + 5 12i
2 2i + 3 4i
2 a iii
z
2
=
r
2
cis 2
iii
z
3
=
r
3
cis 3
iii
z
4
=
r
4
cis 4
iv
z
5
=
r
5
cis 5
iv
z
6
=
r
6
cis 6
vi
z
7
=
r
7
cis 7
GP,
a
=
r r
=
r
T
n
=
ar
n
1
Geometric progression
64 3 64i
1
8
9

6
 ,
16
16
i
64
+
64
i
2
5

120
 ,
(3
+
2
i
)
(3
2i)
1 2 + 1 2 + i + ( ) (2 i)
C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 121
3 As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter the equation z
2
= 1 has two
solutions, z = 1, whereas the equation z = 1 has only one solution, z = 1. The
equation z
3
= 1 has 3 solutions, z = 1, cis and cis .
Graph these solutions on an Argand diagram. Express all solutions in both
rectangular and modarg form.
4 Let z = x + yi. Therefore  z  = , and  z 
2
= x
2
+ y
2
, where this is the
general equation of a circle, of radius  z , about the origin. Graph this circle and
fully label the path of the rotating z as it moves about the origin. Therefore,
what is the meaning of the statement  z  < x + yi? Sketch  z  < 4 and  z  > 1.
5 Research the life of William Rowan Hamilton and his contribution to the study
of complex numbers.
6 Research the area of mathematics called fractals. You will investigate this
fascinating area in more detail later in your studies.
7 In Chapter 1, you were introduced to the term transcendental numbers
irrational numbers that are not algebraic, that is, cannot be produced by the
algebraic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and
by taking roots. Pi () is one such transcendental number and e is another,
where e = e
1
= 1
0
+ + + + . . .
(and 3! = 3 2 1, and so on. The symbol 3! is referred to as factorial 3.)
The function e
x
is referred to as the exponential function.
e
x
= x
0
+ + + + . . .
The graph of the function e
x
is especially interesting because the slope of the
curve at any point equals the value of the curve, at that point. That is, the slope
of a tangent to the curve at x = e
2
is e
2
.
Euler discovered a special relationship between e and i,
where e
i
= i
0
+ + + + . . .
Write four expressions for e
i
, with increasing numbers of terms and simplify
them where possible. The alternating positive and negative signs suggest that
the expression is approaching a particular value as the number of terms in the
series increases. You might nd it more methodical to list the results as each
new term is added as you creep closer to the value. Can you suggest what that
value might be? What is the modulus of this number? Use a graphics calculator
to evaluate e
i
.
2
3

2
3

x
2
y
2
+
1
1
1!

1
2
2!

1
3
3!

1
4
4!

x
1
1!

x
2
2!

x
3
3!

x
4
4!

i
1
1!

i
2
2!

i
3
3!

i
4
4!

3
z
1
=
1
=
cis 0
z
2
=
1
+
i
=
cis
z
3
=
i
=
cis
0 z
1
z
3
z
2
2
3
2
3
Im (z)
Re (z)
3
2
3

3
2
3

122 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction to complex numbers
We dene the imaginary number i as having the property that i
2
= 1.
A complex number z = x + yi with x, y R and C = {z: z = x + yi, x, y R} denes
the set of complex numbers.
The real part of z is x and is written as Re (z).
The imaginary part of z is y and is written as Im (z).
Basic operations using complex numbers
If z and w are two complex numbers such that z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c,
d R then:
1. z = w if and only if (i.e. iff) a = c and b = d
2. z + w = (a + c) + (b + d)i
3. z w = (a c) + (b d)i
4. kz = ka + kbi, for k R
5. z w = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i.
Conjugates and division of complex numbers
If z = a + bi and w = c + di for a, b, c, d R then:
1. The conjugate of z is = a bi.
2. z. = a
2
+ b
2
.
3. = +
Radians and coterminal angles
A radian is the angle subtended by an arc of the radius of a circle. That is, an arc of
2r subtends an angle of 2 radians.
2 radians = 360. 1 radian 57.3.
Coterminal angles differ by a multiple of 360.
The polar form of complex numbers
The magnitude (modulus or absolute value) of z = x + yi is the length of the line
segment from (0, 0) to z. It is denoted by z, x + yi or mod z.
z = and z = .
The argument of z, arg (z), is the angle measurement anticlockwise of the positive
Real axis and arg (z) = where = tan
1
.
z = x + yi can be expressed in polar form as z = r cos + r sin i = r cis .
Arg (z) is the angle in the range < and is called the principal argument.
Basic operations on complex numbers in polar form
If z
1
= r
1
cis
1
and z
2
= r
2
cis
2
, then:
1. z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis(
1
+
2
)
2. cis(
1
2
)
A complex number z
n
= (a + bi)
n
can be expanded using Pascals Triangle to
generate the coefcient of each term.
z
n
=
summary
z z
z
z
w

ac bd +
c
2
d
2
+

bc ad ( )i
c
2
d
2
+

x
2
y
2
+ z z
2
y
x

z
1
z
2

r
1
r
2
 =
1
z
n

C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 123
Questions 1 and 2 refer to the complex number .
1
The real and imaginary parts of z respectively are:
2
The Argand diagram which correctly represents z is:
3 Simplify i
6
i
3
(i
2
1).
Questions 4 and 5 refer to the complex numbers u = 5 i and v = 4 + 3i.
4
The expression 2u v is equal to:
5
The expression uv is equal to:
6
If z = 5 12i, decide which statement is true concerning iz.
A iz =
B iz = 12 5i
C The point z is rotated 90 clockwise.
D Re (iz) = 0
E Im (iz) = i
A and 4 B and 4 C 4 and D 4 and E and 4i
A B C
D E
A 1 4i B 3 7i C 6 5i D 5 + 8i E 14 + i
A 9 + 2i B 20 3i C 20 + 3i D 15 4i E 23 + 11i
CHAPTER
review
z 2 5 4i =
multiple choice
2A
2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5
multiple choice
2A
Im(z)
0
4
Re (z)
5 2
z
Im(z)
0
4
Re (z)
5 2
z
Re (z)
0
4
Im(z)
5 2
z
Re (z)
0
4
Im (z)
5 2
z
Im (z)
0
4
Re (z)
5 2
z
2A
2B
multiple choice
multiple choice
2B
multiple choice
2B
13
2
i
124 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 If z = 3 8i, then nd:
8 If z = 2 5i, u = 3 + i and w = 1 + 2i evaluate:
9
Im is equal to:
10
If z = 3i and w = 4 i then z is equal to:
11
The expresion simplies to:
12 If z = 6 2i and w = 5 + 3i, express in the form a + bi, a, b R.
13 Convert the following common angle measures to radians.
14 Convert the following radian measures to degrees.
15
Of the following pairs of angles, the pair that is coterminal is:
16
Arg (2 2i) is equal to:
17
The polar form of 3 + 3i is:
18 If z = 7 7i, express z in polar form.
a Im (z
2
) b a and b if z
3
= a + bi.
a z 2u + 3w b z c uz + w
A 2 B C D E 2
A 12 + 3i B 12 i C 7 + 3i D 12 3i E z = 4 2i
A B 3 + 7i C D 4 2i E 3 i
a 30 b 180
a b
A 40, 220 B , C 135, 435 D , E 180, 360
A B C D E 2
A B C
D
E
2B
2B,C
multiple choice
2C
1 2i +
1 i

1
2

3
2

2
3

multiple choice
2C
w
2C
multiple choice
2i
1 i +

3
2 i

1
5

2
5
i +
1
4

3
4
i
2C
z
w

2D
2D
3
4

7
6

multiple choice
2D
4

9
4

3
2

5
2

multiple choice
2E
4

3
4

4

2E
multiple choice
3 2 cis
4
 3 2 cis
3
4
 3 cis
3
4

3 cis
4

3 2 cis
5
4

2E
48
a
=
549,
b
=
296
11
i
29 6 5
1
17
 12 14i ( )
6

135
210
7 2 cis
3
4

C h a p t e r 2 N u m b e r s y s t e m s : c o m p l e x n u m b e r s 125
19
How many degrees apart are two consecutive roots of z
8
= 1 on the unit circle?
20
If z
1
= 10 cis and z
2
= 5 cis then z
1
z
2
in polar form is:
21
In standard form, is equal to:
22 If z = 3 4i, write the following in standard form.
Modelling and problem solving
1 Let z = 2 cis and w = 2 cis .
a Express in the form r cos + r sin i.
b Express z and w in Cartesian form.
c Express in Cartesian form.
d Using the results of parts a and c, nd the exact values for:
i cos
ii sin
iii tan .
e By letting z = 2 cis and w = 2 cis and following parts a to c for zw instead of ,
deduce that tan .
2 Let u = 1 i.
a i Find u .
ii Find Arg u + Arg(2 ).
b Let z = x + yi, x, y R, and z  = z 2u.
Find the value of x when y = 0.
A 180 B 90 C 135 D 225 E 45
A 50 cis B 15 cis C 2 cis D 15 cis E 2 cis
A 4 + 4i B 4 4i C 4 4i D 4 + 4i E 36 36i
a z
4
b z
3
c
multiple choice
2E
multiple choice
2F
4

6

12

5
12

12

12

5
12

multiple choice
2F
12 2 cis
3
4
 3 cis
2

2F
z
3

4

z
w

z
w

12

12

12

4

6

z
w

5
12
 2 3 + =
u
u
u
527336
i
i
117
15 625

44
15 625
 +
(1
2
i
)
cos
+
sin
i
12

12

2 6 6 2 ( )i + +
4

6 2 +
4

6 2
4

2 3
Check with your teacher.
x
=
3
2
0
z
= 1 +
i
,
w
=
+
i 3 2 2
126 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3 Consider the complex number z such that z = 3 + 2i.
a Find the value for iz, i
2
z, i
3
z and i
4
z. (Give answers in standard x + yi form.)
b Comment on the value of i
4
z.
c Plot each number from part a on the same Argand diagram.
d Use a pair of compasses to draw a circle whose centre is at the origin and which passes
through each point on the diagram.
e Find the radius of the circle, giving your answer in exact (surd) form.
f Carefully study the ve points on your diagram. What transformation is required to
transform:
i point z into point iz?
ii point iz into point i
2
z?
iii point i
2
z into point i
3
z?
g On the Argand diagram, what transformation takes place when a complex number is
multiplied by i?
h For a complex number z such that z = x + yi, describe the curve that all points representing
numbers of the form zi
n
(that is, z, zi, zi
2
, zi
3
, and so on) would lie on an Argand diagram.
Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 2
eBookplus eBookplus
iz
=
2
+
3
i
,
i
2
z
=
3
2
i
,
i
3
z
=
2
3
i
,
i
4
z
=
3
+
2
i
i
4
z
=
z
3 c d
Re z
Im z
3
4
1
2
2
1
3
4
i
4
z
i
3
z i
2
z
iz
2 3 4 2 3 4 1 1
0
Re z
Im z
3
4
1
2
2
1
3
4
i
4
z
i
3
z
i
2
z
iz
2 3 4 2 3 4 1 1
0
13
i
,
ii
and
iii
Onequarter turn
(rotation by 90
) in an
anticlockwise direction.
Onequarter turn in an anticlockwise direction
Circle with centre at the origin and radius
r x
2
y
2
+ =
Re z
Im z
z = x + yi
r
y
x
zi
3
zi
2
zi
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Matrices and applications
In this
chapter
3A Operations with matrices
3B Multiplying matrices
3C Powers of a matrix
3D Multiplicative inverse and
solving matrix equations
3E The transpose of a matrix
3F Applications of matrices
3G Dominance matrices
3
Matrices
128 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction to matrices
Four towns are connected by roads as shown in the gure. There is one road connecting
A and B, two roads connecting A and C and so on. This information may be rep
resented as shown in the table.
If the headings at the top and side of this display are removed, an array of numbers
only is left:
This array of numbers is called a matrix (plural, matrices).
The arrangement of numbers in matrices is an extension of our number system and,
as we will see, the rules that govern matrix calculations have many similarities with the
arithmetic of numbers. Matrices are particularly useful in solving complex problems in
linear programming.
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.
The numbers in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix.
The matrix above is a 4 4 matrix as it has 4 rows and 4 columns. We say the order
of the matrix is 4 by 4.
The matrix is a 3 2 matrix because it has 3 rows and 2 columns. Note the
square brackets used to enclose the array.
A matrix with m rows and n columns is called an m n matrix. We say the order
of the matrix is m n. The dimensions of a matrix are always given as the number
of rows multiplied by the number of columns.
The elements of the matrix are referred to by the row and then by the column pos
ition. In the 3 2 matrix above, the row 1, column 1 element is 2, the row 3, column 1
element is 1 and the row 1, column 2 element is 0.
To
A B C D
From
A 0 1 2 0
B 1 0 0 1
C 2 0 0 3
D 0 1 3 0
A
B
C
D
0 1 2 0
1 0 0 1
2 0 0 3
0 1 3 0
2 0
1 4
1 2
denition of a matrix as
data storage and as a
mathematical tool
dimension of a matrix
matrix operations addition
and subtraction, transpose,
multiplication by a scalar,
multiplication by a matrix
inverse of a matrix
solution of simple matrix
equations
denition and properties of
the identity matrix
singular and nonsingular
matrices
applications of matrices in
both liferelated and purely
mathematical situations
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 129
We often use capital letters as symbols for matrices. Thus we may write
A =
In general, the elements of a matrix A are referred to as a
i j
where i refers to the
row position and j refers to the column position.
That is, A = , depending on the order of the matrix
where A is an m n matrix.
The row 1, column 1 element is a
11
.
The row 3, column 1 element is a
31
and so on.
2 0
1 4
1 2
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
1n
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
2n
a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
a
3n
a
m1
a
m2
a
m3
a
m4
a
mn
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
For each of the following give the order of the matrix, if it exists, and where possible write
down the elements in row 2, column 1 and row 1, column 3.
A = B = C = D =
THINK WRITE
A has 3 rows of numbers and 2 columns
of numbers.
A is a 3 2 matrix.
B has 2 rows and 3 columns. B is a 2 3 matrix.
C has 3 rows and 1 column. C is a 3 1 matrix.
D is not a rectangular array of numbers
as it does not have all positions lled.
D is not a matrix.
The row 2, column 1 element is the
number in the second row and the rst
column.
The row 1, column 3 element is the
number in the rst row and the third
column.
In A and C there is no row 1, column 3
element since there is no third column
in either matrix.
2 5
3 6
4 7
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
2
3
5 0 2
6
1
2
3
4
5
Matrix
Row 2,
column 1
element
Row 1,
column 3
element
A 3
B 1 3
C 2
6
7
1
WORKEDExample
130 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Operations with matrices
Addition
The sports coordinator at Mathglen State High School kept records of the number of
rst, second and third ribbons awarded to competitors in each house at the swimming
and athletics carnivals and sports events.
The results were:
To nd the total number of rst, second and third places for each house, the swimming,
athletics and sports results may be added. The elements in corresponding positions are
added to give the total number of rst, second and third places for each house:
Adding the elements for each event results in the following matrix:
Addition of matrices is performed by adding corresponding elements.
House
Swimming
House
Athletics and sports
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Hamilton 25 28 24 Hamilton 35 35 27
Leslie 38 30 35 Leslie 33 34 39
Barnes 34 36 35 Barnes 30 33 36
Cunningham 35 38 38 Cunningham 34 34 30
House 1st 2nd 3rd
Hamilton
Leslie
Barnes
Cunningham
25 + 35 = 60
38 + 33 = 71
34 + 30 = 64
35 + 34 = 69
28 + 35 = 63
30 + 34 = 64
36 + 33 = 69
38 + 34 = 72
24 + 27 = 51
35 + 39 = 74
35 + 36 = 71
38 + 30 = 68
60 63 51
71 64 74
64 69 71
69 72 68
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 131
Subtraction
The subtraction of matrices is also performed by the usual rules of arithmetic on
corresponding elements of the matrices. It follows that:
1. Subtraction of matrices is performed by subtracting corresponding elements.
2. Addition and subtraction of matrices can be performed only if the matrices are
of the same order; that is, they have the same number of rows and columns.
Furthermore, addition of matrices is commutative. That is, for two matrices A and B of
the same order:
A + B = B + A
Multiplication by a scalar
Consider the matrix B =
To nd 3B we could use repeated addition: 3B = B + B + B
=
=
3B could have been calculated more efciently by multiplying each element of B by 3.
If A = B = C =
nd, if possible:
a A + B b A B c B C.
THINK WRITE
a Add the numbers in the corresponding
positions of each matrix.
a A + B =
=
b Subtract the numbers in the corresponding
positions of each matrix.
b A B =
=
c Subtraction cannot be performed since the order
of B is 2 2 and the order of C is 2 3.
c B C cannot be calculated because B
and C are of different orders.
1 2
3 4
1 4
2 3
2 2 0
2 2 0
1 2
3 4
1 4
2 3
+
2 6
5 7
1 2
3 4
1 4
2 3
0 2
1 1
2
WORKEDExample
1 4
2 3
1 4
2 3
1 4
2 3
1 4
2 3
+ +
3 12
6 9
132 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Thus 3B = 3 = =
The number 3 in the term 3B is called a scalar because it is a real number. Terms
such as 3B refer to scalar multiplication of matrices.
When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is multiplied
by the scalar.
1 4
2 3
3 1 3 4
3 2 3 3
3 12
6 9
If and nd:
a 2A b 5B c 2A + 5B d 4(A + B) e 2(B A).
THINK WRITE
a Multiply each element of A by 2. a 2 =
=
b Multiply each element of B by 5. b 5 =
=
c Add the two matrices found in parts a
and b.
c 2 + 5 =
=
d Add A and B inside the brackets. d 4( + ) =
= 4
Multiply each element of the resulting
matrix by 4.
=
e Subtract A from B (inside the brackets). e 2( ) =
= 2
Multiply each element of the resulting
matrix by 2.
=
A
2 3
4 1
= B
3 3
3 2
=
2
2 3
4 1
4 6
8 2
5
3 3
3 2
15 15
15 10
4 6
8 2
15 15
15 10
+
19 9
7 8
1
4
2 3
4 1
3 3
3 2
+
5 0
1 1
2
20 0
4 4
1
2
3 3
3 2
2 3
4 1
1 6
7 3
2
2 12
14 6
3
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 133
There are some obvious but important features of scalar multiplication. If A and B
are matrices of the same order and a, b are real numbers, then:
1. aA + bA = (a + b)A
2. aA + aB = a(A + B)
3. (ab)A = a(bA)
Operations 1 and 2 are similar to the Distributive Law of Multiplication over Addition.
Operation 3 is similar to the Associative Law of Multiplication.
If aA = 0, then a = 0 or A is a zero matrix. A zero matrix is a matrix which has all
elements equal to zero.
Equality of matrices
This leads to an important principle about the equality of matrices.
Two matrices are equal if they are of the same order and all corresponding
elements are equal; that is, if A = and B = then A = B.
Simple matrix equations
We know that to solve an algebraic equation such as 2x + 5 = 11, we:
1. subtract 5 from both sides to obtain 2x = 11 5 which gives 2x = 6
2. then, divide both sides by 2 (or multiply by ) to obtain x = 6 or x = 3.
Simple matrix equations which require the addition or subtraction of a matrix or
multiplication of a scalar can be solved in similar ways to those employed with
algebraic equations.
a b
c d
a b
c d
1
2

1
2

Solve the following matrix equations.
a b c
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
a To get A by itself multiply both
sides by .
a 5 =
=
Simplify the matrix A. =
5A
50 35
15 20
= P
3 2
1 5
+
6 9
2 4
= 2B
1 2 3
2 0 1
3 4 7
2 6 5
=
1
1
5

50 35
15 20
1
5

50 35
15 20
2
10 7
3 4
4
WORKEDExample
134 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Matrix operations can also be performed using a graphics calculator. However, tips on
how to do this appear later in the chapter and in Chapter 5, as you should have rst
practised performing these operations manually.
THINK WRITE
b To get P by itself subtract from
both sides.
b
Simplify the matrix P.
c First get 2B by itself by adding
to both sides.
c
Simplify the righthand side.
Multiply both sides by to get B by itself. =
Simplify the matrix B. =
1
3 2
1 5
P
3 2
1 5
+
6 9
2 4
=
P
6 9
2 4
=
3 2
1 5
2 P
3 7
3 1
=
1
1 2 3
2 0 1
2B
1 2 3
2 0 1
3 4 7
2 6 5
=
2B
3 4 7
2 6 5
1 2 3
2 0 1
+ =
2
4 6 4
0 6 4
=
3
1
2

1
2

4 6 4
0 6 4
4
2 3 2
0 3 2
1. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.
2. An m n matrix has m rows and n columns.
3. The numbers in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix.
4. Elements are referred to by the row and column position. For example, a
i j
refers to the ith row and the jth column of matrix A.
5. Addition of matrices is performed by adding corresponding elements.
6. Subtraction of matrices is performed by subtracting corresponding elements.
7. Addition and subtraction of matrices can be performed only if the matrices are
of the same order.
8. When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is
multiplied by that scalar.
9. Two matrices are equal if they are of the same order and all corresponding
elements are equal.
remember
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 135
Operations with matrices
1 Using a table format, give the order of each of the following matrices and where
possible write down the row 2, column 1 and row 1, column 3 elements of each.
, , , ,
2 If , and , calculate:
3 Using the matrices A, B and C from question 2 nd:
4
Use , , , and
to answer questions a to e.
a The order of D is:
b Which one of the following cannot be calculated?
c 2A + 3E is equal to:
d 3C 4B is equal to:
e The element e
3 2
is equal to:
5 If and , calculate:
a A + B b A B c B + C d C A
a 2A b 2A B c 2A + 3B d 3(A + B) e 2A + 3B 4C
A 3 2 B 4 2 C 2 4 D 3 3 E 2 2
A A + E B B + C C 4D D A + B E 6(E A)
A B C D E
A B C D E
A 9 B 4 C 3 D 7 E 1
a C + D b C D c 2C d 2C + D e 2(C + D) f D
3A
WORKED
Example
1
A
5 2
8 4
= B
6
5
7
= C
1 8 10 20
= D
4 4 4
4 4 4
= E
5 0 2
1 1 8
0 5 3
=
WORKED
Example
2
A
2 3
4 7
= B
5 0
4 2
= C
1 3
2 6
=
WORKED
Example
3
multiple choice
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 3.1
Operations
with matrices
A
1 2 3
2 1 4
6 3 0
= B
5 4
1 3
= C
4 3
2 7
= D
2 3 4 1
0 2 7 5
=
E
0 5 1
2 3 9
6 4 2
=
3 16 7
2 3 30
30 17 6
1 7 2
0 2 13
12 7 2
4 15 2
6 3 8
9 7 2
2 16 3
2 7 35
30 18 6
2 19 3
2 7 35
30 18 6
32 25
2 9
8 7
10 33
31 0
5 19
1 0
0 1
32 7
5 9
C
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9
= D
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9
=
M
a
t
r
i
x
O
r
d
e
r
2
,
1
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
1
,
3
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
A
2
2
8
B
3
1
5
C
1
1
0
D
2
3
4
4
E
3
3
1
2
1
3 3
0 9
7 3
8 5
6 3
2 8
3 6
2 1
4 6
8 14
9 6
12 12
11 6
4 20
9 9
0 27
7 18
12 4
a
b
c
d
e
f
2 0 14
4 0 0
6 0 18
0 8 0
0 10 16
0 12 0
2 8 14
4 10 16
6 12 18
3 4 21
6 5 8
9 6 27
4 0 28
8 0 0
12 0 36
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9
5
136 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
6 Solve the following matrix equations.
a b
c d
7 Explain why the following matrix equation has no solution.
8 Write down the matrix representing the following maps in the form:
Use alphabetical order for the sequencing of rows and columns.
9 A mathematically inclined student has decided to keep a record of her test results in
matrix form. Her results so far are Maths B tests: 82%, 75% and 91%; Maths C tests:
54%, 68% and 82%.
Write these results in a 3 2 matrix.
10 Place the following sporting results in a suitable matrix format.
a Brisbane Lions 15 goals 14 behinds 104 points defeated Geelong 7 goals 10
behinds 52 points.
b Adelaide Crows have played 13 games for 7 wins, 5 draws and 1 loss; they have
scored 31 goals for and 18 against; their points score is 26. Fremantle have played
12 games for 444; their goals are 1715 and their points score is 16.
11 Adelaide Crows defeat Fremantle 4 goals to 1. Update the matrix in question 10b
(note that 3 points are awarded for a win and 0 for a loss).
12 Write down any 2 2 matrices called A, B and C. Check if the following are true.
a A + B = B + A
b (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)
c A B = B A
d 2A + 2C = 2(A + C)
WORKED
Example
4
3P
6 0
9 3
= Q
4 0
1 4
+
2 0
5 6
=
3M
2 0 3
4 6 1
1 0 0
2 3 2
=
2 2
6 6
3 3
N
0 4
7 6
5 2
=
2A
4 8
4 0
+
5 1 3
2 5 2
=
Number of
routes to
Number
of routes
from
b
a
A
B
C
D
J
L
M
K
2 0
3 1
2 0
6 2
1 0 1
2 3 1
2 6
1 12
2 1
Different orders
0 1 3 1
1 0 2 2
3 2 0 1
1 2 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 2
1 1 0 3
1 2 3 0
82 54
75 68
91 82
15 14 104
7 10 52
13 7 5 1 31 18 26
12 4 4 4 17 15 16
14 8 5 1 35 19 29
13 4 4 5 18 19 16
True
True
True
False
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 137
Multiplying matrices
The sports results at Mathglen State High School were:
To calculate the total points for each house, this matrix is multiplied by since 5
points are awarded for rst, 3 for second and 1 for third.
The result can be obtained using the following operations.
Hamilton: 60 5 + 63 3 + 51 1 = 540
Leslie: 71 5 + 64 3 + 74 1 = 621
Barnes: 64 5 + 69 3 + 71 1 = 598
Cunningham: 69 5 + 72 3 + 68 1 = 629
We can also write A B = C, where , and
The order of A is 4 3, B is 3 1 and C is 4 1.
Therefore, a 4 3 matrix multiplied by a 3 1 matrix gives a 4 1 matrix. Two
matrices can be multiplied only if the number of columns of the rst matrix equals the
number of rows of the second matrix.
In general, if A is of order m n and B is of order n p then A B exists and its
order is m p. Such a matrix is said to be conformable where m n multiplied by
n p results in a matrix of order m p.
The order of AB should be established before multiplying.
The procedure for multiplying two 3 3 matrices is outlined below.
If and
then
House
Position
1st 2nd 3rd
Hamilton 60 63 51
Leslie 71 64 74
Barnes 64 69 71
Cunningham 69 72 68
Position Points
1st
2nd
3rd
5
3
1
5
3
1
A
60 63 51
71 64 74
64 69 71
69 72 68
= B
5
3
1
= C
540
621
598
629
=
A
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
= B
b
11
b
12
b
13
b
21
b
22
b
23
b
31
b
32
b
33
=
138 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The rows of the rst matrix are multiplied by the columns of the second matrix.
The sum of the products of the elements of row 1 multiplied by column 1 results in the
row 1, column 1 element.
The sum of the products of the elements of row 3 multiplied by column 2 results in the
row 3, column 2 element.
AB =
a
11
b
11
a
12
b
21
a
13
b
31
+ + a
11
b
12
a
12
b
22
a
13
b
32
+ + a
11
b
13
a
12
b
23
a
13
b
33
+ +
a
21
b
11
a
22
b
21
a
23
b
31
+ + a
21
b
12
a
22
b
22
a
23
b
32
+ + a
21
b
13
a
22
b
23
a
23
b
33
+ +
a
31
b
11
a
32
b
21
a
33
b
31
+ + a
31
b
12
a
32
b
22
a
33
b
32
+ + a
31
b
13
a
32
b
23
a
33
b
33
+ +
,
a Write down the order of the two matrices.
b Which of these products exist? i AB ii BA
c Write down the order for the products which exist.
d Calculate the products which exist.
THINK WRITE
a Matrix A has 2 rows and 3
columns.
a A is a 2 3 matrix.
Matrix B has 3 rows and 2
columns.
B is a 3 2 matrix.
b i AB is the product of a 2 3
and a 3 2 matrix so it exists.
A and B are conformable.
b i AB exists since a 2 3 matrix multiplied by a
3 2 matrix results in a 2 2 matrix.
ii BA is the product of a 3 2
and a 2 3 matrix so it also
exists.
ii BA exists since a 3 2 matrix multiplied by a
2 3 matrix results in a 3 3 matrix.
c i The product of AB is a 2 2
matrix.
c i AB is a 2 2 matrix.
ii The product of BA is a 3 3
matrix.
ii BA is a 3 3 matrix.
d i Multiply the rows of matrix
A by the columns of matrix
B.
d i AB =
AB =
Simplify AB.
AB =
A
1 2 3
4 5 6
= B
2 1
0 4
5 3
=
1
2
1
1 2 3
4 5 6
2 1
0 4
5 3
1 2 + 2 0 + 3 5 1 1 + 2 4 + 3 3
4 2 + 5 0 + 6 5 4 1 + 5 4 + 6 3
2
17 16
38 34
5
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 139
Note: In Worked example 5, AB is a 2 2 matrix but BA is a 3 3 matrix. In general,
matrix multiplication is not commutative.
That is, for two matrices A and B, AB BA.
For the product AB we say that A is postmultiplied by B and B is premultiplied by A.
The identity matrix
There is one circumstance in which matrix multiplication is commutative. Look at the
following example.
This example demonstrates the only case in which matrix multiplication is always com
mutative that is, when AI = IA = A. Here, I is called the multiplicative identity matrix.
THINK WRITE
ii Multiply the rows of B by the
columns of A.
ii BA =
ii BA =
Simplify BA. ii BA =
1
2 1
0 4
5 3
1 2 3
4 5 6
2 1 1 4 + 2 2 + 1 5 2 3 + 1 6
0 1 4 4 + 0 2 4 5 + 0 3 4 6 +
5 1 3 4 + 5 2 3 5 + 5 3 3 6 +
2
2 1 0
16 20 24
17 25 33
If and , calculate AI and IA.
THINK WRITE
A and I are both 2 2 matrices so both
the products AI and IA exist and are of
order 2 2.
A 2 2 matrix multiplied by a 2 2 matrix
results in a 2 2 matrix.
Find AI using the procedure for
multiplying matrices.
Find IA using the procedure for
multiplying matrices.
A
2 3
5 4
= I
1 0
0 1
=
1
2
AI
2 3
5 4
1 0
0 1
=
2 3
5 4
=
3
IA
1 0
0 1
2 3
5 4
=
2 3
5 4
=
6
WORKEDExample
140 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The multiplicative identity matrix, I, acts in a similar fashion to the number 1 when
numbers are multiplied, where I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
An identity matrix can be dened only for square matrices; that is, for matrices of
order 1 1, 2 2, 3 3. The other feature of an identity matrix is that it has the
number 1 for all elements on the leading diagonal and 0 for all other elements.
AI = IA = A where A is a square matrix and I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
If A is not square (say it is 3 2), then A I = A means I would have to be a 2 2
matrix because a 3 2 matrix multiplied by a 2 2 matrix results in a 3 2 matrix.
But I A = A means that I would be a 3 3 matrix because a 3 3 matrix multiplied
by a 3 2 matrix results in a 3 2 matrix. However, I cannot be a 2 2 and a 3 3
matrix at the same time. Therefore I can be dened only for square matrices.
Multiplying matrices
1 , , , , ,
a Write down the order of the six matrices.
b Which of the following products exist?
c Write down the order of the products which exist.
d Calculate those products which exist.
2 a If and , calculate MN and NM.
b Is matrix multiplication commutative? That is, does MN = NM?
3 , , , , and
Calculate the following products.
a AB b AC c DO d DI e IB f BC g CD h CA i OI j ID
i AC ii CA iii DB iv BD v AE vi AI
vii IA viii IB ix EB x E
2
xi A
2
xii EC
Leading diagonal
0
0
0
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0 1 0 0
1. In general, if A is of order m n and B is of order n p then A B exists and
its order is m p; that is, A and B are conformable.
2. In general, for two matrices A and B, AB BA.
3. AI = IA = A where A is a square matrix and I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
remember
3B
WORKED
Example
5
A
2 3
4 5
= B
1 1
1 0
= C
2 4
6 8
0 1
= D
2 4
= E
2 3 1
0 4 2
= I
1 0
0 1
=
M
2 4
1 3
= N
5 2
0 4
=
WORKED
Example
6
A
2 1
0 3
= B
2 0
0 3
= C
5 2
8 3
= D
3 2
8 5
= I
1 0
0 1
= O
0 0
0 0
=
A
(2
2),
B
(2
2),
C
(3
2),
D
(1
2),
E
(2
3),
I
(2
2)
CA
,
DB
,
AE
,
AI
,
IA
,
IB
,
A
2
,
EC
(3
2), (1
2), (2
3), (2
2),
(2
2), (2
2), (2
2), (2
2)
2
0
1
4
4
4
2
2
4
5
2
2
1
8
8
6
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
1
1
1
0
8
2
1
2
8
1
3
1
4
1
5
2
4
3
0
10 20
5 10
8 26
4 12
No
4 3
0 9
2 7
24 9
0 0
0 0
3 2
8 5
2 0
0 3
10 4
24 9
31 0
0 31
10 11
16 1
0 0
0 0
3 2
8 5
d
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 141
4 a Calculate the following products.
i ii iii
b What do you notice about all of the answers?
c What term could be given to these matrices?
5
Use the matrices below to answer questions a to d.
A = , B = , C = , D = , E = , F =
a Which one of the following products does not exist?
b The order of the matrix BD is:
c Which one of the following products gives a matrix of order 2 2?
d Which one of the following represents the matrix CE:
6 The matrix below shows the number of wins, draws and losses for two soccer teams,
the Sharks and the Dolphins.
Thus the Sharks have 10 wins, 2 draws and 5 losses. If 3 points are awarded for a win,
1 for a draw and 0 for a loss:
a write down a 3 1 matrix for the points awarded
b use matrix multiplication to nd the total points for the two teams.
7 In Australian Rules Football, 6 points are awarded for a goal and 1 point for a behind.
The scores in two games were:
Southport 1812 defeated Broadbeach 1415 and Lions 1014 defeated Eagles 916.
A AD B AB C BC D FC E CE
A 2 2 B 3 3 C 2 3 D 5 3 E 4 3
A BF B AB C DC D BC E FD
A B C Does not
exist.
D E
4 3
5 4
4 3
5 4
2 3
5 8
8 3
5 2
1 2
2 5
5 2
2 1
multiple choice
3 2
0 1
2 2 4
1 3 6
2 5
1 3
0 4
1 2 3
2 0 2
4 1 3
5 2
1 3
3 2 4
20 17
1 8
8 12
5 11
8 11
4 12
5 8 4
11 11 12
20 1 8
17 8 12
10 2 5
8 7 2
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
All are
I
Multiplicative inverses
Sharks have a total of
32 points. Dolphins have
a total of 31 points.
32
31
3
1
0
142 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The rst number is for goals scored and the second is for behinds.
a Write the results in a 4 2 matrix.
b Write down the 2 1 matrix for the points.
c Use matrix multiplication to nd the total number of points scored by each team.
8 Two shops, A and B, are supplied with boxes of different brands of chocolates
Yummy, Scrummy and Creamy as shown in this table:
The cost of the boxes are Yummy $10, Scrummy $25 and Creamy $12.
a Write down the costs in a 3 1 matrix.
b Use matrix multiplication to nd the total cost for each shop.
Yummy Scrummy Creamy
Shop A 20 20 10
Shop B 10 5 10
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 3.1
History
of mathematics
OLGA TAUSSKY TODD
( 3 0 Aug us t 1 9 0 6 7 Oc t o be r 1 9 9 5 )
During her life
Mt Everest is nally climbed.
The Richter scale for measuring the strength of
earthquakes is devised.
Morse code is used by the Titanic when it sinks.
Gandhi struggles to free India from British Rule.
Olga TausskyTodd worked in the elds of
matrix theory and number theory.
She was born in Olmtz, now part of the
Czech Republic, but when she was three the
family moved to Vienna and later to Linz.
Her father died early so it became difcult for
her to continue her studies. Her father, an
industrial chemist, had encouraged her
studies in mathematics.
Olga went to the University of Vienna
where she studied mathematics and chemistry.
She completed a doctorate in 1930 with
research into algebraic number elds. After
completing her studies she was employed at
the university of Gttingen as an assistant and
worked with Helmut Ulm by editing his book
on number theory. By 1932 Olga had been
promoted to the position of tutor.
In 1935 Olga moved to Cambridge where
she undertook a research fellowship before
moving to London in 1937 to take up a
teaching position. In London she met and
later married Jack Todd.
After the Second World War, the couple
moved to America where Olga began work on
the design of computers. In 1943, she moved
to the Ministry of Aircraft where she
conducted research into stability in matrices.
This work encouraged her to look in more
detail at matrix theory.
Olga was awarded the Austrian Cross of
Honour, which is Austrias highest award; in
1964, she was named woman of the year by
the Los Angeles Times. In 1970 she was
awarded the Ford Prize for her publication on
The Sums of Squares. In 1971 she was
named Professor Emeritus at CalTech.
Questions
1. What eld of mathematics was Olgas
speciality?
2. What did Olga work on when she
moved to America?
3. What award did Olga receive from the
Austrian Government?
4. Where was Olga a professor?
Research
Find out about the uses of matrices,
especially in dynamic programming.
18 12
14 15
10 14
9 16
6
1
Southport 120, Broadbeach 99,
Lions 74, Eagles 70
10
25
12
Shop A
=
$820, Shop B
=
$345
Matrix theory and number theory
Computer development
Cross of Honour
Caltech
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 143
Powers of a matrix
A logical extension of matrix multiplication is using the power of a matrix, where
A
1
= A
A
2
= AA
A
3
= A
2
A, and so on.
In general form, A
n
= A
n 1
A, where n is a positive integer.
But what dimension can matrix A have?
Matrix powers
Investigate powers of matrices by completing the following steps. (Remember to
use pronumerals for the elements of A, not constant values.)
1 a Let matrix A be any 3 2 matrix.
b Find A
2
.
c What do you notice?
2 a Let matrix A be any 2 2 matrix.
b Find A
2
.
3 a Let matrix A be any 2 3 matrix.
b Find A
2
.
c What do you notice?
4 a What general conclusion can you make concerning the order of a matrix
that is to be raised to a power?
b Justify your conclusion by referring to the dimensions of matrices involved
in a product.
From the above investigations we can conclude that A A must be conformable;
that is, the number of columns of the rst factor in the product should be the same
as the number of rows in the second factor.
That is, A must be a square matrix where n n is multiplied by n n to get A
2
.
Hence powers of matrices are only dened for square matrices.
If A = , nd: a A
2
b A
3
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
a Write the power as a product. a A
2
= A A
A
2
=
A
2
=
1 3
1 2
1 3
1 2
1 3
1 2
2 9
3 1
7
WORKEDExample
Cannot multiply
A
A
if
A
is a 3
2 matrix
Cannot multiply
A
A
if
A
is a
If a matrix is to be raised to a power it must be a square matrix.
2
a
b
A =
x y
z w
A
2
=
A
2
=
x y
z w
x y
z w
x
2
yz + xy yw +
zx zw + zy w
2
+
3 a
b
A =
x y z
w p q
A
2
=
Not conformable
x y z
w p q
x y z
w p q
1 a
b
A
2
=
Not conformable
A =
x y
z w
p q
x y
z w
p q
x y
z w
p q
2
3 matrix
144 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Powers of a matrix
1 If A
= , nd:
a A
2
b A
3
c A
4
2 If A
= , nd:
a A
2
b A
3
c A
n
3 If A
= , nd:
a A
2
b A
3
4 If A
= :
a nd A
2
b conrm that A
2
A
= AA
2
THINK WRITE
b Write the power as the product of lesser
powers.
b A
3
= A
2
A
A
2
=
A
2
=
2 9
3 1
1 3
1 2
11 12
4 7
1. The power, n, of matrix A, in general form, is A
n
= A
n 1
A, where n is a positive
integer.
2. Powers of matrices are only dened for square matrices; that is, A has to be a
square matrix to obtain A
n
.
remember
3C
WORKED
Example
7
2 1
0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
2 3 0
0 1 1
1 1 0
2 2 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
1 1 2
1 1 1
1 0 0
26 27 0
10 13 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
16 8
0 0
8 4
0 0
4 2
0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
8 9 0
2 4 1
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 145
Applications of matrices
1 A garden supplier provides live plants for displays
in 5 penthouse patios, 7 ofce foyers, 3 banks and
4 hotels. The plants in each different type of display
are listed below.
The patio displays consist of 2 ferns, 1 camellia,
1 geranium and 2 hanging baskets.
The ofce foyer displays have 1 palm, 1 geranium,
3 hanging baskets and 2 indoor plants.
The bank displays have 1 palm, 3 camellias and
5 indoor plants.
The hotel displays have 2 palms, 3 ferns,
2 camellias, 2 hanging baskets and 5 indoor plants.
The wholesale cost of each plant bought by the supplier is:
ferns $22, palms $18, geraniums $8, camellias $15,
hanging baskets $12 and a variety of indoor plants that
cost $10 on average.
The supplier needs to be able to use this information to calculate costs of
displays, number of plants required and prots, but in this form, the information is
difcult to handle.
a Develop matrices to display the following information (labels outside the
matrices will help clarify the meaning of the elements):
iii the number of displays supplied to each type of venue
iii the number and variety of plants used in each display
iii the cost of each type of plant.
b Use matrix operations to determine the following:
iii the quantities of each plant needed to ll the orders
iii the suppliers total outlay to provide the displays
iii the charge for each type of display if the supplier adds 80% prot to the
(iii) cost.
2 A home builder advertised three
designs of Ownit Homes to entice
people to buy rather than rent their
home the Taps for $155 per week,
the Avalon for $203 per week and the
Torana for $238 per week. The weekly
payments were based on nance
available from a public nance company.
Ownit Homes received orders for 10 Taps homes, 8 Avalon homes and
12 Torana homes. The materials (given in units as stated in their building guide)
required for each home are listed below:
The Taps home requires 9 units of steel, 11 of timber, 6 of glass, 7 of paint and
20 of labour.
The Avalon home requires 12 units of steel, 14 of timber, 15 of glass, 12 of
paint and 25 of labour.
The Torana home requires 14 units of steel, 12 of timber, 12 of glass, 16 of
paint and 24 of labour.
Patio Ofce Bank Hotel
Venue:
V
=
[ 5 7 3 4 ]
T
y
p
e
a
n
d
n
u
m
b
e
r
:
H
a
n
g
i
n
g
I
n
d
o
o
r
F
e
r
n
C
a
m
e
l
l
i
a
G
e
r
a
n
i
u
m
b
a
s
k
e
t
p
l
a
n
t
P
a
l
m
T
=
2
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
3
2
1
0
3
0
0
5
1
3
2
0
2
5
2
P
a
t
i
o
O
f
f
i
c
e
B
a
n
k
H
o
t
e
l
C
o
s
t
:
C
=
2
2
1
5
8
1
2
1
0
1
8
F
e
r
n
C
a
m
e
l
l
i
a
G
e
r
a
n
i
u
m
H
a
n
g
i
n
g
b
a
s
k
e
t
I
n
d
o
o
r
p
l
a
n
t
P
a
l
m
Quantity:
Hanging Indoor
Fern Camellia Geramium basket plant Palm
Q
=
[ 22 22 12 39 49 18 ]
TC = $2192
CD
=
163.80
147.60
203.40
370.80
Patio
Office
Bank
Hotel
i
i
i
i
i
iii
146 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Multiplicative inverse and solving
matrix equations
In question 4 of exercise 3B, you should have found that the product of the matrices
was I. This means that one matrix is the multiplicative inverse of the other. We use the
symbol A
1
for the multiplicative inverse of A.
If AA
1
= A
1
A
= I, then A
1
is called the multiplicative inverse of A.
In working with numbers, a similar result would be 7
= 1 or
= 1. Numbers
such as these are called reciprocals or multiplicative inverses of each other.
To reduce costs all materials are purchased from one supplier. The prices per unit
are steel $660, timber $1140, glass $1020, paint $660 and labour is priced at $1128
per unit.
Use matrix methods to obtain the following information:
a the amount of money the bank would receive per week from the repayments on
these homes
b the total cost of raw materials for all the constructions.
3 A small bakery sells 5 main items:
sugar rolls, bread, cakes, pastry and buns.
The major ingredients (given in applicable
units) required to make one of each item
are listed below.
Sugar rolls (1 dozen) require 1 egg,
4 units of our, 0.25 of sugar, 0.25 of
shortening and 1 of milk.
Bread (1 loaf) requires 3 units of our,
0.25 of shortening.
Cake (1) requires 4 eggs, 3 units of
our, 2 of sugar, 1 of shortening and 1 of milk.
Pastry (1) requires 1 egg, 1 unit of our, 0.33 of shortening.
Buns ( 1 dozen) require 2 units of our, 3 of sugar, 1 of shortening and 1 of milk.
Two suppliers (Supplier 1 and Supplier 2) provide quotes for the ingredients, given
as ordered pairs with prices given in dollars:
eggs (1, 1.20), our (0.8, 1), sugar (1, 1.20), shortening (1.20, 1.50) and milk
(1.20, 1.20).
For one ofce function the following orders were received:
15 dozen sugar rolls, 150 loaves of bread, 45 cakes, 65 pastries and 35 dozen buns.
a Represent all the above information in matrix form taking into account
ingredients, orders, suppliers quotes.
b Use these matrices to provide a list of the amounts of the ingredients required
to ll the orders for the function.
c Which supplier provides the cheapest total quote? What savings are made by
using this supplier?
d Provide a list of selling prices (to the nearest 5 cents) if a 90% markup on the
cost prices is used to x the price.
e Calculate the total takings based on this information from part d.
1
7

4
5

5
4

$5018
$1 661 420
S
u
g
a
r
r
o
l
l
s
B
r
e
a
d
l
o
a
v
e
s
C
a
k
e
s
P
a
s
t
r
i
e
s
B
u
n
s
E
g
g
s
F
l
o
u
r
S
u
g
a
r
S
h
o
r
t
e
n
i
n
g
M
i
l
k
1
4
0
.
2
5
0
.
2
5
1
0
3
0
.
2
5
0
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
0
.
3
3
0
0
2
3
1
1
A
=
1
1
.
2
0
0
.
8
0
1
1
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
0
S
1
S
2
Q
=
Sugar rolls $11.30,
Bread loaves $5.15,
Cakes $20.50,
Pastries $4.15,
Buns $13.30
$2599.75
N
=
260 eggs, 780 units of
our, 198.75 units of sugar,
142.7 units of shortening
and 95 units of milk
Supplier 1 is cheaper by $290.56.
E
g
g
s
F
l
o
u
r
S
u
g
a
r
S
h
o
r
t
e
n
i
n
g
M
i
l
k
S
u
g
a
r
r
o
l
l
s
B
r
e
a
d
C
a
k
e
s
P
a
s
t
r
i
e
s
B
u
n
s
[
1
5
1
5
0
4
5
6
5
3
5
]
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 147
Inverse of a matrix
Consider matrix A, a 2
2 matrix, such that A
= . If a multiplicative inverse of A
exists, then A
A
1
= I.
If A
1
exists, let A
1
=
That is,
AA
1
= I
LHS =
LHS =
LHS = RHS
LHS =
If and , nd AB and hence write down the multiplicative inverse
of A.
THINK WRITE
AB will be a 2 2 matrix since A and B are both
2 2 matrices.
since 6 is a common factor
of each element.
AB = 6I
To produce I we need to multiply both sides by .
Since , the inverse of A is B.
So A
1
= B
=
=
A
4 1
6 3
= B
3 1
6 4
=
1 AB
4 1
6 3
3 1
6 4
=
6 0
0 6
=
2
6 0
0 6
6
1 0
0 1
6I = =
3
1
6
 A
1
6
 B ( ) I =
4
A
1
6
 B ( ) I =
1
6

1
6

3
6

1
6

6
6

4
6

1
2

1
6

1
2
3

8
WORKEDExample
a b
c d
x y
u v
a b
c d
x y
u v
ax bu + ay bv +
cx du + cy dv +
1 0
0 1
148 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Equating terms of the two matrices:
ax
+ bu
= 1 [1]
cx
+ du
= 0 [2]
ay
+ bv
= 0 [3]
cy
+ dv
= 1 [4]
Solving this system of simultaneous equations:
Use [1] and [2] to eliminate x by multiplying equation [1] by c and equation [2] by a.
acx
+ bcu
= c [5]
acx
+ adu
= 0 [6]
Equation [6] minus equation [5] gives:
adu
bcu =
c
u(ad
bc) =
c
u = This will replace u in A
1
.
Continue in a similar fashion to arrive at:
y = x = and v =
Therefore A
1
=
= where ad
bc
0
If ad bc
= 0 then this scalar is undened, therefore A
1
does not exist. That is, there is
no matrix that, when multiplied by A will yield I, the identity matrix. If A has no
inverse then it is said to be singular.
There is a relationship between A and A
1
which is outlined below. If A is the matrix
, proceed as follows.
1. Swap the elements on the main diagonal of A and multiply the elements
on the other diagonal by 1 . This gives the matrix .
2. Evaluate ad bc.
3. Divide each element by (ad bc) (or multiply by ).
These steps demonstrate a clear method for nding the multiplicative inverse of a
matrix.
The inverse of is .
The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written as
det A or A.
c
ad bc

b
ad bc

d
ad bc

a
ad bc

d
ad bc

b
ad bc

c
ad bc

a
ad bc

1
ad bc

d b
c a
a b
c d
d b
c a
1
ad bc ( )

A
a b
c d
= A
1
1
ad bc

d b
c a
=
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 149
Note: Only square matrices have inverses.
We will be concerned only with the inverse of 2
2 matrices at this stage in this course.
We can check that and .
C
1
is the multiplicative inverse of C if C
=
C
= I.
Singular matrices
Matrices for which the determinant equals 0 do not have an inverse, since is
undened. Such matrices are called singular matrices.
If det A
= 0 then A is singular and an inverse does not exist.
There are two special types of singular matrices: nilpotent and idempotent.
A square matrix A is nilpotent if A
2
= O where O is the zero matrix. The zero
matrix is a square matrix with all elements equal to zero. For example, the 2
2
zero matrix is .
If nd C
1
.
THINK WRITE
Write the general form of C and the
general form of its inverse.
C = C
1
=
Swap the elements on the main
diagonal of C.
Multiply the elements on the other
diagonal of C by 1.
C
1
=
=
Write down the inverse of C.
C
1
=
C
2 3
1 5
=
1
a b
c d
1
ad bc

d b
c a
2
5
2
3
1
1
2 5 ( ) 3 1 ( )

5 3
1 2
1
10 3 ( )

5 3
1 2
3
1
13

5 3
1 2
9
WORKEDExample
CC
1
I = C
1
C I =
C
1
C
1
CC
1
1
13

2 3
1 5
5 3
1 2
=
1
13

13 0
0 13
=
I =
C
1
C
1
13

5 3
1 2
2 3
1 5
=
1
13

13 0
0 13
=
I =
1
0

0 0
0 0
150 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
A square matrix A is idempotent if A
2
= A. The only nonsingular idempotent matrix is
the identity matrix.
Further matrix equations
Matrix equations of the type AX = B may be solved by using the properties of
multiplicative inverses.
A matrix equation AX = B is similar to the equation 3x = 7. To solve this we would
divide both sides of the equation by 3 (or multiply by ). To solve the matrix equation
we multiply both sides by A
1
. Since the order of multiplying matrices is important we
must be careful in which position we multiply by the inverse.
1. For AX = B
Premultiply by A
1
: A
1
AX = A
1
B
or IX = A
1
B since A
1
A = I
X = A
1
B since IX = X
2. For XA = B
Postmultiply by A
1
: XAA
1
= BA
1
or XI = BA
1
since AA
1
= I
X = BA
1
since XI = X
1. If AX = B, then X = A
1
B.
2. If XA = B, then X = BA
1
.
Show that
a is nilpotent
b is idempotent.
THINK WRITE
a Nilpotent means that A
2
= O.
Find A
2
.
a A
2
=
=
State your conclusion. A
2
= 0; therefore A is nilpotent.
b Idempotent means that A
2
= A.
Find A
2
.
b A
2
=
=
State your conclusion. A
2
= A; therefore A is idempotent.
6 3
12 6
5 2
10 4
1
6 3
12 6
6 3
12 6
0 0
0 0
2
1
5 2
10 4
5 2
10 4
5 2
10 4
2
10
WORKEDExample
1
3

C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 151
Note: A
1
cannot be inserted between 2 matrices. It can either pre or postmultiply A
on one side of a matrix equation.
In part a of Worked example 11 both sides of the equation were premultiplied by A
1
;
in part b both sides were postmultiplied by A
1
. Remember that the matrix and its
inverse must be next to each other so that AA
1
= I.
Fractional scalars should be left outside the matrix unless they give whole numbers
when multiplied by each element.
and
Find X if:
a AX = B
b XA = B.
THINK WRITE
a We require A
1
so rst calculate det A. a A =
det A = 3 0 = 3
Write down A
1
. A
1
=
Write the equation. AX = B
Premultiply both sides of the equation
by A
1
.
A
1
AX = A
1
B
Remember A
1
A = I and IX = X.
Calculate the product of A
1
and B. X =
=
b Write the equation. b XA = B
Postmultiply both sides of the equation
by A
1
.
X = BA
1
Calculate the product of B and A
1
using A
1
which was found in part a.
=
=
A
1 2
0 3
= B
2 5
2 1
=
1
1 2
0 3
2
1
3

3 2
0 1
3
4
5
6
1
3

3 2
0 1
2 5
2 1
1
3

10 13
2 1
1
2
3
1
3

2 5
2 1
3 2
0 1
1
3

6 1
6 5
11
WORKEDExample
152 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Multiplicative inverse and
solving matrix equations
1 If and , nd AB and hence write down:
a the inverse of A b the inverse of B.
2 If and , nd MN. Hence write down M
1
and N
1
.
3 Calculate the determinants of the following matrices.
4 Write down the inverses of each matrix in question 3.
5
Using the matrices below, select the correct answer in questions a to d.
, and
a Det P is equal to:
b R
1
is equal to:
a b c
d e f
A 10 B 2 C 10 D 2 E 8
A B C
D E
1. If AA
1
= A
1
A = I, then A
1
is called the multiplicative inverse of A.
2. The inverse of A = is A
1
=
The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written
as det A or  A.
3. If det A = 0 then A is singular and an inverse does not exist.
4. (a) If AX = B, then X = A
1
B.
(b) If XA = B, then X = BA
1
.
a b
c d
1
ad bc

d b
c a
remember
3D
WORKED
Example
8
A
4 1
2 1
= B
1 1
2 4
=
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Inverse of a
2 2 matrix
M
2 6
0 1
= N
1 6
0 2
=
A
2 3
5 10
= B
2 3
4 0
= C
2 6
0 1
=
D
4 3
4 1
= E
2 1
3 5
= F
2 1
6 4
=
WORKED
Example
9
multiple choice
P
4 3
2 1
= Q
2 3
1 0
= R
8 6
4 2
=
1
8

2 6
4 8
1
8

8 6
4 2
1
40

8 6
4 2
1
40

2 6
4 8
1
40

2 6
4 8
1
a
b
AB 6
1 0
0 1
=
A
1
1
6
B =
B
1
1
6
 A =
2
,
MN 2
1 0
0 1
, =
M
1 1
2
 N =
N
1 1
2
 M =
5 12
2
14 7
8
4 a
b
c
d
e
f
1
5

10 3
5 2
1
12

0 3
4 2
1
2

1 6
0 2
1
8

1 3
4 4
1
7

5 1
3 2
1
14

4 1
6 2
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 153
c Det (PQ) is equal to:
d If QX = R, then X is equal to:
6 Write down a 2 2 matrix which is singular.
7 ,
Find:
8 Explain why these matrices do not have an inverse.
9 If and , nd:
10 Show that the following matrices are nilpotent.
11 Show that the following matrices are idempotent.
12 Let , , . Find X if:
13 , and X = .
Solve these matrix equations.
A 30 B 10 C 10 D 30 E 20
A B C
D E
a C
1
b D
1
c CD d (CD)
1
e C
1
D
1
f D
1
C
1
a b c
a AB b (AB)
1
a b c
a b c
a AX = B b XA = B c XC = A d AX = C
e ABX = C f CX = C g XB = I h A
1
BX = C
a b
1
3

12 6
0 10
1
3

12 6
0 10
1
3

12 6
0 10
1
3

6 28
2 8
1
3

6 28
2 8
C
2 6
0 1
= D
0 2
2 1
=
D
2 1
4 2
= E
2 4
5 10
= F
1 4
2 5
3 6
=
A
4 0
1 1
= B
0 2
1 0
=
WORKED
Example
10a
4 2
8 4
10 20
5 10
6 9
4 6
WORKED
Example
10b
6 3
10 5
4 4
5 5
1 0
5 0
WORKED
Example
11
A
2 3
4 5
= B
5 5
2 1
= C
0 1
6 6
=
A
3 4
1 2
= B
6 1
2 1
=
x
y
AX
2
4
= BX
15
7
=
Answers will vary.
7 a
b
c
d
e
f
1
2

1 6
0 2
1
4

1 2
2 0
12 2
2 1
1
8

1 2
2 12
1
8

11 2
4 0
1
8

1 2
2 12
D
det
=
0
E
det
=
0
F
Not a square matrix
Check with
your teacher.
9
a
b
0 8
1 2
1
8

2 8
1 0
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
or
1
2

31 22
24 18
1
2

5 5
14 8
1
6

6 2
6 4
1
2

18 23
12 16
1
30

78 103
24 34
1 0
0 1
1
15

1 5
2 5
1
15

132 114
186 162
1
5

44 38
62 54
a b
2
1
2
3
S
L
E
1
4
:
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
i
d
e
m
p
o
t
e
n
t
m
a
t
r
i
c
e
s
w
h
e
r
e
t
h
e
m
a
t
r
i
x
,
A
,
i
s
i
d
e
m
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
f
i
t
h
a
s
t
h
e
p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y
A
2
=
A
.
12
Check with
your teacher.
S
L
E
1
3
:
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
n
i
l
p
o
t
e
n
t
m
a
t
r
i
c
e
s
w
h
e
r
e
t
h
e
m
a
t
r
i
x
,
A
,
i
s
n
i
l
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
f
i
t
h
a
s
t
h
e
p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y
A
2
=
O
,
(
O
i
s
t
h
e
z
e
r
o
m
a
t
r
i
x
)
.
154 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
14 Find the value of x and y by solving these matrix equations.
The transpose of a matrix
The transpose of matrix A is A, where A = and A = . The transpose of
a matrix is an interchange of rows and columns (row 1 becomes column 1 and so on).
Consider the following laws that apply to the transpose of matrices A and B:
1. (A) = A
2. (A + B) = A + B
3. (kA) = kA
4. (AB) = BA
5. AA is a symmetric matrix [that is, (AA ) = AA].
The proofs of these laws are given as problems in exercise 3E.
The transpose of a matrix
1 Prove that for any 2 2 matrix A, (A) = A.
2 Show that for A = and B = , (A + B) = A + B.
3 Show that for k = 2 and A = , (kA) = kA.
4 Show that for A = and B = , (AB) = BA.
5 Show that for any 2 2 matrix, AA is symmetrical.
a b
c d
3 4
1 5
x
y
2
7
=
2 3
4 1
x
y
8
2
=
4 2
3 2
x
y
14
12
=
1 3
2 3
x
y
5
2
=
a b
c d
a c
b d
1. When required to prove a statement is true:
(a) do not assume it is true and use the statement in your proof
(b) work only one side of the statement at a time, not both together
(c) do not use actual constant values for the elements, use pronumerals only.
2. If you are asked to show a statement is true, you are expected to use actual
values as given.
remember
3E
1 3
0 2
0 1
1 2
3 1
0 1
3 4
1 2
0 1
1 0
x
=
2,
y
=
1
x
=
1
, y
=
2
x
=
7,
y
=
4
x
=
2,
y
=
3
Check with your teacher.
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 155
Applications of matrices
Application 1: Simultaneous equations
As we saw in questions 13 and 14 from exercise 3D, matrices may be used to solve
linear simultaneous equations. The pair of equations may be written in the form AX = B
where A is the matrix of the coefcients of x and y in the equations, X = and B is
the matrix of the numbers on the righthand side of the simultaneous equations.
A is called the coefcient matrix.
For example, the simultaneous equations:
ax + by = u
cx + dy = v
can be expressed as the matrix equation:
=
which is of the form AX = B. Here is called the coefcient matrix, the
variable matrix and the constant matrix.
As we have seen, this equation can be solved by using:
A
1
AX = A
1
B
X = A
1
B
x
y
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
Solve 3x y = 16 and 2x + 5y = 5 by matrix methods.
THINK WRITE
Write the simultaneous equations under
each other making sure the variables
are in corresponding positions.
3x y = 16
2x + 5y = 5
Write the matrix equation. AX = B
=
Rearrange the equation in general form
so that X is the subject.
A
1
AX = A
1
B
IX = A
1
B
X = A
1
B
1
2
3 1
2 5
x
y
16
5
3
12
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
156 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Most graphics calculators provide a facility for calculating inverses of matrices. To
solve the equations in Worked example 12, follow these steps.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
For operations on matrices, press to display the MAIN MENU. Use the arrow
keys to highlight RUNMAT. Select it by pressing .
1. Set up the dimensions for matrix A.
(a) Press ( MAT) to enter the matrix editing
screen.
(b) Highlight Mat A and press or (DIM).
(c) Specify the number of rows, 2 in this case, and
then press .
(d) Specify the number of columns, 2 in this case,
and then press .
2. Press again to display the 2
2 array for
matrix A.
3. Enter the values for the elements of matrix A,
pressing after each number.
THINK WRITE
Calculate A
1
. A
1
=
Multiply A
1
by B. X =
=
Write the answers in the form x = . . .
and y = . . .
Note: The solution should be veried
by substituting x = 5 and y = 1 into the
original equations.
x = 5 and y = 1
4
1
17

5 1
2 3
5
1
17

5 1
2 3
16
5
1
17

85
17
x
y
5
1
=
6
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Solving matrix equations
MENU
EXE
F1
EXE F3
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXE
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 157
4. Exit the Matrix input screen by pressing .
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 to create matrix B.
6. Press again to return to the MAT screen.
7. Premultiply matrix B by the inverse of matrix A.
(a) Press then (MAT) to bring up the
matrix menu.
(b) Press (Mat) then [A] and then
[x
1
] to specify the matrix A
1
.
Press (Mat) then [B] to specify
matrix B.
8. Press to obtain the answer screen. (Press
to leave.)
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document (press / N
and select 1: Add Calculator). Press kto access
the catalog. Select Option 5 (by pressing 5) then
highlight the 2by2 matrix symbol.
2. Press . Use the arrow keys to move from one
element to the next to ll in the 2 2 matrix.
3. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor outside the
matrix, to the right. Press the power key (l) and
type in the index (1).
EXIT
EXIT
OPTN F2
F1 ALPHA
SHIFT
F1 ALPHA
EXE
EXIT
158 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
4. Press the right arrow to bring the cursor to the base
then press the multiplication key (r). The
multiplication symbol appears as a dot on the
screen.
5. Press kto access the catalog. Select Option 5
and highlight the 2by1 matrix symbol.
6. Press . Fill in the values for the 2 1 matrix.
7. Move the cursor outside the matrix, then press
to obtain the answer.
Application 2: Summarising information
We have already seen how matrices may be used to summarise information such as
townroad connections. Information which can be summarised in tabular form may
also be presented as a matrix.
In a large country town, there are three major supermarkets. Customers switch from one
to another due to advertising, better service, prices and for other reasons. A survey of 1000
customers has revealed the following information for the past month.
Best Buys started with 40% of the market; 90% of its customers remained loyal to Best
Buys but 5% changed to Great Groceries and 5% to Super Store.
Great Groceries started with a 36% market share; 85% remained loyal, 10%
transferred to Best Buys and 5% to Super Store.
Super Store started with 24% of the customers; it lost 15% to Best Buys and 5% to
great Groceries, but 80% remained.
Summarise the information in matrix form and calculate the new market shares.
13
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 159
THINK WRITE
The information may be
summarised in a 3 3 matrix with
the rows representing retention
rates and gains and the columns
representing retention rates and
losses. This may be called a
transition matrix.
Row 1 shows that Best Buys
retains 90% of its customers,
gains 10% of Great Groceries
customers and gains 15% of
Super Stores customers.
Column 1 indicates that Best
Buys retains 90% of its
customers, loses 5% to Great
Groceries and loses 5% to Super
Store. Note that each column
totals 100%.
Write the initial market shares as
a 3 1 matrix. This information is
found as the market share at the
beginning of the month.
Note: The values total 1.
The initial market share matrix is
The new market share will be the
transition matrix, converted to
decimal numbers, multiplied by
the market share matrix.
Express the new market shares as
percentages. Check the values add
up to 100%.
The new market shares are Best Buys 43.2%, Great
Groceries 33.8% and Super Store 23.0%.
1
Retention rates and losses
(%)
Best
Buys
Great
Groceries
Super
Store
Best
Buys
90 10 15
Great
Groceries
5 85 5
Super
Store
5 5 80
R
e
t
e
n
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e
s
a
n
d
g
a
i
n
s
(
%
)
2
0.40
0.36
0.24
3
0.90 0.10 0.15
0.05 0.85 0.05
0.05 0.05 0.80
0.40
0.36
0.24
0.432
0.338
0.230
=
4
1. Matrices may be used to solve simultaneous equations:
ax + by = u
cx + dy = v
The pair of equations may be written in the form AX = B,
where A = , X = and B = .
2. Matrices can also be used to summarise information which is in table form
and solve related problems; however, care must be taken in setting up the
matrices.
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
remember
160 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Applications of matrices
In the following exercise solve all problems manually then use a graphics calculator wher
ever appropriate to check your solutions.
1 Solve these simultaneous equations by matrix methods.
2 Consider these two pairs of simultaneous equations:
a Show by algebraic means that the simultaneous equations in i have no solution.
b Show that the simultaneous equations in ii have an innite number of solutions.
c Write the equations in matrix form and explain how these facts are related to the
determinant of the matrix of the coefcients.
d Draw, on two sets of axes, graphs of the two lines in each of i and ii.
e Explain how the graphs are related to parts a and b.
3
Consider the simultaneous equations: 3x
2y
= 5
y
+ 2x
= 8
a The coefcient matrix is:
b The solution to the simultaneous equations is:
4
In an alternative Australian Rules Football game, a team gains x points for a goal and y
points for a behind. In one game Cairns obtained 66 points by scoring 10 goals and 8
behinds and Townsville obtained 70 points from 12 goals and 5 behinds.
a This information is represented by which of the following matrix equations?
b The value of x
y is:
a 2x
3y = 13 and x + 2y = 3 b 3x + y = 9 and 2x + 5y = 6
c x + 4y = 2 and x 5y = 0 d 6x + 7y = 0 and 4x 3y = 0
e 4x + y = 20 and x y = 0 f 3x 2y = 0 and x y = 1
i 3x 2y = 4
6x 4y = 12
ii 3x 2y = 6
6x 4y = 12
A B C D E
A x = 2, y = 3 B x = 3, y = 2 C x = , y =
D x = 2, y = 2 E x = , y =
A B C
D E
A 5 B 4 C 6 D 3 E 2
3F
WORKED
Example
12
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Using matrices to
solve linear equations
multiple choice
3 2
1 2
5
8
3 2
2 1
3 1
2 2
3 2
2 1
13
4

19
8

4
3

7
3

multiple choice
8 10
5 12
x
y
66
70
=
10 12
8 5
x
y
66
70
=
10 8
12 5
x
y
66
70
=
8 5
10 12
x
y
66
70
=
12 10
5 8
x
y
70
66
=
(5,
1)
(10, 2)
(4, 4)
(3, 0)
(0, 0)
(
2,
3)
a
and
b
Answers will vary.
det
=
0
d i
ii
x
y
0
2 3
3
2
1
4
3
Both lines
x
y
0 2
3
In
i
there are parallel lines;
in
ii
there is only one line.
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 161
5 The sum of two numbers is 20 and their difference is 12. Find the numbers by setting
up simultaneous equations and solving by matrix methods.
6 In a factory, two types of components are processed on two separate machines. The
respective processing times on the rst machine are 18 minutes and 21 minutes, while
for the second machine the times are 4 minutes and 42 minutes. How many of each
type of component, per machine, should be processed in an 8hour shift so that both
machines are fully occupied and the output of each machine is the same?
7 In a swimming competition, 5 points are awarded for rst place, 3 for second, 2 for
third and 1 point for an unplaced result. The top competitors results were:
Place the results and points in suitable matrices and use matrix multiplication to nd
the highest points scorer.
8 Cyrils circus arrived in town last week and
during the week the number of adults, children
and pensioners attending the circus was
recorded for the rst ve shows (see table
below).
The entry cost is $20 for adults, $6 for children
and $5 for pensioners.
Set up the information in suitable matrices to
nd the total takings for the rst ve shows.
Name
Number of races
competed in
First
placings
Second
placings
Third
placings
Rania 6 2 2
Patricia 4 4
Anh 5 3 2
Mayssa 6 1 3 2
Rachel 6 2 3
Adults Children Pensioners
Monday 400 200 20
Tuesday 450 350 50
Wednesday 370 410 45
Thursday 290 380 70
Friday 420 530 65
WORKED
Example
13
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162 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Matrix multiplication
using a graphics calculator
Worked example 13 may be solved using a graphics calculator as follows.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Enter the 3 3 transition matrix as matrix A.
(For more details, see the previous graphics
calculator tip on page 156.)
(a) Press ( MAT) to enter the matrix
editing screen.
(b) Set the dimensions of A to 3 3 and press
.
(c) Enter the values of A.
2. Press .
3. Enter the 3 1 market share matrix as matrix B.
(a) Scroll down to Mat B and press .
(b) Set the dimensions to 3 1 and press
.
(c) Enter the values of B.
4. Exit the Matrix input screen by pressing .
Press again to return to the MAT screen.
5. Multiply the matrices A and B (and store as
matrix C).
(a) Press then (MAT) to bring up
the matrix menu.
(b) Press (Mat) then [A] to specify
matrix A. Press (Mat) then [B]
to specify matrix B. Press to obtain the
answer screen. Alternatively, press
[{], then then (Mat) and [C]
[}] to store as matrix C.
6. Press to obtain the answer screen. (Press
to leave.)
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document (press /N
and select 1: Add Calculator). Press kto
access the catalog. Select Option 5 then
highlight the mbyn matrix symbol.
F1
EXE
EXIT
EXE
EXE
EXIT
EXIT
OPTN F2
F1 ALPHA
F1 ALPHA
EXE
SHIFT
F1 ALPHA
SHIFT
EXE
EXIT
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 163
2. Press . Create the matrix with Number of
rows: 3 and Number of columns: 3, pressing
eto move from one box to the next. Press e
until OK is hightlighted.
3. Press to display the matrix template. Fill in
the values in the matrix using the arrow keys or
the tab key to move from one element to the
next.
4. Move the cursor to the right of the matrix and
press the multiplication (r) key. Press kto
access the catalog and highlight the mbyn
matrix symbol.
5. Press then select Number of rows: 3 and
Number of columns: 1.
6. Highlight OK and press . Fill in the values in
the 3 1 matrix.
7. Move the cursor outside the matrix and press
to obtain the answer.
164 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Dominance
matrices
Have you ever wondered how
tennis players are seeded or
ranked? It obviously has
something to do with their
performance against past
opponents. In a knockout
competition, one loss and you
are out of the competition.
Only the winners continue to
play. Dominance matrices are
often used to determine player
rankings.
The following investigation
will explain how matrices are
used to establish the seedings
or rankings of players in
roundrobin situations where
each player plays every other
player, thereby creating a
more just system of ranking.
Questions
Use a graphics calculator to nd A B for each of the following:
1 A = , B =
2 A = , B =
3 A = , B =
1 3 3
5 0 2
6 2 8
9
2
5
2.5 6.1
9.2 0.3
6.6 0.7
3.7 4.6
3.7 0.4 9.4
5.1 5.9 2.2
2 3 0 2 7
0 1 1 4 7
5 3 9 2 6
5 1 1 9 6
4 4 4 4 4
3 8
5 11
4 7
1 2
9 2
SLE 10: Investigate the use of
matrices in dominance problems
such as in predicting the next
round results (rankings) for the
national netball competition.
AB
30
55
98
=
AB
40.36 36.99 36.92
35.57 5.45 87.14
27.99 6.77 63.58
37.15 28.62 44.9
=
AB
74 67
66 4
62 40
69 42
56 48
=
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 165
Dominance matrices another
application of matrices
Consider 4 players Alan, Brian, Carlo and Denis (A, B, C, D), who on past
performances have shown that A defeats D and B, D defeats B, C defeats A and D,
and B defeats C.
This situation can be represented on a digraph a network diagram that has
arrows on the edges, where A B indicates that A defeats B.
The information from the digraph can be converted into matrix form (a dominance
matrix) as below:
M =
where 1s are used to indicate defeats and 0s to indicate otherwise. Obviously A
cant defeat A so a 0 is used along the leading diagonal.
Notice also that:
(1) there are as many 1s as there are paths
(2) corresponding elements occur on either side of the leading diagonal. That is, if
A defeats B (1), then a 0 will be stored in the B defeats A element on the
opposite side of the leading diagonal.
When the elements of each of the rows are added they yield a dominance vector,
showing how many players each has defeated.
V =
This result can be readily checked from the original digraph by counting the
number of arrows out of each node.
Note, from now on the row/column labels will be omitted.
It can be seen from this information that A and C are ranked equally, and B and D
are ranked equally; this can be written as
A
B C
D
defeats A B C D
A 0 1 0 1
B 0 0 1 0
C 1 0 0 1
D 0 1 0 0
A
B
C
D
2
1
2
1
A
C
B
D
166 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
So we still need to distinguish between A and C, and B and D to establish the
ranking.
We assume in most ranking situations that if A defeats B and B defeats C then A
will defeat C. This relationship is described as being transitive, where if variable
a < b and b < c, then a < c.
In our example, A defeats B who defeats C, and A defeats D who defeats B. This
means that A has secondorder inuence over C and B but not D. (A doesnt defeat
anyone who defeats D). The matrix M
2
can be used to investigate secondorder
inuence.
M
2
=
M
2
=
Notice that the leading diagonal is still 0. It is impossible for a player to have
secondorder inuence over themselves. Row 1 represents the secondorder
inuence of player A over the other players. The element 2 in row 3 occurs because
C defeats 2 players (A and D) who defeat B.
We can nd the secondorder dominance vector, V
2
= , but how much
importance should it be given?
If we assign equal importance, we calculate
M
+ M
2
=
+
=
This gives a dominance vector
= V
1
+ V
2
and allows us to rank the competitors
in the order C, A, B, D.
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 2 0 1
0 0 1 0
2
2
3
1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 2 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 2 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 2 0 2
0 1 1 0
4
3
5
2
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 167
Multiplying a square matrix by a column vector with the same number of rows and all
entries shown as 1 has the effect of adding the elements in each row of the matrix. In
the example above, the dominance vector V
1
could have been obtained using the
following steps. (The main advantage is if the dominance matrix is 5 5 or larger. You
dont need to arrow across the screen to see the elements when you are adding them.)
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Enter the 4 4 dominance matrix M. (Refer to the
graphics calculator tip on page 156 if you are unsure
how to do this.)
2. Enter the 4 1 vector N with 1 shown for every
element.
If we wanted to investigate thirdorder inuence, we could calculate M
3
(= M
2
M).
M
2
M = = giving V
3
=
At this stage, notice that the leading diagonal is no longer 0. If there were
more players in the tournament, we could continue nding powers of M, but with
4 players, we stop at M
3
. In general, if there are m players, we stop at M
m 1
.
In most scenarios, it is probably unfair to assign equal importance to rst,
second and thirdorder inuence. We can allocate arbitrary constants to weight the
inuence; that is, M+ xM
2
+ yM
3
. The resulting dominance vector can be found by
calculating V
1
+ xV
2
+ yV
3
.
If we choose x = 0.5 and y = 0.25, the dominance vector would be
V
1
+ 0.5V
2
+ 0.25V
3
= + 0.5 + 0.25 =
This would rank the four players as C, A, B, D.
When you compare the nal seeding with the initial information, we can see that
A and C both won 2 games, but the wins by A were against the lower ranked B and
D. Players B and D both won 1 game but B managed to defeat the higher placed C.
This justies the seeding as produced.
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 2 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1
0 2 0 1
0 1 2 0
1 0 0 1
3
3
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
1
3
3
3
2
3.75
2.75
4.25
2
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Alternative method for adding
the elements in each row in a
dominance matrix
168 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3. Evaluate M N. Notice that this gives V
1
.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Enter the 4 4 dominance matrix M. (Refer to the
graphics calculator tip on page 157 if you are unsure
how to do this.)
2. Move the cursor to the right of the matrix. Press the
multiplication (r) key.
3. Enter the 4 1 vector N with 1 shown for every
element.
4. Move the cursor outside the matrix and press to
obtain the answer to M N. Notice that this gives V
1
.
1. Dominance matrices are often used to determine player rankings in roundrobin
situations.
2. Information from a digraph that indicates the winloss outcome of matches
played in a tournament (for example, A defeats B, D defeats C, and so on) can
be converted into matrix form. This matrix is called a dominance matrix.
3. A dominance vector shows how many players each has defeated. It is obtained
by adding the elements of each of the rows of the dominance matrix. This
allows you to rank the players.
4. For a dominance matrix, M, we can calculate the secondorder inuence of
players by calculating M
2
(thirdorder inuence by calculating M
3
and so on)
and nding the resulting dominance vector, V
2
(V
3
and so on).
5. Arbitrary constants can also be allocated to weight the inuence; for example,
when considering four players, we calculate M + xM
2
+ yM
3
where x and y
are constants. The resulting dominance vector can be found by calculating
V
1
+ xV
2
+ yV
3
. This renes the ranking process.
remember
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 169
Dominance matrices
1 We want to seed 4 chess players, Breanna, Kayley, Teagan and Cameron. In past
matches, Cameron defeated Breanna and Teagan, both Breanna and Teagan defeated
Kayley, Kayley defeated Cameron, and Breanna defeated Teagan.
a Draw a digraph to represent this information.
b By giving equal importance to rst and secondorder inuence, use dominance
matrices to rank the players.
2 Three friends have noticed that when they played chess, Mair defeated Ann and Janine,
and Ann defeated Janine. Use dominance matrices to rank these players.
3 A roundrobin netball match was arranged for house competitions where Barnes lost to
all but Cunningham, Cunningham lost to Leslie but defeated Hamilton. No teams went
undefeated.
a If it is decided to give equal importance to rst and secondorder inuence, use
dominance matrices to rank the students houses.
b If house points are allocated as 20, 15, 10, 5 for the overall ranking, how many
points did each house receive?
4 Five schools are debating in a roundrobin tournament the following table shows the
results.
Clifton lose against Warwick and Ipswich and so on.
a Construct a dominance matrix of this information.
b A total of 15 points is divided in the ratio 5:4:3:2:1 and awarded according to the
ranking of the schools at the end of the tournament. If this division of points is
allocated according to the gures produced by the dominance matrix sum
M + 0.8M
2
+ 0.5M
3
, list the number of points each school wins.
Clifton Warwick Goondiwindi Stanthorpe Ipswich
Clifton L W W L
Warwick W W L
Goondiwindi L W
Stanthorpe W
3G
B
C
K T
Cameron, Breanna, Kayley, Teagan
Mair, Ann, Janine
Hamilton, Leslie, Cunningham, Barnes
0 0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 0
M
=
5 points to Warwick, 4 points to Ipswich, 3 points to Stanthorpe,
2 points to Clifton, 1 point to Goondiwindi
20 points to Hamilton, 15 to Leslie, 10 to Cunningham, 5 to Barnes
Cameron, Breanna, Kayley, Teagan
170 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Operations with matrices
A matrix (plural: matrices) is a collection of numbers arranged in rows and
columns.
An m n matrix has m rows and n columns.
The numbers in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix. Elements are
referred to by the row and column position.
Addition and subtraction of matrices is performed by adding or subtracting
elements in corresponding positions. These operations can be performed only if the
matrices have the same order.
Scalar multiplication of a matrix is performed by multiplying each element of the
matrix by a number. Thus kA means each element in matrix A is multiplied by the
number k.
Multiplying matrices
Matrices are multiplied in the following way:
If and
then
The orders are related as follows:
(m n) (n p) = (m p).
Matrix multiplication is usually not commutative. That is, AB BA.
Powers of a matrix
The power, n, of matrix A, in general form, is A
n
= A
n 1
A, where n is a positive
integer.
Powers of matrices are only dened for square matrices; that is, A has to be a
square matrix to obtain A
n
.
A matrix A is nilpotent if A
2
= O where O is the zero matrix. The zero matrix is a
square matrix with all elements equal to zero. For example, the 2 2 zero matrix is
.
A matrix A is idempotent if A
2
= A.
summary
A
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
= B
b
11
b
12
b
13
b
21
b
22
b
23
b
31
b
32
b
33
=
AB =
a
11
b
11
a
12
b
21
a
13
b
31
+ + a
11
b
12
a
12
b
22
a
13
b
32
+ + a
11
b
13
a
12
b
23
a
13
b
33
+ +
a
21
b
11
a
22
b
21
a
23
b
31
+ + a
21
b
12
a
22
b
22
a
23
b
32
+ + a
21
b
13
a
22
b
23
a
23
b
33
+ +
a
31
b
11
a
32
b
21
a
33
b
31
+ + a
31
b
12
a
32
b
22
a
33
b
32
+ + a
31
b
13
a
32
b
23
a
33
b
33
+ +
0 0
0 0
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 171
Multiplicative inverse and solving matrix equations
An identity matrix, I, is dened for square matrices such that AI = IA.
The multiplicative inverse of matrix A is A
1
such that AA
1
= A
1
A = I.
If , then .
The number ad bc is called the determinant of A and has the symbols det A or  A.
If det A = 0, then A
1
does not exist (A does not have an inverse) and A is said to be
singular.
The transpose of a matrix
The transpose of a matrix is an interchange of rows and columns.
The transpose of a matrix A is A where A = and A = .
Applications of matrices: solving simultaneous equations and
summarising information
Matrices may be used to solve simultaneous equations:
ax + by = u
cx + dy = v.
The pair of equations may be written in the form AX = B, where A = ,
X = and B = .
Matrices can also be used to summarise information which is in table form and
solve related problems but care must be taken in setting up the matrices.
Dominance matrices can be used to determine player rankings in sports
competitions.
A
a b
c d
= A
1
1
ad bc

d b
c a
=
a b
c d
a c
b d
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
172 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1
The solution to is given by A equals:
2 A is a 3 2 matrix, B is 2 2 and C is 3 2. Which of the following may be
calculated?
3
If A is a 3 2 matrix and B is 2 1, then the order of AB is:
4
The product of is:
5 Using the same matrices as in question 2, which of the following may be calculated?
6 If A = , nd
7 If A = , nd
A
B
C D E
a A + B b A + C c B + C
A 2 2 B 3 2 C 3 1 D 1 3 E 2 1
A B C D E
a AB b AC c BA
d BC e CA f CB
g A + CB h A + BC i AB
1
a A
2
b A
3
c A
4
a A
2
b A
3
c A
4
CHAPTER
review
3A
multiple choice
2 0
2 0
2A
4 2
0 2
=
3 1
1 1
12 4
4 4
4 0
4 8
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
3A
3B
multiple choice
3B
multiple choice
1 2 3
4 5 6
1
0
1
4 10
4
10
1 0 3
4 0 6
14
1 0 3
0 0 0
4 0 6
3B
3C
1 2
2 0
3C
1 0 0
0 2 1
1 0 0
3 2
2 4
7 6
6 4
5 14
14 12
1 0 0
1 4 2
1 0 0
1 0 0
3 8 4
1 0 0
1 0 0
7 16 8
1 0 0
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 173
8
Consider the following matrices.
A = B = C =
a Which of the following are idempotent?
b Which of the following are nilpotent?
9
The determinant of is:
10
If AB = 4I then B
1
is:
11
Which of the following matrices is singular?
12
If AX = B then X is given by:
13 Find matrix A if A .
14
Using matrices, the solution to: 4x y = 7
y x = 2 is:
15 a Write down the inverse of
b Hence solve 3x + y = 14 and 4x 2y = 22.
A A B C and D C E A and C
A B C and D C E A and C
A 0 B 11 C 2 D 10 E 10
A 4A B A C A D B E 4B
A
B C
D E
A A
1
B B BA
1
C D AB
1
E IA
1
A (2, 3) B (3, 5) C (3, 4) D (1, 1) E (5, 3)
3D
multiple choice
1 0
0 1
6 3
12 6
3 2
3 2
3D
multiple choice
2 0
1 5
3D
multiple choice
1
4

1
4

3D
multiple choice
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
4 2
6 3
4 2
2 1
10 2
5 0
3D
multiple choice
B
A

3D
0 1
2 1
6 6
0 6
=
3E
multiple choice
3D,E
4 2
3 1
9 3
6 0
1
10

1 2
3 4
(5,
1)
174 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
16 In a township, 25% of households own no pets,
40% of households own one pet, 20% have two
pets and 15% own more than two pets.
a Set up a 1 4 matrix to represent the
percentage ownership of pets.
b Write an equation that will enable you to
calculate the number of households for each
category, given that there are 800 households
in the town.
c Evaluate the number of households for each
category as a 1 4 matrix.
17 The matrix below represents the prices (in dollars)
of some mobile phone options. The rst column
displays the costs of two types of prepaid mobile
phones and the second column represents two types
of 12monthplan mobile phones.
The company wants to increase the price of
the prepaid mobile phones by 12% and
decrease the cost of the 12monthplan
mobile phones by 5%.
a Show the matrix used to represent the
price changes (a 2 2 matrix).
b Use matrix multiplication to calculate
the new prices.
18 In a backgammon competition, four players
Glen, James, Cameron and William
competed with the following results:
Glens only win was against James.
James defeated both Cameron and
William. Cameron also defeated
William.
Using dominance matrices and
assigning a weighting of 1
to rstorder inuence
and 0.5 to secondorder
inuence, rank the
players.
3F
3F
249 29
680 49
3G
[0.25 0.40 0.20 0.15]
A
=
800
B
[200 320 160 120]
1.12
0
0 0.95
278.88 27.55
761.60 46.55
James, Cameron, Glen, William
C h a p t e r 3 M a t r i c e s 175
Modelling and problem solving
1 A company has two plants manufacturing components for different models of car. The time
spent in hours per car is given in the following matrix.
The wage rates ($ per hour) at the two sites are given by:
a In the rst matrix, write down the 2, 3 element and explain what it refers to.
b In the second matrix, write down the 2, 1 element and explain what it refers to.
c Write down the order of each matrix and the order of the matrix found by multiplying the
rst matrix by the second matrix.
d Find the product of the two matrices.
e Explain what the rst row of the product matrix represents.
f Explain what the rst column of the product matrix represents.
g Write down the cost of producing the Deluxe model at:
ii Plant 1
ii Plant 2.
Assembly Packaging Despatch
Standard model 25 1 0.5
Deluxe model 30 1.5 1
4wheel drive 35 1.5 0.5
Plant 1 Plant 2
Assembly 16.50 16.00
Packaging 14.00 14.00
Despatch 13.50 13.00
1: Despatch for Deluxe
model takes 1 hour.
14: Packaging at Plant 1
has a wage rate of
$14 per hour.
3
3, 3
2, 3
2
433.25 420.50
529.50 514.00
605.25 587.50
The assembly costs for each
model at Plant 1
$529.50
$514.00
The total costs for the Standard
model at Plants 1 and 2
176 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2 Tickets for a oneway trip on a BrisbanetoSydney passenger train can be purchased as either
Adult, Child (under 15 years old) or Pensioner. The table below shows the number of
passengers and the total takings for three trips.
a Let x = the cost of an adults ticket.
Let y = the cost of a childs ticket.
Let z = the cost of a pensioners ticket.
Construct three equations in terms of x, y and z.
b Using matrices, express the equations in the form AX = B.
c Use your graphics calculator to nd A
1
.
d Use your graphics calculator to determine the costs of a train ticket for an adult, a child
and a pensioner.
3 Use a and b to complete A where A = so that it is nilpotent (that is, A
2
= O).
4 Use a and b to complete A where A = so that it is idempotent.
5 Prove that if a square idempotent matrix A is nonsingular, then A must be the identity matrix.
6 Prove that if A is idempotent
a I A is idempotent
b A(I A) = O.
Number of adult
passengers
Number of child
passengers
Number of
pensioner
passengers Total takings ($)
145 103 121 20 260
130 110 90 18 400
142 115 80 19 200
a b
a b
Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 3
eBookplus eBookplus
145
x
+
103
y
+
121
z
=
20 260
130
x
+
110
y
+
90
z
=
18 400
142
x
+
115
y
+
80
z
=
19 200
145 103 121
130 110 90
142 115 80
x
y
z
20 260
18 400
19 200
=
0.025 544 0.093 523 0.066 579
0.039 222 0.091 991 0.044 166
0.011 042 0.033 767 0.042 189
The cost of an adults ticket is $75, a childs ticket is $50 and a pensioners ticket is $35.
a b
a
2
b

a
A
=
a b
a a
2
b
 1
a
A
=
A
1
=
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Introduction to groups
In this
chapter
4A Modulo arithmetic
4B The terminology of groups
4C Properties of groups
4D Cyclic groups and
subgroups
4E Further examples of groups
transformations
4
An introduction
to groups
178 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introduction
Through your study of mathematics, you have developed an understanding of the rules
that apply to numbers. You know that if you add two integers, the result is also an
integer. However, if you divide two integers, you dont always get an integer as the
answer. You know that addition is associative; for example, 7 + (6 + 2) = (7 + 6) + 2;
but subtraction is not; for example, 7 (6 2) (7 6) 2.
Towards the end of the 19th century, mathematicians began to talk about the concept
of groups. Essentially, a group is a set of elements, such as integers or matrices, that
can be combined using an operation, like addition or multiplication, and which satisfy
certain conditions. For example, integers form a group under addition but not under
division (because dividing integers does not always result in an integer).
Historically, group theory came from the study of number theory and the theory of
algebraic equations at the end of the 18th century and the study of geometry at the
beginning of the 19th century. Today, group theory is applied to many areas of science
such as genetics, quantum theory, molecular orbits, crystallography and the theory of
relativity.
But rst a new tool to help you deal with some notions used in groups.
Algebraic structures
In algebra, symbols that can be manipulated are elements of some set and the
manipulation is done by performing certain operations on elements of that set. The
set involved is referred to as an algebraic structure.
Research the topic of algebraic structures examining early algebraic systems that
developed in ancient civilisations such as the Indian, Arabic, Babylonian, Egyptian
and Greek. Highlight differences and similarities among the various forms.
Concepts of:
closure
associativity
identity
inverse
denition of a group
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 179
Modulo arithmetic
Not to be confused with the modulus of a number (see Chapter 1 on real numbers, R,
where the modulus of 4, written  4  = 4), modulo arithmetic uses a nite number
system with a nite number of elements. This is sometimes referred to as clock
arithmetic because of the similarities with reading the time on an analog clock.
Consider reading the time shown on the clock face to the right.
Whether it is 2 am or 2 pm we would say it is 2 oclock,
but in 24hour time the 2 pm would be 1400 hours. In effect
we have subtracted 12 hours from the 1400 (14 hours) to give
an answer of 2. In this case we say that 2 is the residue, or
what is left over when 12 hours is subtracted from the 14.
In modulo 12 arithmetic the same principle is used except
that the 12 is replaced by a 0.
5 + 6 11
5 + 7 0
5 + 8 1 and so on.
In our normal decimal system 5 + 8 = 13, but in modulo 12
arithmetic the residue of 1 differs from 13 by 12 (or a mul
tiple of 12) and 1 and 13 are said to be congruent. That is, in
modulo 5 arithmetic, the numbers 3, 8 and 13 are congruent
and in modulo 12 arithmetic, 2, 14, and 26 are congruent
numbers. The symbol for congruency, , is used.
Using more precise terminology, addition modulo 10 is written
3 + 9 2 mod 10, 5 + 5 0 mod 10, and so on.
(Note the abbreviation of modulo to mod.)
In mod 12, the numbers 0 to 11 are referred to as residues, as with 0 to 5 in mod 6.
This information can be stored in a table, known as a Cayley Table.
12
1
2
4
5 7
8
10
11
6
3 9
0
1
2
4
5 7
8
10
11
6
3 9
Draw up a Cayley Table that shows the residues using addition modulo 4.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Draw an empty table with 0, 1, 2, 3 in
the rst row and column and put a +
sign in the top corner.
Start working across the rst row.
0 + 0 = 0 etc. and do likewise with the
rst column.
1 + 0 1 2 3
0
1
2
3
2 + 0 1 2 3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
1 2 3
1
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
180 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modulo arithmetic
1 List 4 numbers congruent to:
a 4 in mod 8
b 4 in mod 6.
2 List the residues in:
a mod 3 b mod 9 c mod 11.
3 Draw up a Cayley Table that shows the residues for each of the following:
a addition mod 6
b multiplication mod 4
c multiplication mod 5.
The terminology of groups
In Chapter 1 you dealt with different sets of numbers within the Real Number System.
Throughout your student life you have used the operations of addition, multiplication,
subtraction and division, nding a square root, reciprocals, and so on. These are
examples of operations performed on numbers that are part of a certain set.
Operations (such as addition) that involve 2 input values, for example 2 + 3, are called
binary operations. Those that involve only one input value, such as nding the square
root of a number (for example ) are called unary operations. Others that involve 3
input values are called ternary; for example, the principal, interest and term of a loan
are the 3 input values involved in calculating the amount of interest due on a loan.
(Strictly speaking the multiplication involved is still carried out on pairs of values.)
Denition of terms
Groups that we will deal with consist of a system that involves a set of elements (often
numbers) and a binary operation. Lower case letters, a, b, c , are used to refer to
elements of the set and the symbol
4, 10, 16, 22
0, 1, 2 0, 1, 2,
8 0, 1,
10
3
a
+
0
1
2
3
4
5
012345
012345
123450
234501
345012
450123
501234
b
0
1
2
3
0123
0000
0123
0202
0321
c
0
1
2
3
4
01234
00000
01234
02413
03142
04321
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 181
For a nonempty set of elements S = {a, b, c, } involved in the binary operation
to be a group, G = [S,
b must be in S.
For example, consider 2 + 3 = 5 where S = {Real numbers} (or R) and
is the oper
ation of addition. The operation is closed because 5 R.
But consider 2 3 = 1 where S = {Natural numbers} (or N) and
is the operation
of subtraction. Because the result (1) is not a member of the set of natural numbers
this operation is not closed. That is, the answer is not part of the initial set of natural
numbers.
2 Associativity
If an operation is associative, the order in which operations are performed does
not affect the answer. That is, (a
b)
c = a
(b
c).
Often brackets are employed to determine the order of operations.
For example, consider (2 3) 4 and 2 (3 4):
(2 3) 4 = 6 4 2 (3 4) = 2 12
= 24 = 24
In this case, both answers are the same. Note that only the position of the brackets
changes and the order of the numbers remains the same.
But consider the operation of division:
(20 2) 4 and 20 (2 4)
= 10 4 = 20 0.5
= 2.5 = 40
Here the answers are not the same.
Division, like subtraction, is not associative. You would have realised this in your
earlier junior mathematics studies.
3 Identity
For all elements of a set, if a unique element exists in the set such that
a
u = u
a
1
= a
1
:
1. closure
2. associativity
3. existence of an identity element
4. existence of an inverse
then the system under investigation [S,
b = b
a.
For example, 2 5 = 10 and 5 2 = 10.
Hence multiplication with real numbers is commutative. Note the stated condition,
with real numbers, because you have already worked with matrices where multi
plication is not commutative.
However, consider 10 2 = 5 and 2 10 = 0.2.
So division is not commutative. You would be familiar with other operations as well
that are not commutative.
Find a the identity element and b the inverse for the operation dened as a
b = a + b + 2.
THINK WRITE
a An identity element (IE) is an
element that, when involved in an
operation with another element, does
not change the value of that element.
a Let a
b = a (where b = IE)
therefore a + b + 2 = a
b = 2
so IE = 2
State the identity element. The identity element is 2.
b An inverse is an element that, when
involved in an operation with
another element, results in the IE for
that operation.
b Let a
a where b = 4 a
b
a = b + a + 2
= 4 a + a + 2
= 2
= IE
Therefore, a
a
1
= a
1
a = 2
when a
1
= 4 a.
State the inverse. The inverse is 4 a.
1
2
1
2
3
2
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 183
Find the identity element for the operation dened as a
b = a (where b = IE)
Therefore = a
Squaring both sides:
a
2
+ b
2
= a
2
b
2
= 0
b = 0
Check that the identity element works
from both sides of the operation.
Check b
a where b = 0
0
a =
= a
Therefore, 0
a = a
0 = a. Thus, IE = 0.
State the identity element. The identity element is 0.
a
2
b
2
+
1
a
2
b
2
+
2
0
2
a
2
+
3
3
WORKEDExample
History
of mathematics
NI ELS HENRI K ABEL ( 1 8 0 2 1 8 2 9 )
During his life . . .
Lord Byron, the
English poet, writes
Don Juan.
Napoleon
Bonaparte
becomes emperor
of France.
JeanBaptiste
Lamarck, the
French biologist,
proposes that
acquired traits are
inherited by individuals
in a population.
Niels Abel was one of the most productive
mathematicians of the 19th century. Born in
Norway on 5 August 1802, by the age of 16 he
had started his private study of the
mathematics of Newton, Euler, Gauss and
Lagrange. As the sole supporting male of his
family, at 18 he tutored private pupils while
continuing his own mathematical research. By
the age of 19 he had proved that there was no
nite formula for the solution of the general
fth degree polynomial.
He died of tuberculosis on 6 April 1829,
two days before the announcement of his
posting as professor to the Berlin university.
His life in poverty stands in contrast to the
regard with which he is held in his eld; the
term Abelian group is used in honour of Abel.
His studies on group theory were central to
the development of abstract algebra.
Questions:
1. How did Abel nancially support his
family?
2. Which property do groups bearing his
name exhibit?
He tutored students.
Abelian groups are those that have the property
of commutativity.
184 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The terminology of groups
1 Show that a
on real numbers
where a
b = a + b 1.
4 What is the identity element of the operation a
b = 4ab
2
is dened for positive real numbers a and b. Does the
identity element for this operation exist?
6 Develop a proof to show that a
b = has no identity.
7 An operation is dened with respect to an ordered pair of integers as
(a, b)
(c, d) = (ad + bc, bd). Show that (0, 1) is the identity element for the operation.
8 Show that a
b = (a + b)
2
has no identity for real numbers.
Properties of groups
In the previous section, we looked at the conditions under which a set forms a group.
To check whether a set S forms a group under the operation
], there are
four properties to be tested.
1. Closure: the result of the operation is an element of S; that is, a
b S.
2. Associativity: the order in which the operation is performed has no effect on the
result; that is, (a
b) c = a
(b
c).
A set S forms a group under the operation
u = u
a = a
4. there is a unique inverse a
1
for every element such that a
a
1
= a
1
a = u,
where u = IE.
5. If the property of commutativity also holds, then it is an Abelian group.
remember
4B
a b +
2

a
2
b
2
+
WORKED
Example
2
WORKED
Example
3
a b +
ab

a
IE
=
1
IE
=
0
a
0
=
a
+
0
0
Assuming this operation
has an identity then
let
=
a
a
+
b
=
a
2
b
a
=
a
2
b
b
But
a
a
2
b
b
therefore the operation
has no identity.
a b +
ab

Let (0, 1)
=
(
a
,
b
)
=
IE.
Therefore, (0, 1)
(
c
,
d
)
=
(0
d
+
1
c
, 0
c
+
1
d
)
=
(
c
,
d
)
and (
a
,
b
)
(0, 1)
=
(
a
1
+
b
0,
a
0
+
b
1)
=
(
a
,
b
).
Let (
a
+
b
)
2
=
a
where
b
=
IE
Take the square root of
both sides:
a
+
b
=
If
a
is negative then
R
.
Since an identity must be
applicable to all elements of
the set, there is no IE for
a
b
.
a
a
SLE 2: Determine the identity element and inverses in a group table.
=
2 and 2 is not an element of the set of whole numbers.
3 2 +
2

1
2

1
2

1
3 = = Not a whole number,
not closed. 1 9 + 10
No identity. 4
a
( )
2
=
a
but
a
1
2

1
2

b
b
=
2
a
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 185
3. Existence of an identity element: there is only one identity element (IE), u, such that
a
u = u
a = a.
4. Existence of an inverse: there is a unique inverse for every element such that
a
a
1
= a
1
a = u where u = IE.
Abelian groups
If a set forms a group and the property of commutativity also holds, then it is an
Abelian group. An operation is commutative if the order of the elements involved has
no effect on the result. That is, a
b = b
a.
Note that the test for commutativity is performed last because the rst 4 properties are
necessary to state that it is a group in the rst place, before it is shown to be Abelian.
This group, G = [Z, +], is an innite group, having an unlimited set of elements. You
will also deal with nite groups which have a countable number of elements.
a Verify that the set of integers forms a group under addition.
b Is this group Abelian?
THINK WRITE
a What numbers are involved? All
positive and negative integers and 0 are
involved so state the set and operation.
While you can think of actual values for
the integers (1, 0 4 ) your answer
should use only variables, with
constants used as examples only.
a Let Z = {a, b, c, } be the set of integers;
the operation is addition.
Test each of the 4 properties in the
same order each time to help you
remember the 4 tests.
iii The sum of any 2 integers is an
integer.
iii The order in which the operation is
performed has no effect on the
result.
iii Since 0 Z, IE+ exists.
iv Since Z contains all positive and
negative whole numbers, the
inverse is a.
iii The operation is closed:
a + b = c where a, b and c Z
iii The operation is associative:
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
iii The identity element exists:
a + 0 = 0 + a = a
iv The inverse exists:
a + a = a + a = 0
State that the system forms a group
under the conditions stated.
Thus the set of integers forms a group
under addition.
b If the group is Abelian we need to show
that this operation is commutative.
b Commutativity
a + b = b + a
Therefore the group is Abelian.
1
2
3
4
WORKEDExample
186 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Verify that the set of odd integers does not form a group under addition.
THINK WRITE
What numbers are involved?
The set of odd integers includes
5, 3, 1, 1, 3, 5
State the set and operation.
S = {a, b, c, } is the set of odd integers.
The operation is addition.
Test the 4 properties as shown in
Worked example 4.
Closure: a + b S
Let a = 3 and b = 5
3 + 5 = 8 and 8 S
Therefore G [S, +]
There is no need to proceed any further
with tests to verify the system is a
group as it is not closed.
The set of odd integers does not form a group
under addition.
1
2
3
5
WORKEDExample
Construct a Cayley Table for [{1, i, 1, i}, ] and determine whether this constitutes a
group.
THINK WRITE
Set up the empty table.
Complete the table. Remember from
Chapter 2 on complex numbers that
i = and i i = 1.
Test the 4 group properties closed
set, associative, identity element and
multiplicative inverse. The answers can
be obtained from the table.
(Multiplication by 1 leaves all elements
unchanged.)
1. All the results are members of the original
set {1, i , 1, i}. This is a closed set.
2. The set is associative
e.g. (1 i) i = i i = 1
and 1 (i i) = 1 1 = 1
3. The identity element, IE = 1
4. Multiplicative inverse: there is a 1 (IE) in
every row of the table so each element has a
unique inverse.
State your conclusion. Therefore, the system is a group.
1
1 i 1 i
1
i
1
i
2
1
1 i 1 i
1
i
1
i
1
i
1
i
i
1
i
1
1
i
1
i
i
1
i
1
3
4
6
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 187
Note that the Cayley Table is symmetrical about the
leading diagonal. The table could be ipped over on
the leading diagonal and remain unchanged. This
means that the order of operations will not affect the
results; that is, that the operation is commutative.
Therefore this group is also Abelian.
Note: There are 9 axioms that relate to operations and whole numbers that require no
proof: they are assumed to be true. The associativity statement in the example above
relied on one of these axioms and you can state that these axioms have been used.
1 i 1 i
1
i
1
i
1
i
1
i
i
1
i
1
1
i
1
i
i
1
i
1
Leading diagonal
Construct a Cayley Table for [{mod 5}, +] and determine whether it is an Abelian group.
THINK WRITE
Decide what numbers are present in
mod 5 and complete a Cayley Table of
residues.
Test for the 4 group properties. 1. All results are members of the original set.
So, the set is closed.
2. Addition with whole numbers is associative.
3. The identity element, IE+ = 0 exists.
4. There is a 0 entry in each row because each
element has a corresponding element that,
when added, results in 0 (IE+). So, there is
an additive inverse.
Therefore the system forms a group.
Test for commutativity. Addition mod 5 is commutative as shown by
the symmetry about the leading diagonal.
For example: 4 + 0 4 and
0 + 4 4
and 4 + 2 1 and
2 + 4 1
Therefore the group is Abelian.
1
+ 0 1 2 3 4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
0
2
3
4
0
1
3
4
0
1
2
4
0
1
2
3
2
3
+ 0 1 2 3 4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
0
2
3
4
0
1
3
4
0
1
2
4
0
1
2
3
7
WORKEDExample
188 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
They are given here with no explanation.
1. Closure Law of Addition
2. Commutative Law of Addition
3. Associative Law of Addition
4. Identity Law of Addition
5. Closure Law of Multiplication
6. Commutative Law of Multiplication
7. Associative Law of Multiplication
8. Identity Law of Multiplication
9. Distributive Law of Multiplication over addition, where a(b + c) = ab + ac
Properties of groups
1 a Verify that the set of real numbers, [R, +], forms a group under addition.
b Is this group Abelian?
2 a Consider the set of even numbers (2n) where n Z.
b Does this form a group under addition? (Note: 0 {even numbers})
c Does it form a group under multiplication?
3 Does the set of powers of 1 form a group under:
a addition?
b multiplication?
4 Verify that the set of even integers does not form a group under division.
5 Construct a Cayley Table for [{mod 5 excluding 0}, ] and determine whether this
constitutes a group.
6 a Draw up a Cayley Table for the set of even powers of 2 under addition.
b Does this form a group under addition?
c Does this form a group under multiplication?
7 Construct a Cayley Table for [{mod 3}, ] and determine whether it is an Abelian
group.
1. To determine whether a set forms a group under an operation (
) test each of
the four properties; that is, test whether it is closed and associative, whether
there is an identity element and a unique inverse.
2. To determine whether the group is Abelian, show that the operation is
commutative (e.g. a
b = b
a).
remember
4C
WORKED
Example
4
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SkillSHEET 4.2
Properties of groups
WORKED
Example
5
WORKED
Example
6
WORKED
Example
7
[
R
,
+
] It is closed, associative, IE
+ =
0, inverse
=
a
, therefore it is a group.
It is Abelian.
1
2
+
1
3
is not closed; not a group.
1
2
1
3
is closed, and associative, IE
= 1, there is an inverse; so it is a group.
Check with
your teacher.
5
Closed, associative,
IE = 1 and there is
an inverse; therefore
it is a group.
1 2 3 4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
2
4
1
3
3
1
4
2
4
3
2
1
Under addition: not closed, associative, no IE+ since
0 2
2n
, no inverse (always +ve); not a group.
0 1 2
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
2
1
It is closed and associative, IE = 1; inverse does not exist since there are no 1s in
the rst row or column. This is not a group; therefore, it is not Abelian, even
though the commutative law does apply.
SLE 1: Determine whether the elements of a set form a group under a binary operation.
SLE 2: Determine the identity element and inverses in a group table.
SLE 3: Use a small Cayley table to determine whether a set of elements under a binary
operation forms a group.
SLE 4: Investigate when the integers modulo n form groups under addition or multiplication.
SLE 9: Investigate commutativity and abelian groups.
Closed, associative, no IE since
0 {even numbers}, there is an
inverse; therefore not a group.
Closed, associative, no IE since 1 {even
numbers}, no inverse; therefore not a group.
6 a
+ 4 16 64 256
4
16
64
256
.
.
.
8
20
68
260
.
.
.
20
32
80
272
.
.
.
68
80
128
320
.
.
.
260
272
320
512
.
.
.
a b c
a
b
c
c
a
b
a
b
c
b
c
a
a b c
a
b
c
a
b
c
b
a
d
c
c
a
a b c
a
b
c
a
b
c
b
b
b
c
c
a
a b c
a
b
c
b
c
a
c
a
b
a
b
c
Does the set of numbers {0, 2, 4} form a subgroup of addition modulo 6?
THINK WRITE
To check for closure, construct a
Cayley Table.
This is a closed set.
Is the identity included? IE+ = 0. Therefore the identity is included.
Do inverses exist? There is a 0 entry in each row, so the inverses
are included.
State your conclusion. The set of numbers {0, 2, 4} forms a subgroup
of addition modulo 6.
1
+ 0 2 4
0 0 2 4
2 2 4 0
4 4 0 2
2
3
4
8
WORKEDExample
Yes No, not closed
No, no inverse
for b
Yes
5 10 20
5
10
20
5
10
20
10
10
20
20
20
20
It is closed, associative, IE
= N, there is an
inverse, N appears in
every row and column.
N L R A
N
L
R
A
N
L
R
A
L
A
N
R
R
N
A
L
A
R
L
N
190 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
In modulo 6 addition, 2 + 2 = 2 2 4 mod 6, 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 2 0 mod 6,
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 4 2 2 mod 6, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 5 2 4 mod 6. If we continue,
we get 6 2 0 mod 6, 7 2 2 mod 6 and so on. This means that all members of
the subgroup {0, 2, 4} can be a result of repeatedly adding the number 2. This sub
group is said to be cyclic (because the answers cycle through the set) and 2 is the
generator of the cyclic subgroup. We can write this group as G = [{0, 2, 4}, + mod
6] = <2>, where <2> means that G is cyclic and 2 is the generator.
From previous sections, we know that integer multiplication modulo 5 forms a group
if zero is not included. We can write this set of numbers as Z
5
*. If we calculate powers of
3, we nd that 3
0
1 mod 5, 3
1
3 mod 5, 3
2
4 mod 5, 3
3
2 mod 5, 3
4
1 mod 5,
3
5
3 mod 5 and so on. This means that all elements in Z
5
* can be found by repeatedly
multiplying the number 3. The group is cyclic and 3 is a generator. We can write this
group as G = [Z
5
*, ] = <3>.
Writing this more mathematically, lets consider a group G = [S,
represents addition, that is, G = [S, +], and all elements of S can be
written as na, where n is an integer, then the group is cyclic and a is the generator.
Similarly, if
meaning
on. P
1
P
3
means perform P
1
on P
3
.
For the group G [S,
]:
1. A subgroup exists if there is a subset of S that is closed and contains the
identity element, and if inverses for all elements exist.
2. The group is cyclic if an element a can be found that generates the group. This
can be written as G <a>.
remember
4D
WORKED
Example
8
WORKED
Example
9
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WorkSHEET 4.1
1 2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5 1 ,
_
1
2
4
5
3
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 ,
_
1 2 3 4 5
1 5 4 3 2 ,
_
Closed, IE
+
0, inverses exist (3
+
9
0 mod 12, 6
+
6
0 mod 12), therefore subgroup. Generators are 3 and 9.
Closed, IE
,
the inverse of
is
which is a member
of M, therefore
a subgroup.
0 0
0 0
a 0
0 b
a 0
0 b
Generators are 3 and 9.
Cyclic. Generators are 1 and
1.
Not cyclic.
Cyclic. Generators are 6 and
6.
Cyclic. Generators are 3 and .
1
3

SLE 6: Construct a Cayley table and use it to identify subgroups (if any)
such as the rotations of a square about its centre.
SLE 7: Find the element(s) which generate(s) the group in a group table.
<3>
[{0, 3, 6, 12},
+
mod 12]; <6>
[{0, 6},
+
mod 12]; <9>
[{0, 3, 6, 12},
+
mod 12]
Not closed
Not a group
P
2
P
2
P
2
P
3
P
3
P
2
P
3
P
3
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
2
P
3
P
1
1 2 3 4 5
3 4 5 1 2
,
_
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
,
_
1 2 3 4 5
2 1 5 4 3
,
_
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
,
_
2
192 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Further examples of groups
transformations
Consider all the transformations that a shape could
undergo. Rotations about its centre and reections about
its axes of symmetry involve changes in the vertices
only. Carefully examine the diagram below. Make sure
you understand the symbols and the new positions of
the vertices.
Rotations anticlockwise: R
90
90
R
180
180
R
270
270
Reections: R
V
in the vertical axis of symmetry
R
H
in the horizontal axis of symmetry
R
R
in the top right diagonal
R
L
in the top left diagonal
R
0
no change.
Therefore the set of all transformations or symmetries is given by the set
{R
90
, R
180
, R
270
, R
V
, R
H
, R
R
, R
L
, R
0
} and the binary operation that combines any two of
these transformations is referred to as composition, where one operation follows another.
A D
C B
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
0
R
90
R
V
R
V
R
R
R
R
R
H
R
H
R
180
R
270
A B
D C
A
D
B
C
C D
B
A
C B
D A
A D
B C
D A
C B
B A
C
D
D
C
A B
B
D
C
A
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 193
All the computerised movements involved in screen animations are based on similar
compositions of transformations.
As with permutations, the operations are performed right to left.
Functions
Consider functions f (x) x, g(x) x, h(x) and k(x) (where x 0).
When these functions are involved in composition of functions such as g[h(x)], the
function h(x) is substituted as the inner function into the outer function which is g(x).
That is, g[h(x)] where (the inner function) is substituted into g(x) which is (x).
Similarly, k[g(x)] where g(x) x (the inner function) is substituted into
k(x) (the outer function). That is, k[g(x)] h(x).
Find the result of R
v
R
180
.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Draw the initial square with labelled
vertices. Consider the order in which
the operations are to be performed.
Since the expression R
v
R
180
means
that R
v
follows R
180
, then R
180
is
performed rst.
Transform the square using R
180
g)
h g
h k
f
(g
h) f
k k
Identity element is f(x).
Inverse: yes f(x) occurs in every row and column.
State your conclusion. Composition of these functions forms a group.
1
x

1
x

1
f g h k
f
g
h
k
f
g
h
k
g
f
k
h
h
k
f
g
k
h
g
f
2
3
11
WORKEDExample
History
of mathematics
ARTHUR CAYLEY ( 1 8 2 1 1 8 9 5 )
During his life . . .
Thomas Edison
invents the
phonograph.
Slavery is
ofcially
abolished
throughout the
western world.
Alfred Nobel
invents dynamite.
Arthur Cayley, a famous English
mathematician, was born on 16 August 1821.
His published mathematical papers are
classics and include discussions on the
concept of ndimensional geometry. At the
age of 25 he began practising law which he
continued to do until 1863. In his spare time
he wrote more than 300 mathematical papers.
In 1863 he accepted a professorship in
mathematics at Cambridge University. One of
his most famous nonmathematical
accomplishments was his role in having
women accepted at Cambridge.
Like Niels Abel (see page 183), many of
his research topics are now used in abstract
algebra and group algebra, as well as in work
with matrices and the theory of determinants.
The Cayley Table is named after him.
He died on 26 January 1895 having
received many academic distinctions. His total
works ll 13 volumes of about 600 pages each
a testimony to his prodigious life and study
in mathematics.
Questions
1. What is one of Cayleys most signicant
nonmathematical accomplishments?
2. List four elds of mathematics which
feature in Cayleys work.
He worked towards having women
accepted at Cambridge University.
Abstract algebra, group algebra,
n
dimensional
geometry, matrices and determinants
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 195
Further examples of groups
transformations
1 a Draw a Cayley Table for the rotation of an equilateral triangle. Label each vertex.
b Does it form a group? Is it Abelian?
2 a Draw a Cayley Table for the reections of an equilateral triangle through each of
the vertices R
0
, R
V
, R
L
, R
R
.
b Does it form a group?
3 Explain what the following diagrams represent about the group shown below.
4 Describe the symmetries of the following gures, using fully annotated diagrams.
a a nonsquare rectangle
b a nonsquare rhombus
c an ellipse
5 Consider an innitely long strip of Hs, printed on transparent paper, as shown below
..H H H H H H .
Describe the axes of symmetry of this group.
The binary operation that combines any two transformations (for example,
rotation and reection) is called composition, when one operation follows another.
remember
4E
R
R
R
V
R
L
WORKED
Example
10
R
240
R
240
F
F
3
2 3 3 1
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
2 1
3
3 2
1
IE
R
0
, Inverse exists for all elements. It is an Abelian group
because the table is symmetrical about the leading diagonal.
2 a
R
V
B C
R
L
R
R
A
R
0
R
V
R
L
R
R
R
0
R
V
R
L
R
R
R
0
R
V
R
L
R
R
R
V
R
0
R
L
R
0
R
R
R
0
Does not form a group.
Not Abelian.
H H H H
R
V
H H H H
R
H
R
180
H H H H
H H H H
R
0
H H H H
SLE 5: Investigate groups formed by geometric transformations such as the
reections of a rectangle in its axes of symmetry and rotations of an
equilateral triangle.
1
a
R
120
R
0
R
240
A
B C
B
C A
C
A B
R
0
R
120
R
240
R
0
R
120
R
240
R
0
R
120
R
240
R
120
R
240
R
0
R
240
R
0
R
120
4 3 2 1
3 4
R
V
R
H
R
180
1 2
2 1
3 4
2
3 4
1
4
1 2
3
R
0
4 a
4
c
R
V R
0
R
H
R
1
8
0
2 4
4
1
3
2 4
3
1
2
2
3
1
4 2
1
3
4
1
3
196 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
6 Locate the axes of symmetry for the following gures.
7 a Complete a Cayley Table for the composition of the following functions.
f
1
(x) x f
2
(x) f
3
(x) x 1 f
4
(x)
where f
1
f
2
f
1
[f
2
(x)]
b Does this composition form a group?
8 a Show that the set of all 2 2 matrices forms a group under matrix
addition.
b The set of all 2 2 matrices does not form a group under matrix multi
plication but it is possible to nd a subset of 2 2 matrices that will form a multi
plicative group.
i Apart from the identity matrix, give an example of a 2 2 matrix that would be
a member of this subset.
ii Give one example of a 2 2 matrix that would not be part of this subset.
iii Describe the largest subset of 2 2 matrices that would form a group under
matrix multiplication.
9 Show that the set of matrices forms a group
under matrix multiplication.
10 Show that the set of matrices of the form , where z is a complex number,
forms a group
a under matrix addition
b under matrix multiplication.
Assume z
1
2
+ z
2
2
0.
11 S is the set of all 2 2 matrices such that , where z is a nonzero complex
number.
a Show that is the identity element under matrix multiplication.
b Does the set form a group under matrix multiplication?
12 C , where i . The set T consists of positive powers of C such that
T C
n
where n is a positive integer.
a Find all the elements of set T.
b Does the set T form a group under matrix multiplication?
WORKED
Example
11
1
x

1
x 1

a b
c d
a b
c d
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
, , ,
, ,
z
1
z
2
z
2
z
1
0 0
z z
0 0
1 1
i 0
0 i
1
7 a
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
2
f
1
f
3
f
4
f
4
f
3
Not a group Closed: addition of
2
2 matrices results
in a 2 2 matrix.
Associative: matrix
addition is
associative.
Identity exists:
is the identity
element.
Inverses exist: the
inverse of A is A.
i ii
iii The set of 2 2,
nonsingular
matrices.
0 0
0 0
1 2
3 4
1 2
1 2
8 a
b
Identity I. Inverse is
present as I is present in
each row and column.
Closed and associative
IE+
(Remember 0 is a
complex number.)
Inverse
0 0
0 0
z
1
z
2
z
2
z
1
IE I Inverse where the determinant is real.
The inverse exists if the determinant 0.
1
z
1
2
z
2
2
+

z
1
z
2
z
2
z
1
a
Yes.
Closed, associative,
IE, Inverse of
is
0 0
z z
0 0
1
z

1
z

b
, , ,
i 0
0 i
1 0
0 1
i 0
0 i
1 0
0 1
Yes.
6
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 197
Some applications of group theory
1 Do the residues of {0, 1} mod 2 form a group under addition?
2 A teacher of abstract algebra intended to give a typist a list of 9 integers that
form a group under multiplication modulo 91. Instead, one of the 9 integers
was omitted so that the list read: 1, 9, 16, 22, 53, 74, 79, 81. Which integer
was left out?
3 Show that {1, 2, 3} multiplication mod 4 is not a group but {1, 2, 3, 4}
multiplication mod 5 is a group.
4 Give an example of group elements a and b with the property that a
1
ba b.
5 The integers 5 and 15 are two of 12 integers that form a group under
multiplication mod 56. List all 12 integers.
6 If the following table is that of a group, ll in the blank entries.
7 Prove that if G is a group such that the square of every element is the identity,
then G is Abelian.
8 Examine whether
a rotations and b reections
as stated earlier in this section, form Abelian groups.
9 Quaternions
The concept of a set of elements called quaternions was rst developed by the
Irish mathematician William Hamilton (see page 118). Quaternions are
ordered sets of four ordinary numbers, satisfying special laws of equality,
addition and multiplication. Quaternions are useful for studying quantities
having magnitude and direction in threedimensional space and this has
enabled great advances in quantum theory, relativity, number theory and group
theory.
The 4 numbers are 1, i, j and k and have the following properties:
1
2
1
i
2
j
2
k
2
ijk 1
1i i1
1j j1
1k k1
ij ji k
i(jk) (ij)k ijk
All real and complex numbers do commute with i, j, and k but they are not
commutative with each other.
e a b c d
e
a
b
c
b
c
d
e
a
Yes
29
1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 15, 19, 23, 25, 27, 39, 45
Yes No
e a b c d
e
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
e
b
c
d
e
a
c
d
e
a
b
d
e
a
b
c
198 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Follow this example that shows that jk i
ijk 1 from the denitions
i ijk i 1 multiply both sides by i on the left (or premultiply by i)
i
2
jk i associativity
1 jk i from the denitions
1 1 jk 1 i premultiply both sides by 1
jk i
Because multiplication between these elements is not commutative it is
essential that all multiplication is done from a particular side of an expression
and to perform this multiplication on both sides of the equals sign. You must
respect the order of placement of terms in this system.
a Show that i jk kj ii ki j
b Show that i
1
i
c If q s + wi + vj + yk and p m + ni + oj + jk, nd the product of the two
quaternions.
10 Pauli Matrices
The ideas introduced in the section on quaternions above can be extended to
represent matrices. One 2 2 set is:
1 i j k
While the matrices for i and k might look a little daunting, they can be
simplied by replacing the elements with complex i.
The last three of these matrices are used in the study of quantum theories to
explain and predict the behaviour of electrons. They are called the Pauli Spin
Matrices and students of chemistry will appreciate the importance of the spin
of electrons in atomic bonding and the strength of different materials.
A variation of these matrices used in the study of nuclear physics is shown
below:
P Q R S
T V U W
On examination of the rst and second rows of the matrices above you will
notice that the second row is a reection of each matrix in the rst row,
multiplied by i.
a Construct a Cayley Table to display the results of matrix multiplication
using these 8 matrices. Arrange them in the order given, that is, from P to W.
b Determine whether the total set forms a group.
c Mark off the top lefthand 4 4 corner. Examine this section of the table
and show that this subset forms a group. This is an example of a subgroup,
where a subset of a group forms a complete group of its own.
11 Internet search
The real life applications of groups are quite complex. Use the internet to
research this eld of study. Include a list of distinct topics and a more detailed
report that highlights the use of group theory.
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
1
1 0
0 1
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
1 0
0 1
0 i
i 0
i 0
0 i
i 0
0 i
0 i
i 0
Yes
SLE 15 (Matrices and applications):
Investigate the group
properties of matrices of the
form under both
addition and multiplication;
nd interesting subsets of
this class of matrices
(known as quaternions);
in particular, show that
the eight matrices
, , ,
, , ,
, form a group
under multiplication.
z
1
z
2

z
2
z
1

1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
i 0
0 i
i 0
0 i
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 i
i 0
0 i
i 0
1
0
a
P
Q
R
S
T
V
U
W
PQRS
PQRS
Q
SPR
RPS
Q
SRQP
TUV
W
UW
TV
VT
WU
W
VUT
TUV
W
TUV
W
VT
WU
UW
TV
W
VUT
SRQP
Q
SPR
RPS
Q
PQRS
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
i
i
0
i
0
0
i
i
0
0
i
0
i
0
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 199
History
of mathematics
CRYPTOGRAPHY
Since World War II, mathematicians have played a large part in the development
and attack on ciphers. A cipher is a way of scrambling text so it can be read only
by the people who know how to unscramble it. Had the Government Code and
Cipher School (at Bletchley Park, England) not been able to read the German
Enigma ciphers, historians estimate that World War II may have lasted another
two to three years. Until 1974, the contribution made by mathematicians to the
war effort went largely unrecognised.
Why include talk of ciphers and code breaking in a chapter on group theory? It
is because, in the late 1970s, the two topics collided. In 1969, ARPAnet (the fore
runner to the Internet) was born. Whiteld Dife, a mathematician employed in a
series of jobs related to computer security, could see the potential of ARPAnet but
was concerned that people using email would be deprived of the right to privacy.
At that time, if two people (say, Alice and Bob) wanted to encrypt a message,
they needed to exchange a key.
For Alice to send a secure message to Bob, encryption can
be thought of as putting the message in a strong box and
locking it. The locked box can be sent securely. The problem
is that Bob needs a key to open the box. What is known as the
key distribution problem is basically How do Alice and
Bob swap keys?.
Whiteld Dife and a cryptographer called Martin
Hellman worked on the key exchange problem from Sep
tember 1974. In 1975, they came upon the double padlock
solution. Essentially, Alice locks the box and mails it to Bob.
Bob applies his own lock (leaving Alices in place) and
returns it. Alice removes her lock and sends the box (still
locked by Bob) back to Bob. Bob can now unlock the box.
What was needed was a mathematical function that was the
equivalent of a padlock (called a oneway function). Like a
padlock, anyone could lock (encrypt), but without a key, the
lock couldnt be opened (decrypted).
Group theory provides the solution to the oneway
problem. Exponentiation (working out a
b
) is easy and, in the
real number system, it is almost as easy to reverse using log
arithms. In the group formed by multiplication modulo [large
primenumber], the logarithms are much harder to calculate.
In the table at right, you can see that 2 is a generator for
this group. Can you work out what modulo has been used? If
you were given a number from the group formed from 2
n
, say
10, but you knew the modulo that had been used and that 2
was the generator, could you work out the logarithm or power
(n) used? What if the modulo used was a much larger prime
number?
(continued)
n 2
n
0 1
1 2
2 4
3 8
4 16
5 13
6 7
7 14
8 9
9 18
10 17
11 15
12 11
13 3
14 6
15 12
16 5
17 10
18 1
200 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
A solution to the key distribution problem is as follows. Alice and Bob agree to
use mod 19 (in practice, it would be a massive prime number) and the generator 2
(anyone can know this information). Alice chooses her key, a (lets make it 13).
She evaluates 2
a
2
13
3 mod 19 and sends this to Bob. Bob chooses his own
key, b (lets make it 16). He evaluates 2
b
2
16
5 mod 19 and sends this to Alice.
When Bob receives 2
a
from Alice, he
evaluates (2
a
)
b
3
16
17 mod 19.
Alice, receiving 2
b
from Bob, can
evaluate (2
b
)
a
5
13
17 mod 19.
They can then use the key generated
(2
ab
) to safely send messages. If an
eavesdropper, Evan, intercepts their
messages, he cannot calculate the key
without rst being able to solve what
is called the discrete log problem.
Publicly, three researchers from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT), computer scientists Ron Rivest
and Adi Shamir, and mathematician
Leonard Aldeman, used modular
arithmetic and properties of large
primes to create the RSA algorithm
for public key cryptography. (RSA
stands for Rivest, Shamir, Aldeman.)
If the primes used are large enough, this cipher is believed to be secure against
attack.
We now know that Dife and Hellman were not the rst people to develop the
idea of public key cryptography. That honour must go to James Ellis, an
employee of the British Government Communications Headquarters (formed
from the remnants of Bletchley Park after World War II). Like Dife and
Hellman, Ellis was unable to nd the oneway function. In 1969, he shared his
idea with his bosses but it wasnt until 1973 that a mathematician called Clifford
Cocks found the answer using group theory. The discovery made by Ellis and
Cocks was not publicly acknowledged until 1997.
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 201
Modulo arithmetic
Modulo arithmetic is like clock arithmetic where 5 + 9 = 4 in mod 10.
The residues of modulo x are all the numbers less than x.
Congruent numbers in mod x all differ by multiples of x.
The terminology of groups
For a set S = {u, a, b, c, } and an operation
, we say that
the operation is closed if a
b is an element of S
the operation is associative if (a
b)
c = a
(b
c)
u is the identity element (IE) if a
u = u
a = a.
a
1
is the inverse of a if a
a
1
= a
1
a = u where u = IE.
Properties of groups
A set forms a group under an operation if elements of the set are closed and
associative, and there is a unique identity element and every element has a unique
inverse.
The group is an Abelian group if the operation is commutative (e.g. a
b = b
a).
Cyclic groups and subgroups
For the group G = [S,
]:
a subgroup exists if there is a subset of S that is closed and contains the identity
element, and if inverses for all elements exist.
the group is cyclic if an element a can be found that generates the group. This can
be written as G = <a>.
Transformations
The set of all transformations (for example, rotations and reections) and the binary
operation that combines any two of these transformations is referred to as a
composition.
summary
202 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1 Draw up a Cayley Table that shows the residues for each of the following:
a addition mod 5
b multiplication mod 6.
2 Determine whether the following are groups:
a {1, 1} under multiplication
b {0, 1} under addition.
3 Determine whether the following are groups:
a the set {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} under multiplication modulo 9
b the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} under multiplication modulo 5
c the set {2, 4, 6, 8} under multiplication modulo 10
d the set {0, 1, 2} under addition modulo 3.
4 Determine whether each of the following form groups:
a the set of integers where p
q = p + 2q
b the set of positive rational numbers where p
q = .
c Show that the set of all integers forms an Abelian group under the operation
a
b = a + b 3.
5 There are two lights in a room, one on the ceiling and one on the wall with 4 possible states
for the two lights both on, both off, wall light on only, or ceiling light on only. There are
4 possible changes of state: no change, both change, ceiling light change and the wall light
change. These changes are denoted by N, CW, C and W respectively. Show that the set
{N, C, CW, W} forms a group with respect to the operation followed by.
6 What property of a group is displayed in a Cayley Table if:
a the elements are symmetrical about the leading diagonal
b the same element does not appear more than once in any row or column
c the identity element occurs only once in each row or column.
CHAPTER
review
4A
4B
4C
p
q

4C
4C
Yes
No, not closed
Yes
No, 0 does not have an inverse
Yes
Yes
No, no identity
No, not associative
Check with your teacher.
There is only element
x
such that
p
x
=
q
and
Each element has a unique inverse.
Commutativity
1 a b
+ 0 1 2 3 4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
0
2
3
4
0
1
3
4
0
1
2
4
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
2
4
0
0
4
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
4
2
0
4
2
0
5
4
3
2
1
x
q
=
p.
C h a p t e r 4 A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r o u p s 203
7 Determine whether the following are groups:
a the set of integers, modulo n under addition
b the set of integers, modulo n under multiplication
c the set of integers, modulo n, excluding 0, under multiplication
d the set of integers, modulo n, excluding 0, under multiplication, if n is prime.
8 Determine whether the set of all moves that can be made by a knight on a chessboard forms
a group or not. (The diagram shows three of the possible moves a knight can make on a
chessboard. The knight can move two squares horizontally and one square vertically, or two
squares vertically and one square horizontally like a letter L.)
9 Consider an operation dened by the following Cayley Table.
a Does the table dene a cyclic group?
b Does the subset {u, a, b} form a subgroup?
c Identify a subgroup and the generator of the subgroup.
10 a Verify that the set , where m 0 forms a group under matrix multiplication.
b Verify that all p q matrices form a group under matrix addition.
11 Show that the following set of matrices forms a group under multiplication.
12 Determine whether or not the following functions form a group under composition of
functions. Assume that they are associative.
f
1
(x) = x f
2
(x) = f
3
(x) = 1 + x f
4
(x) = f
5
(x) = f
6
(x) =
u a b c
u u a b c
a a e c b
b b c e a
c c b a e
4C
4C
4D
4E
m 0
0 m
4E
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
i 0
0 i
i 0
0 i
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 i
i 0
0 i
i 0
4E
1
x

1
1 x +

x
x 1 +

x 1 +
x

Yes
No, 0
1
doesnt exist
No, inverses dont always exist.
Yes
Check with your teacher.
No, there is no generator.
No, the operation is not closed on these elements.
<
a
>
=
{0,
a
}, <
b
>
=
{0,
b
}, <
c
>
=
{0,
c
}
C
h
e
c
k
w
i
t
h
y
o
u
r
t
e
a
c
h
e
r
.
.
204 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Modelling and problem solving
1 If a group consists of 4 elements, the identity element u and a, b, c, and an operation
, then
we can start to complete a Cayley Table as follows:
a Investigate the claim The value indicated by cant be lled with a.
b If is lled with the identity element, u, the table can be completed in two possible ways
to describe a group. Find the two tables. (You need not check the associative law.)
c If is lled with b (or c), there is only one way to complete the table that results in a
group. Using b for , nd the table. (You need not check the associative law.)
d If you consider the three tables you have produced, two of them describe the same
structure. Determine which two tables these are and show how the elements in one table
would have to be renamed to produce the other.
2 Earlier in this chapter, we found that G = [Z
6
, + modulo 6] is a cyclic group with two
generators, 1 and 5. For two distinct primes p and q, investigate the number of generators for
the group [Z
pq
, + modulo pq]. (Distinct primes means that p q.)
u a b c
u u a b c
a a
b b
c c
Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 4
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Check with your teacher.
Check with your teacher.
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Matrices and applications
In this
chapter
5A Inverse matrices and
systems of linear equations
5B Gaussian elimination
5C Introducing determinants
5D Properties of determinants
5E Inverse of a 3 3 matrix
5F Cramers Rule for solving
linear equations
5
Matrices
and their
applications
206 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Inverse matrices and systems of
linear equations
The ideas you were introduced to in Chapter 3 on matrices provide a foundation for
using matrices to solve simultaneous equations. The following section presents a sim
plied account of complex aspects of economies and industries and will serve to intro
duce the idea of matrix applications in a wide eld of studies.
Inputoutput analysis
To enable government bodies and companies to plan for future needs, inputoutput
analysis models are employed. In these models the interaction between major com
ponents of an economy is analysed so that the effect of an increase in one component
can be measured against the demand for one product in other industries.
Inputoutput models were rst developed by Nobel Prize winner, Wassily
Leontief; they are used to describe economies where demand equals supply, or con
sumption equals production. These models can be applied to whole economies or to
segments within economies.
The model, as presented here, is based on the idea that there is a nite number of
goods that are produced, consumed or used as input for the same nite number of
industries. Each industry produces only one type of product and can use some of its
own product. Each industry and its products are interdependent. The total demand of
product is the sum of the demands throughout the entire production process as well as
the demand for the product by consumers.
Consider an economy com
prising only 2 industries coal
and steel. One tonne of steel
requires an input of 0.5 tonne of
coal as well as 0.4 tonne of steel
(perhaps in the form of
machinery and plant). To pro
duce 1 tonne of coal, 0.3 tonne of
steel and 0.4 tonne of coal are
required (perhaps to produce the
steel needed for machinery).
Suppose also that the nal
demand for steel is 18 tonnes and
for coal 15 tonnes.
Let x
1
and x
2
denote the total demands for coal and steel respectively. This
information can be presented on an inputoutput table.
Producer
User
Final
demand
Total
demand Coal Steel
Coal 0.4 0.3 15 x
1
Steel 0.5 0.4 18 x
2
inverse of a matrix
determinant of a matrix
solution of systems of
homogeneous and non
homogeneous linear
equations using matrices
applications of matrices in
both liferelated and purely
mathematical situations
SLE 7: Use inputoutput (Leontief) matrices in economics.
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 207
This information can be represented by a system of simultaneous linear equations:
x
1
= 0.4x
1
+ 0.3x
2
+ 15
x
2
= 0.5x
1
+ 0.4x
2
+ 18
and put into matrix form:
= +
which can be represented as
X = AX + D
where X = , A = and D = .
Rearrangement of the matrices (as shown below) isolates X so it can be solved.
X AX = D
(I A) X = D
where X postmultiplies other factors and I is the identity matrix .
(I A)
1
(I A)X = (I A)
1
D
X = (I A)
1
D
We call X the output matrix as it holds variables x
1
and x
2
that will state the total
demand for steel and coal. We call A the technology matrix and D the nal demand
matrix. Because of its signicance I A is called the Leontief matrix.
To calculate X we rst need to nd I A.
I A =
I A =
Therefore =
=
=
=
Thus, in order to provide the nal demand of 18 tonnes of steel and 15 tonnes of coal
in this economy, the steel industry must produce 87.14 tonnes of steel and the coal
industry must produce 68.57 tonnes of coal.
These values can also be regarded as equilibrium values if these values are met
then the input will match the output thus eliminating both over and under
production.
x
1
x
2
0.4 0.3
0.5 0.4
x
1
x
2
15
18
x
1
x
2
0.4 0.3
0.5 0.4
15
18
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
0.4 0.3
0.5 0.4
0.6 0.3
0.5 0.6
x
1
x
2
0.6 0.3
0.5 0.6
1
15
18
1
0.36 0.15

0.6 0.3
0.5 0.6
15
18
1
0.21

14.4
18.3
68.57
87.14
208 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Inverse matrices and systems
of linear equations
1 The equilibrium state for 2 commodities is given by
2a 3b = 25
3a 2b = 60.
Find the equilibrium values for these goods.
2 Find the equilibrium values of P and Q in
P = Q + Y
Q = X + yP where Y = $6 million, X = $15 million and y = 0.5.
3 Find the equilibrium values of
x = 45 2y
x = 0.6y.
4 Consider the simplied Keynesian system
Y = C + 30
C = 50 + 0.8Y
where Y denotes national income and C denotes consumption. Find the equilibrium
values for Y and C.
5 Find the equilibrium values for the supply and demand model
x = 21 4y (demand)
x = 14 + 3y (supply).
6 The technology matrix for an economy which produces only 2 commodities is given by
A = and the nal demand matrix D = . Solve X = .
1. A pair of equations, ax + by = u and cx + dy = v, may be written in the form
AX = B where A = , X = and B = .
2. The matrix equation AX = B can be rearranged to X = A
1
B so that values for x
and y may be found. These values can also be called equilibrium values.
3. Matrices can be used for inputoutput analysis.
4. An inputoutput analysis matrix can be written as X = AX + D where:
matrix X contains the variables to be determined and is called the output matrix
matrix A contains information about the input details and is called the
technology matrix
matrix D contains information about the nal demand and is called the nal
demand matrix.
5. The matrix equation X = AX + D can be rearranged to make X the subject:
X = (I A)
1
D
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
remember
5A
0.2 0.6
0.1 0.5
25
36
x
1
x
2
26
9
42
36
10.38
17.31
400
370
17
1
100.29
92.06
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 209
7 A simple economy is shown in the table.
Find the total demand matrix.
8 A certain economy consists of 2 industries, mining ore and manufacturing. The pro
duction of 1K dollars (K = 1000) of manufactured goods requires 0.6K dollars of
manufactured goods and 0.15K dollars of ore, while the production of 1K dollars of ore
requires 0.4K dollars of manufactured goods and 0.3K dollars of ore.
The nal demand for manufacturing and mining ore is 120K dollars and 145K
dollars respectively.
a Prepare a matrix table for this information.
b Represent the information in matrix form, using X as the output matrix, A the
technology matrix and D the demand matrix.
c Find (I A)
1
.
d Find the total demand matrix (output matrix) X.
e Verify that D = (I A) X.
Gaussian elimination
The example based on the economy with only 2 industries used in the previous section
is obviously a little unrealistic. However, if this economy were to involve more than
2 industries we have no tools to solve this type of problem, at this stage. This is because
it would involve nding the inverse of a 3 3 matrix using the example of an economy
with 3 industries, whereas we are limited to nding the inverse of a 2 2 matrix.
A variety of methods can be used to solve a system of simultaneous equations, such
as those generated in the previous section. We will concentrate at this stage on the
method known as Gaussian elimination. In future sections of this chapter we will
introduce 2 more methods, as well as graphics calculator techniques for solving
simultaneous equations.
Using the Gaussian elimination method to solve
simultaneous equations
The Gaussian elimination method is described below.
Consider a set of 2 simultaneous linear equations in 2 unknowns, x and y as given:
ax + by = u
cx + dy = v
As we saw earlier, this system can be represented as
A = B = X =
where A is the coefcient matrix, B is the constant matrix and X is the variable or
unknown matrix.
Producer
User
Final
demand Total p q
p 0.25 0.4 30 x
1
q 0.30 0.5 25 x
2
a b
c d
u
v
x
y
98.04
108.82
3.18 0.681
1.81 1.81 480.68
481.82
SLE 1: Solve linear
equations by using matrices
and Gaussian elimination;
solution of equations
involving more than three
variables will involve the
use of graphing calculators.
210 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
We can combine matrices A and B as where this is referred to as an
augmented matrix, denoted by [A B].
The following example shows the familiar algebraic process involved in solving
simultaneous equations, only this time it is in matrix form. These steps will work
towards producing the identity matrix I on the lefthand side and then the solution will
be on the righthand side.
[A B] [I  X]
All the communication given to the left of each matrix should be included in your own
work as justication for how you have proceeded from one step to the other, and also
for your own reference.
a b u
c d v
Solve this system of simultaneous linear equations:
x + 2y = 3
2x + 3y = 5
THINK WRITE
Set equations in matrix form. A = B = X =
Convert to augmented matrix form. [A B] =
Aim to produce the identity matrix on
the lefthand side of the augmented
matrix. Element a
11
is already 1. We
need to eliminate the a
21
element to
produce a 0.
Replace R
2
with R
2
2R
1
. That is,
replace row 2 with row 2 minus twice
row 1.
R
2
2R
1
:
Next we want a
22
to be 1. Multiply R
2
by 1.
R
2
:
Finally, we want to make a
12
= 0.
Replace R
1
with R
1
2R
2
.
R
1
2R
2
:
[A B] now resembles [I  X] and X = . [I  X] =
X = , that is x = 1 and y = 1
Verify your answers by substitution into
the original equations.
Check:
1 + 2(1) = 3 (true)
2(1) + 3(1) = 5 (true)
1
1 2
2 3
3
5
x
y
2
1 2 3
2 3 5
3
1 2 3
0 1 1
4
1 2 3
0 1 1
5
1 0 1
0 1 1
6
1
1
1 0 1
0 1 1
1
1
7
1
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 211
The following procedures are used in this method (they match operations you use
when solving equations by elimination):
1. multiply a row (equation) by a constant
2. add and subtract one row (equation) to or from another
3. swap rows (equations).
The object is to have ones in the leading diagonal and zeros under the leading diagonal.
This is known as rowechelon form. Once this is achieved, the solution can be found
either algebraically or by continuing with Gaussian elimination until all elements above
the leading diagonal are zero. This is known as reduced rowechelon form.
Lets investigate these ideas by working with a 3 3 matrix.
Solve this system of linear equations.
x + 2y + z = 8
x y + z = 7
x + y + 2z = 4
THINK WRITE
Set the equations in matrix form. A = B = X =
Convert to augmented matrix
form.
[A B] =
Element a
11
is already 1.
Eliminate a
21
(make it become 0)
by replacing R
2
with R
2
R
1
.
R
2
R
1
:
Next eliminate a
31
by replacing
R
3
with R
3
R
1
.
R
3
R
1
:
To obtain a 1 in a
22
, we could
divide R
2
by 3 (giving us in
b
21
) or swap R
2
and R
3
. Lets
swap the rows and then multiply
the new R
2
by 1.
Swap R
2
and R
3
:
R
2
:
Eliminate a
32
by replacing R
3
with R
3
+ 3R
2
.
R
3
+ 3R
2
:
1
1 2 1
1 1 1
1 1 2
8
7
4
x
y
z
2
1 2 1 8
1 1 1 7
1 1 2 4
3 1 2 1 8
0 3 0 1
1 1 2 4
4
1 2 1 8
0 3 0 1
0 1 1 4
5
1
3

1 2 1 8
0 1 1 4
0 3 0 1
1 2 1 8
0 1 1 4
0 3 0 1
6
1 2 1 8
0 1 1 4
0 0 3 11
2
WORKEDExample
Continued
over page
212 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
To obtain a 1 in a
33
, multiply R
3
by .
R
3
:
Rowechelon form has now been
achieved. We can solve for x, y
and z using equations or continue
to reduced rowechelon form.
Using equations
R
3
gives z.
Substituting the value for z in R
2
gives y.
Substituting the values for both y
and z in R
1
gives x.
z =
Substituting z = in y z = 4 gives y = .
Substituting y = and z = in x + 2y + z = 8 gives
x = 11.
Continuing to reduced
rowechelon form
We rst need to eliminate above
a
33
. Eliminate a
23
by replacing R
2
with R
2
+ R
3
.
Eliminate a
13
by replacing R
1
with R
1
R
3
.
Now eliminate above a
22
.
Eliminate a
12
by replacing R
1
with R
1
2R
2
.
Alternatively:
R
2
+ R
3
:
R
1
R
3
:
R
1
2R
2
:
State the solution. Therefore, X = where x = 11, y = , z = .
Verify your results by substitution
into at least one of the original
equations. In this case, substitute
values for x, y and z into the left
side of the third equation.
Check: substituting into x + y + 2z gives
11 + + 2( )
= 11 +
= 4
Solution is veried.
7
1
3

1
3

1 2 1 8
0 1 1 4
0 0 1
11
3

8
11
3

11
3

1
3

1
3

11
3

1 2 1 8
0 1 0
1
3

0 0 1
11
3

1 2 0
35
3

0 1 0
1
3

0 0 1
11
3

1 0 0 11
0 1 0
1
3

0 0 1
11
3

9
11
1
3

11
3

1
3

11
3

10
1
3

11
3

1
3

22
3

C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 213
This method can be quite frustrating if you get lost. Work on only one row at a time
in any one step, unless the operation is quite straightforward and the line in question
isnt involved in any other procedures in that step. (For example, Step 5 in Worked
example 2 would satisfy these criteria.) Use the following steps:
1. Start with a 1 in position a
11
, by swapping rows, dividing by a suitable number or both.
2. Eliminate the elements (make them become 0) below a
11
, starting with a
21
and
working down.
3. Work to get a 1 in position a
22
by either swapping rows, dividing by a suitable
number or both.
4. Eliminate the elements below a
22
, starting with a
32
and working down.
5. Continue until there are ones in the leading diagonal and zeros below it (row
echelon form).
6. Once you have rowechelon form, decide if you are going to work algebraically or
continue to reduced rowechelon form.
7. If you are working to reduced rowechelon form, start with the far righthand
column and work up and to the left.
Using the Gaussian elimination method to nd an inverse
In the previous section we used an augmented matrix [A B] to nd solutions for a
system of linear equations.
The Gaussian elimination method can also be used to nd the inverse of matrix A.
This is achieved by augmenting A with I as in [A I] and performing row reduction
procedures to produce [I  A
1
]. This is shown in the following example.
Find the inverse of A = .
THINK WRITE
Set up the augmented matrix [A I]. [A I] =
Perform Gaussian elimination to obtain the
identity matrix on the left side of the
augmented matrix. Element a
11
is already 1.
Eliminate a
21
by replacing R
2
with R
2
R
1
.
R
2
R
1
:
Element a
22
is already 1. Next eliminate a
12
by replacing R
1
with R
1
R
2
.
R
1
R
2
:
This augmented matrix is now in the form
[I  A
1
].
= [I  A
1
]
A
1
=
Check this is so by verifying A
1
A = I. Check:
A
1
A = = = I
1 1
1 2
1
1 1 1 0
1 2 0 1
2
1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
3 1 0 2 1
0 1 1 1
4
1 0 2 1
0 1 1 1
2 1
1 1
5
2 1
1 1
1 1
1 2
1 0
0 1
3
WORKEDExample
214 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find A
1
(if it exists) for A = .
THINK WRITE
Set up the augmented matrix.
[A I] =
Perform Gaussian elimination to
obtain the identity matrix on the
left side of the augmented matrix.
Element a
11
is already 1.
Eliminate a
21
by replacing R
2
with R
2
R
1
. Note that a
31
is
already 0.
R
2
R
1
:
We need a 1 in a
22
. The easiest
way is to swap R
2
and R
3
.
Swap R
2
and R
3
:
Eliminate a
32
by replacing R
3
with R
3
+ 2R
2
.
R
3
+ 2R
2
:
Make a
33
= 1 by dividing R
3
by 6.
R
3
:
Rowechelon form has now been
achieved. We now need to
eliminate above a
33
. Replace R
1
with R
1
R
3
and replace R
2
with
R
2
3R
3
.
R
1
R
3
:
R
2
3R
3
:
Now eliminate above a
22
.
Replace R
1
with R
1
2R
2
.
R
1
2R
2
:
1 2 1
1 0 1
0 1 3
1
1 2 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
2
1 2 1 1 0 0
0 2 0 1 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
3
1 2 1 1 0 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
0 2 0 1 1 0
4
1 2 1 1 0 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
0 0 6 1 1 2
5
1
6

1 2 1 1 0 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
0 0 1
1
6

1
6

1
3

6
1 2 0
7
6

1
6

1
3

0 1 0
1
2

1
2
 0
0 0 1
1
6

1
6

1
3

7
1 0 0
1
6

5
6

1
3

0 1 0
1
2

1
2
 0
0 0 1
1
6

1
6

1
3

4
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 215
Gaussian elimination
Use the Gaussian method of elimination to solve the following systems of linear equations.
1 2x y = 1 2 3a + 2b = 11
3x + 2y = 5 a + 3b = 6
3 2y z = 5 4 3x + 4y z = 11
x + z = 1 x y + 2z = 1
2x y z = 6 5x + y 3z = 7
5 3x + 4y + z = 10 6 x + y z = 6
2x + y + 2z = 5 x + 2y + 2z = 0
x 2y + 2z = 0 2x y + z = 3
THINK WRITE
This is now in the form [I  A
1
].
State A
1
.
= [I  A
1
]
A
1
=
Verify that A
1
A = I. Check:
A
1
A =
=
= I
8
1 0 0
1
6

5
6

1
3

0 1 0
1
2

1
2
 0
0 0 1
1
6

1
6

1
3

1
6

5
6

1
3

1
2

1
2
 0
1
6

1
6

1
3

9
1
6

5
6

1
3

1
2

1
2
 0
1
6

1
6

1
3

1 2 1
1 0 1
0 1 3
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
For a set of simultaneous equations represented by matrices A, X, B such that
AX = B, Gaussian elimination can be used to change an augmented matrix [A X]
to [I  X] and [A I] to [I  A
1
] where I is the identity matrix.
remember
5B
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
SkillSHEET 5.1
Using Gaussian
elimination to solve
linear equations
WORKED
Example
1
WORKED
Example
2
x
=
1,
y
=
1
a
=
3,
b
=
1
x
=
2,
y
=
1,
z
=
3
x
=
1,
y
=
2,
z
=
0
x
=
2,
y
=
1,
z
=
0
x
=
3,
y
=
5 ,
z
=
3
1
4

3
4

216 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
7 Use Gaussian elimination to nd the inverses of the following matrices, if they exist.
a b
c d
8 Write each of the systems of linear equations below in the matrix form AX = B and nd
inverses to solve the equations.
a 2x + y = 6 b 3x + 2y = 9 c x + y z = 6
x + 3y = 4 x + 4y = 7 2x y + 2z = 1
2x z = 5 x + 2y = 7
WORKED
Example
3
1 2
2 3
3 1
2 2
WORKED
Example
4
1 2 2
0 1 3
1 3 2
2 1 0
0 2 0
2 2 1
1
2

History
of mathematics
CARL FRI EDRI CH GAUSS ( 1 7 7 7 1 8 5 5 )
During his lifetime . . .
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
jointly publish The Communist
Party Manifesto.
The Frenchman Nicphore
Niepie produces the worlds
rst photographic image.
Samuel Morse develops the
Morse Code.
You will come across the work of
Carl Gauss in many elds of
mathematics. His work is so diverse
that he is considered by many to be the
greatest mathematician of all times. Gauss was
born in Brunswick, Germany, on 20 April 1777.
From the age of three he had shown his superior
skills by performing mental calculations and by
the age of ten had progressed to algebra and
analysis. While still a teenager he had
developed the least squares method used in
statistical data, and had devised a proof that a
regular 17sided polygon could be constructed
using a compass and ruler and his quadratic
reciprocity theorem. At the age of 22 he
received his PhD, proving the Fundamental
Theorem of Algebra. The next year he
published his work on number theory,
organising previous work and introducing the
notion of modular arithmetic.
In 1801, he used the information from
three sightings of an asteroid, Ceres,
to calculate its orbit. In the
process of this work he showed
that the variation involved in
experimental data followed a
bellshaped curve, now called
the Gaussian or normal
distribution. In 1807 Gauss
became professor of astronomy
and director of the new
observatory in Gttingen. His
work involved branches of
astronomy, mechanics, optics, geodesy
and magnetism, and in collaboration with
Weber, the rst practical telegraph. His
extensive use of complex numbers advanced the
acceptance of them by fellow mathematicians,
although he was generally not supportive of
young, aspiring scholars.
He died in Gttingen in 1855. His memorial
bears the 17point star of his early fame.
Questions
1. Try to reproduce the 17point star with
all angles and sides the same.
2. Research the Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra.
3. What is geodesy?
4. Find out about the quadratic reciprocity
theorem.
3 2
2 1
1
2

1
4

1
2

3
4

2
1
3

2
3
 1
1
3

1 0 1
1
3

1
3

1
3

1
2

1
4
 0
0
1
2
 0
1
1
2
 1
x
=
2.7,
y
=
0.6
x
=
2 ,
y
=
1 ,
z
=
1
5

1
5

3
5

x
=
2 ,
y
=
2 ,
z
=
1
1
7

3
7

3
7

Science of determining the
size and shape of the Earth
.
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 217
Performing Gaussian elimination
using a graphics calculator
Matrix row operations can be performed on your graphics calculator. To demonstrate
this, we will repeat the steps of Worked example 4 to nd the inverse of
A = .
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Enter Matrix A.
(a) Press ( MAT) to enter the matrix
editing screen.
(b) Highlight Mat A and press or
(DIM).
(c) Specify the number of rows, 3 in this case,
and press .
(d) Specify the number of columns, 3 in this
case, and press .
(e) Press again to display the 3 3 array
for matrix A.
(f) Enter the values for the elements, pressing
after each number.
2. Exit the Matrix input screen by pressing .
Press again to return to the MAT screen.
3. Set up an augmented matrix B = [A I]. Enter the
augmented matrix [A I] rst and then save as
matrix B.
(a) Press then (MAT) to bring up the
matrix menu. Press (Aug), then
(Mat), then [A] followed by
then press ( ) and (Iden). Enter 3
(for a 3 3 identity matrix) and press to
close the set of brackets.
(b) Press then ( ) then (Mat) and
[B] to save the augmented matrix as
matrix B.
(c) Press . Matrix B will be displayed. You
can use the cursor keys to see more of the
augmented matrix.
1 2 1
1 0 1
0 1 3
F1
EXE F3
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXIT
EXIT
OPTN F2
F5 F1
ALPHA
,
F6
s
F1
)
F6
s
F1
ALPHA
EXE
218 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
4. To perform row operations, we need to be in the
matrix editing screen.
(a) Press three times to return to the
MAT screen as seen at right.
(b) Press ( MAT). Highlight Mat B and
press . Notice that this screen is
different from the one obtained in Step 3.
5. Replace R
2
with R
2
R
1
(or R
1
+ R
2
).
(a) Press (ROP) for the Row Operation
menu.
(b) Press (Rw+). This allows the addition
of one row and the product of a specied
row with a scalar to be found.
(c) Input the scalar multiplier. Enter 1 for k
and press .
(d) Specify the number of the row to be
multiplied by the scalar. Enter 1 for m and
press .
(e) Specify the number of the row that the result
should be added to. Enter 2 for n and press
.
(f) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 2 of Worked
example 4.
6. Swap R
2
and R
3
.
(a) Press (SWAP).
(b) Specify the number of the rows to be
swapped. Enter 2 for m and press .
Enter 3 for n and press .
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 3 of Worked
example 4.
EXIT
F1
EXE
F1
F3
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXE
F1
EXE
EXE
EXE
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 219
7. Replace R
3
with R
3
+ 2R
2
.
(a) Press (Rw+). As before, this allows
addition of one row and the product of a
specied row with a scalar.
(b) Enter 2 for k (this is the scalar multiplier)
and press . Enter 2 for m (this is the
row to be multiplied) and press .
Enter 3 for n (this is the number of the row
where the result should be added) and
press .
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 4 of Worked
example 4.
8. Multiply R
3
by .
(a) Press (Rw). This allows the product of
a specied row and scalar to be found.
(b) Using the fraction key, enter for k (this is
the scalar multiplier) and press . Enter
3 for m (this is the row to be multiplied) and
press .
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 5 of Worked
example 4.
9. Now that we have rowechelon form, continue
performing operations until reduced row
echelon form is achieved.
10. Use the cursor keys to scroll across to see A
1
.
Now complete the questions at the end of this
investigation.
F3
EXE
EXE
EXE
EXE
1
6

F2
1
6

EXE
EXE
EXE
220 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
For the TINspire CAS
1. Enter Matrix A.
(a) Open a new Calculator document. Press kto access the catalog. Select
Option 5 (by pressing 5) then highlight the mbyn matrix symbol.
(b) Press . Create the matrix with Number of
rows: 3 and Number of columns: 3, pressing
eto move from one box to the next.
(c) Highlight OK and press . Fill in the values
in the matrix using the cursor keys to move
from one element to the next.
(d) Move the cursor to the right of the matrix.
Press /and h, then press Ato store the
matrix as matrix A. Press to display the
matrix.
2. Set up an augmented matrix B = [A I]. Enter the
augmented matrix [A I] rst and then save as
matrix B.
(a) Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector (by
pressing 7or highlighting 7: Matrix &
Vector and pressing ). Select 6: Create
and then select 7: Augment.
(b) Press Athen press the comma key (,). To
enter the identity matrix, press band select
7: Matrix & Vector then 6: Create and
2: Identity. Press 3(for a 3 3 identity
matrix) and press )twice to close the two
sets of brackets. Press / and h, then
press Bto save the augmented matrix as
matrix B. Press to display the matrix.
3. Replace R
2
with R
2
R
1
(or R
1
+ R
2
).
(a) To proceed to the Row Operations menu,
press bthen select 7: Matrix & Vector and
9: Row Operations. For R
1
+ R
2
, select
4: Multiply Row & Add.
(b) Input the scalar multiplier, the matrix name,
the row number to be multiplied and then the
row number for the result to be added to, each
separated by a comma. In this case, enter 1,
B, 1, 2. Press )to close the set of brackets,
then press /, hand Cto save the matrix
as matrix C. (You can continue to save the
new matrix formed as matrix B if you wish or
use a new name after each row operation.)
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the matrix
obtained in Step 2 of Worked example 4.
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 221
4. Swap R
2
and R
3
.
(a) Proceed to the Row Operations menu and
select 1: Swap Rows.
(b) Input the matrix name and the two row
numbers to be swapped, each separated by a
comma. In this case, enter c, 2, 3.
Press )to close the set of brackets then
press /, hand Dto save the matrix as
matrix D.
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 3 of Worked
example 4.
5. Replace R
3
with R
3
+ 2R
2
.
(a) As before, proceed to the Row Operations
menu and select 4: Multiply Row & Add.
(b) Enter 2, D, 2, 3 to represent
2 R
2
+ R
3
in matrix D. Press )to close
the set of brackets, then press /, hand E
to save the matrix as matrix E.
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 4 of Worked
example 4.
6. Multiply R
3
by .
(a) Proceed to the Row Operations menu and
select 3: Multiply Row.
(b) Enter , E, 3 to represent R
3
in matrix E.
Press )to close the set of brackets, then
press /, hand Fto save the matrix as
matrix F.
(c) Press . Compare this screen with the
matrix obtained in Step 5 of Worked
example 4.
7. Now that we have rowechelon form, continue
performing operations until reduced rowechelon
form is achieved.
QUESTIONS
1 Repeat the calculations for Exercise 5B Question 7 using a graphics calculator.
2 Solve the following system of equations by performing row operations using a
graphics calculator.
x y 4z = 11
6x + 2y + z = 9
3x 2y + 2z = 3
1
6

1
6

1
6

x
=
1,
y
=
0,
z
=
3
1 a
x
=
2.7,
y
=
0.6
b
x
=
2 ,
y
=
1 ,
z
=
c
x
=
2 ,
y
=
2 ,
z
=
1
1
5

1
5

3
5

1
7

3
7

3
7

222 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introducing determinants
As mentioned in the previous section, Gaussian elimination is just one method used to
solve systems of linear equations. Other methods involving determinants of matrices
were used as early as 1100 BC by the Chinese and more recently by Gabriel Cramer
(17041752) and Augustine Cauchy (17891857).
You were introduced to determinants in Chapter 3 on matrices where a quick test to
determine whether a matrix was singular (that is, had no inverse) was to evaluate its
determinant.
For example, for A = A
1
= = .
Because the determinant of A = 0, no inverse exists such that A
1
A = I.
By denition, if A = [a], then det A =  a  for a 1 1 matrix.
Determinant of a 2 2 matrix
If A = then det A = = ad  bc.
Therefore the determinant can only be found for a square matrix A and is denoted by
straight brackets,  , not the square brackets [ ] used for a matrix. Its value is a single
numerical answer, not a table of values like a matrix.
Determinant of a 3 3 matrix
As with the inverse of matrices, we need to be able to nd determinants of matrices
larger than 2 2.
The determinant of a 3 3 matrix involves evaluating three 2 2 determinants.
If A = , det A = a  b + c
where the 3 subdeterminants are referred to as minors.
Therefore det A= a(ei  fh)  b(di  fg) + c(dh  eg)
= aei  afh  bdi + bfg + cdh  ceg
2 2
1 1
1
2 1 2 1

1 2
1 2
1
0

1 2
1 2
a b
c d
a b
c d
Evaluate the determinant of A = .
THINK WRITE
For A = , det A = ad bc. det A = 2 2 3 1
= 4 3
= 1
2 1
3 2
a b
c d
5
WORKEDExample
a b c
d e f
g h i
e
h
f
i
d
g
f
i
d
g
e
h
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 223
Note that the coefcients of each subdeterminant are the elements of row 1 and the
minor of a
11
is formed by using elements not in row 1 or column 1. That is, mentally
cross out the rst row and rst column.
and similarly for the other minors.
The second coefcient is given a negative sign.
If det A
= 0 then the inverse of A does not exist. In this case A is said to be singular.
A special set of simultaneous equations such as
ax
+ by
= 0
cx
+ dy
= 0
is said to be homogeneous, where all the righthand side constants are zero. The trivial
solution to this system yields x
= y
= 0.
If det A = 0 then an innite number of nontrivial solutions exist. However, if
det A
0 only the trivial solutions exist. You will encounter questions later in this
chapter that deal with this situation.
a b c
d e f
g h i
Evaluate the determinant .
THINK WRITE
Use elements of row 1 as
the coefcients of the
minors.
= 2 1 + 3
Evaluate minors. = 2(1 0 2 2) 1(1 0 2 1) + 3(1 2 1 1)
= 2(0 4) 1(0 + 2) + 3(2 1)
= 8 2 + 3
= 7
2 1 3
1 1 2
1 2 0
1
2 1 3
1 1 2
1 2 0
1 2
2 0
1 2
1 0
1 1
1 2
2
6
WORKEDExample
1. By denition, if A = [a], then det A =  a  for a 1 1 matrix.
2. If A = then det A = = ad bc.
3. If A = , det A = a b + c
where the 3 subdeterminants are referred to as minors.
a b
c d
a b
c d
a b c
d e f
g h i
e f
h i
d f
g i
d e
g h
remember
224 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Introducing determinants
Evaluate the determinants of the following matrices:
1 2 3 4
5 Evaluate the following determinants:
a b c
d e f
g h i
j
Properties of determinants
In question 5 of the previous exercise, review parts a and b, f, g and h. Do you notice
any patterns that you think could occur in other situations? In fact there are 8 properties
of determinants that can be very useful. We have already used one of them (see prop
erty 6 given on the next page) in using the Gaussian method to solve systems of linear
equations.
The 8 properties of determinants are given below.
Property 1 Determinant of a transpose
For every square matrix A, det A
= det A
where det A
is the determinant that results
from the transpose of A as seen in questions 5 a and b above.
Property 2 Identical rows
If 2 or more rows (or columns) of a matrix are identical or in proportion, then det A
= 0
(this can be seen in question 5 g).
5C
WORKED
Example
5
2 3
0 1
5 1
2 3
0 1
1
2
 3
1
2
 1
1
4
 2
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital docs:
SkillSHEET 5.2
Determinants of 2 2
and 3 3 matrices
WORKED
Example
6
1 3 2
1 4 3
0 2 5
1 1 0
3 4 2
2 3 5
0 2 3
3 1 2
6 3 2
1 1 1
2 2 3
0 3 4
2 5 1
3 2 4
1 2 3
0 0 0
2 3 5
6 8 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
1 2 3
0 4 5
0 0 6
2 1 3
4 0 5
0 0 6
4 10 2
3 2 4
1 2 3
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 5.1
2 13
1
2

3
4

33 81
3 61 0
0 24
24
122
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 225
Property 3 Zero rows/columns
If all the elements of a row (or column) are zero, then det A
= 0 (see question 5 f).
Property 4 Interchanging rows or columns
If 2 rows (or columns) of A are interchanged to give B, then det A
=
det B (see
questions 5 h and i).
Property 5 Multiples of rows/columns
If a row (or column) of matrix A is multiplied by a constant k (where k
0), to give
matrix B, then det B
= k det A (see questions 5 e and j).
Property 6 Adding rows/columns
If a nonzero multiple of a row or column of A is added to another row or column, then
the determinant is unchanged.
Property 7 Zero lowertriangular matrix
If all the elements below the leading diagonal are zero, then det A equals the product of
the elements on the leading diagonal (see question 5 h).
Property 8 Det I
If I is the identity matrix then det I
= 1 (this property follows from property 7).
Some of these properties are easier to identify than others. For instance, a matrix with
a zero row or column is readily identied. As well as these properties, there are other
shortcut methods that are very convenient for calculating determinants. The following
expansion is one of these.
Expansion of a 3
3 determinant using any row
or column
The initial example of expansion of a 3
3 determinant (Worked example 6 on page 223)
used the rst row as coefcients of the minors. However, any row or column can be used
with the following adaptations.
1. A minor can be obtained by blocking out all the elements of the row and column of
the coefcient.
2. Alternating signs are attached to the coefcients of each minor, as shown:
Note: The initial example (Worked example 6) used a (
) in front of the second
coefcient because the rst row elements were used as the coefcients of expansion.
+ +
+
+ +
226 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
If the elements of the second row had been used as the coefcients of expansion, then
the signs on the minors would have been
,
+,
. The same would have happened if
the second column had been used. The signed minors are called cofactors.
Follow the next worked example to see how this alternative row or column can be
used.
In the example above, any row or column could have been used, but you can see that if
column 1 is used, the coefcients will be 1 a number that is easy to multiply by.
Also, any row or column with mostly zeros allows you to complete the expansion
faster, so it is useful to use that row or column to expand by.
For square determinants greater than 3
3, this simple alternating pattern of signs is
continued.
For example, a 4
4 determinant can be evaluated using alternating signs of the
coefcients. The signs to be used in front of the coefcients are shown below.
Evaluate .
THINK WRITE
Because we can expand by any row or
column, use column 1 as it will have
coefcients of 1.
(a) With a different colour pen
write in the signs of the
elements. Dont get them
confused and think a
21
= 1.
(b) Draw an arrow to indicate the
row/column of expansion.
Write out the expansion with the
signed minors (cofactors).
= 1 1 + 1
Complete the expansion. Take care
with the minus sign and the brackets.
= 1(27 24) 1(18 4) + 1(12 3)
= 3 14 + 9
= 2
1 2 1
1 3 6
1 4 9
1
1
(+)
2 1
1
()
3 6
1
(+)
4 9
2
3 6
4 9
2 1
4 9
2 1
3 6
3
7
WORKEDExample
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 227
Properties of determinants
Evaluate the following determinants:
1 a b c State the property involved.
2 a b State the property involved.
3 a b State the property involved.
4 a b c State the property involved.
5 a b c State the property involved.
6 a b c State the property involved.
7 a b State the property involved.
All determinants have the following properties:
1. For every square matrix A, det A = det A where det A is the determinant that
results from the transpose of A.
2. If 2 or more rows (or columns) of a matrix are identical or in proportion, then
det A = 0.
3. If all the elements of a row (or column) are zero, then det A = 0.
4. If 2 rows (or columns) of A are interchanged to give B, then det A = det B.
5. If a row (or column) of matrix A is multiplied by a constant k (where k 0), to
give matrix B, then det B = k det A.
6. If a nonzero multiple of a row or column of A is added to another row or
column, then the determinant is unchanged.
7. If all the elements below the leading diagonal are zero, then det A equals the
product of the elements on the leading diagonal.
8. If I = identity matrix then det I = 1.
remember
5D
1 2
4 5
1 4
2 5
WORKED
Example
7
1 2 1
3 6 0
1 2 1
0 0 4
2 0 5
3 0 2
2 3 6
1 1 1
2 1 0
3 2 6
1 1 1
1 2 0
2 5
4 1
4 10
4 1
2 4
0 1
2 4
2 5
2 1 3
0 4 7
0 0 1
3 Property 1
0
Property 2
0
Property 3
22 22
Property 4
18 36
Property 5
2 2
Property 6
8
Property 7
228 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
8 a b State the property involved.
9 Use any of the properties investigated in earlier sections to evaluate the following
determinants:
a b c
d e f
Inverse of a 3
3 matrix
In Chapter 3 on matrices you were introduced to the idea of an inverse matrix A
1
where AA
1
= A
1
A
= I.
For A
= the inverse matrix A
1
= , where ad
 bc
0 and
ad
 bc
= det A.
This rule is limited to 2
2 matrices. However, in its most general form it can be used
to nd the inverse of any square matrix, if the inverse exists.
The steps below demonstrate how the above formula can be used to nd the inverse
of a 3
3 matrix.
For matrix A
=
1. Matrix C, the cofactor matrix of A, is obtained by replacing each element of A with
its corresponding cofactor or signed minor.
C
=
=
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
2 3 4
1 1 1
0 1 0
4 3 1
1 6 1
2 5 1
1 1 1
0 1 1
2 1 0
1 0 0
1 0 4
3 2 1
2 1 1 3
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 2
2 0 1 3
4 2 1 0
0 2 1 1
0 0 1 3
0 0 0 5
a b
c d
1
ad bc

d b
c a
2 3 1
4 6 5
9 7 8
6 5
7 8
4 5
9 8
4 6
9 7
3 1
7 8
2 1
9 8
2 3
9 7
3 1
6 5
2 1
4 5
2 3
4 6
13 13 26
17 7 13
9 6 0
1
Property 8
4
3
8
3 40
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 229
2. The adjoint of A is the transpose of the cofactor matrix and is written adj A.
adj A
=
The adjoint matrix has the property that A(adj A)
= (det A)I and since det A is a
scalar we can divide by det A to produce
A
= I
therefore
= A
1
.
You can verify this result by showing A
1
A
= I.
In its simplest form, this is the formula that was used to nd the inverse of 2
2
matrices.
13 17 9
13 7 6
26 13 0
adj A
det A

adj A
det A

Use the cofactor/adjoint matrices to nd the inverse of A
= .
THINK WRITE
Set up the cofactor matrix using signed
minors and evaluate.
C =
C =
Write the adjoint as the transpose of C. adj A =
1 1 2
0 1 2
0 1 3
1
1 2
1 3
0 2
0 3
0 1
0 1
1 2
1 3
1 2
0 3
1 1
0 1
1 2
1 2
1 2
0 2
1 1
0 1
1 0 0
5 3 1
4 2 1
2
1 5 4
0 3 2
0 1 1
8
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
230 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
This method can now be used to solve systems of linear equations involving a 3
3
matrix.
THINK WRITE
Calculate det A. det A = 1 0 + 0 = 1 (down column 1)
Set up A
1
. A
1
=
Calculate A
1
. A
1
=
Verify this matrix is A
1
by testing
AA
1
= I.
Check:
AA
1
=
AA
1
=
AA
1
= I
3
1 2
1 3
4
adj A
det A

5
1 5 4
0 3 2
0 1 1
6
1 1 2
0 1 2
0 1 3
1 5 4
0 3 2
0 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
Solve the system of linear equations given below.
x y z = 0
2x + y = 4
x + y + z = 2
THINK WRITE
Set up the matrices in the form
AX = B.
AX = B where A =
X = and B =
Rearrange to change X to be
the subject.
A
1
AX = A
1
B
X = A
1
B
1
1 1 1
2 1 0
1 1 1
x
y
z
0
4
2
2
9
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 231
THINK WRITE
Use the cofactor matrix to nd
A
1
.
C
=
C
=
Find the adjoint of A.
Find the determinant of A.
adj A
=
det A
= (across row 3)
det A
= 1
1
1
2
+ 1 3
det A = 2
Find the inverse. A
1
=
A
1
=
A
1
=
Solve for X and check the
values provided.
X =
X =
So x = 1, y = 2, z = 1.
3
1 0
1 1
2 0
1 1
2 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 0
1 1
2 0
1 1
2 1
1 2 1
0 2 2
1 2 3
4
5
1 0 1
2 2 2
1 2 3
1
1 1
1 0
1
1 1
2 0
+1
1 1
2 1
6
adj A
det A

1
2

1 0 1
2 2 2
1 2 3
1
2
 0
1
2

1 1 1
1
2
 1 1
1
2

7
1
2
 0
1
2

1 1 1
1
2
 1 1
1
2

0
4
2
1
2
1
232 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Inverse of a 3
3 matrix
1 Find the i determinant, ii cofactor matrix iii adjoint matrix and iv inverse of each of
the following.
a b c d
2 Find the inverse of the following matrices, if they exist.
a b c d
3 Find the inverse of and use it to solve the system of linear equations given
by x
+ 2y z
= 0
3y
+ z
= 9
2x
2z
= 8
4 Solve the following systems of linear equations.
a x
+ y
z
= 9 b x
y
4z
=
11
2x
y
+ z
=
11 6x + 2y + z = 9
x + 2y + 2z = 0 3x 2y + 2z = 3
5 Find x if = 0.
1. The determinant of a 3 3 matrix can be found using signed minors. The signs
on the minors can be determined from the following:
2. A
1
= where adj A = C, the transpose of the cofactor matrix of signed
minors.
+ +
+
+ +
adj A
det A

remember
5E
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SkillSHEET 5.3
Using the cofactor/adjoint
method
WORKED
Example
8
1 1
2 3
2 5
6 9
1 2 1
2 0 4
3 2 5
1 4 0
2 3 1
1 4 3
2 1 1
3 3 2
2 0 1
4 1 3
1 1 1
0 2 0
3 5 4
2 1 3
3 2 2
1 2 2
3 6 1
2 0 5
WORKED
Example
9
1 2 1
0 3 1
2 0 2
2 x + 1
1 2 x
a i
1
ii
iii iv
b i
12
ii
iii iv
3 2
1 1
3 1
2 1
3 1
2 1
9 6
5 2
9 5
6 2
3
4

5
12

1
2

1
6

1 c i
8
ii iii iv
8 2 4
12 2 8
8 2 4
8 12 8
2 2 2
4 8 4
1 1
1
2
 1
1
4

1
4

1
4

1
2
 1
1
2

1 d i
33
ii
iii
iv
13 5 11
12 3 0
4 1 11
13 12 4
5 3 1
11 0 11
13
33

12
33

4
33

5
33

1
11

1
33

1
3
 0
1
3

2 a
b
c
d
3 1 5
1 0 1
6 2 9
1 3 2
0 0 0.5
1 4 2.5
0.16 0.08 0.44
0.52 0.24 0.68
0.28 0.36 0.52
1.5 0.5 0.5
0.85 0.45 0.25
0.6 0.2 0
X
=
1.5 1 1.25
0.5 0 0.25
1.5 1 0.75
19
2
15
2
3
4
1
0
3
x
= 3
1
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 233
6 Evaluate the following:
a b c d
7 Solve each of the following equations:
a
= 0 b
= 0 c
= 0
d
= 0 e
= 0 f
= 0
8 If A
= nd A
1
.
9 A
=
a Find det A.
b Find A
1
.
c Use the result from b to solve the system:
2x
+ y
z
= 2
7x
9y
+ 3z
=
5
2x + 4y + 5z = 5
10 Show that = .
11 If A
1
=
a nd A and A
b verify that (A)
1
= (A
1
).
12 Evaluate for complex i:
a b c
x y z
u 1 1
v 1 1
1 x yz
1 y x
1 z xy
1 1 1
1 1 x 1
1 1 1 y
b a a
a b a
a a b
1 a a
2
1 1 1
1 2 4
1 a a
a 1 0
a 0 1
a a
2 a 1
a 0 0
0 a 1 0
0 0 a 2
x 1 3
2 x 6
x 3 0 0
0 x 3
0 1 x 2
3 0 5
2 4 6
1 2 4
2 1 1
7 9 3
2 4 5
1
2

1 a 0
0 1 0
0 b 1
1
1 a 0
0 1 0
0 b 1
1 2 1
0 1 2
1 0 1
1 i
i 1 0
1 i 0
i i 1
1 i 0
1 i i 1 i +
1 i + 1 i i
i 1 i + 1 i
6 a
(
y
z
)(
v
u
)
b
xy
2
xz
x
2
y
+
yz
2
+
x
2
y
2
z
c
(1
x
)(1
y
)
+
y
+
x
1
d
2
a
3
3
a
2
b
+
b
3
a
=
1, 2
a
=
1
2

a
=
0, 3
a
=
0, 1, 2
x
=
3, 4
x
=
1, 3
1
3

5
6
 1
2
3

1
6

7
12

2
3

0
1
2
 1
189
0.3 0.05 0.03
0.15 0.06 0.07
0.24 0.03 0.13
1
2

1
0
Check with your teacher.
A
=
0.25 0.5 0.75
0.5 0 0.5
0.25 0.5 0.25
A
=
0.25 0.5 0.25
0.5 0 0.5
0.75 0.5 0.25
1
+
i
0
7
i
234 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
13 Verify that det (AB)
= det A
det B for the following:
a A
= B
=
b A
= B
=
Cramers Rule for solving linear
equations
Determinants on their own can also be used to solve systems of linear equations. In
fact, determinants were rst studied in this context. This method of solving linear
equations is known as Cramers Rule and will be used to solve systems of 2 linear
equations.
For the equations ax
+ by
= u
and cx
+ dy
= v
x
= and y
= provided ad
 bc
0.
Note the pattern of elements in the determinant of the numerators. Mathematics isnt
referred to as the study of patterns without good reason.
The proof of this statement follows.
Let the system of linear equations be ax
+ by
= u
and cx
+ dy
= v.
Written in matrix form they appear as
= .
In matrix equation form, this is AX
= B
X
= A
1
B.
=
=
1 2 1
0 2 4
4 3 1
2 1 0
3 2 1
1 4 5
5 1 1
1 3 2
2 0 1
3 0 2
4 1 2
0 1 1
u b
v d
a b
c d

a u
c v
a b
c d

a b
c d
x
y
u
v
x
y
1
ad bc

d b
c a
u
v
1
ad bc

du bv
cu av +
Check with your teacher.
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 235
Therefore, x
= and y
= where ad
bc
0.
The numerators and denominators of both these expressions can be written as
determinants:
x
= and y
= .
du bv
ad bc

cu av +
ad bc

u b
v d
a b
c d

a u
c v
a b
c d

Use Cramers Rule to solve the following linear equations.
2x + 2y = 3
x y =
THINK WRITE
Write the general equations in matrix
form and apply Cramers Rule.
For =
x = and y =
Substitute the given values for a, b, c, d
and u, v.
=
x = and y =
= =
= 1 =
Verify these results by substitution into
the original system of equations.
Check:
2(1) + 2( ) = 3 (Veried for the 1st equation)
1 = (Veried for the 2nd equation)
1
2

1
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
u b
v d
a b
c d

a u
c v
a b
c d

2
2 2
1 1
x
y
3
1
2

3 2
1
2
 1
2 2
1 1

2 3
1
1
2

2 2
1 1

4
4

2
4

1
2

3
1
2

1
2

1
2

10
WORKEDExample
236 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Cramers Rule can readily be extended to nd the solution of 3 equations in
3 unknowns.
Solve: 2x
+ y + z = 3
x + 2y z = 6
5x 2z = 1.
THINK WRITE
Write the system in matrix form. A = B =
Apply Cramers Rule.
Matrix B is used as column 1 for x,
column 2 for y and column 3 for z.
x = y =
z =
Evaluate the determinants, dont
forget the signed minors.
x = = 1
y = = 2
z = = 3
Verify these results by substituting
into the 3 equations.
Check:
2(1) + 2 + 3 = 3 (Verifying the 1st equation)
1 + 2(2) 3 = 6 (Verifying the 2nd equation)
5(1) 2(3) = 1 (Verifying the 3rd equation)
1
2 1 1
1 2 1
5 0 2
3
6
1
2
3 1 1
6 2 1
1 0 2
2 1 1
1 2 1
5 0 2

2 3 1
1 6 1
5 1 2
2 1 1
1 2 1
5 0 2

2 1 3
1 2 6
5 0 1
2 1 1
1 2 1
5 0 2

3
21
21

42
21

63
21

4
11
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 237
Cramers Rule for solving
linear equations
Use Cramers Rule to solve the following:
1 2x
+ y
= 1 2 2x
+ 4y
= 14
3x
2y
= 12 3x
y
=
7
3
x y = 7 4 3x + 2y = 6
4x y = 3 2x + y = 3
5 x + y + z = 4 6 x + 2y + 5z = 1
2x + y z = 3 2x + 3y z = 7
3x + 3y + 2z = 10 x 2y 2z = 0
The graphics calculator can perform a number of matrix operations and can provide
quick and reliable answers to some of the problems that you have encountered in this
chapter. A number of operations are shown below, some of which have already been
covered in earlier graphics calculator tips.
Consider the matrix A = .
For the Casio fx9860G AU
Entering a matrix
1. Select RUNMAT from the Main Menu.
2. Press ( MAT) to enter the matrix editing screen.
3. Highlight Mat A and press or (DIM).
4. Specify the number of rows, 3 in this case, and press .
5. Specify the number of columns, 3 in this case, and press .
Cramers Rule for solving linear equations: ax + by = u
cx + dy = v
states that x = and y =
u b
v d
a b
c d

a u
c v
a b
c d

remember
5F
WORKED
Example
10
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Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 5.2
WORKED
Example
11
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip! Matrix operations
2 3 2
0 1 4
2 1 1
F1
EXE F3
EXE
EXE
x
=
2,
y
=
3
x
=
1,
y
=
4
x
=
2,
y
=
5
x
=
0,
y
=
3
x
=
3,
y
=
1,
z = 2
x = 11 , y = 5 , z =
1
3

1
3

1
3

238 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
6. Press again to display the 3
3 array for
matrix A.
7. Enter the values for the elements, pressing
after each number.
(To exit the Matrix input screen, press . Press
again to return to the MAT screen.)
Inverse of A
1. Press then (MAT) to bring up the matrix
menu.
2. Press (Mat) then [A] and [x
1
] to
specify the matrix A
1
.
3. Press to display the answer screen. (Press
to leave or press again to return to the
matrix menu screen.)
Powers of A
1. Press then (MAT) to bring up the matrix
menu. (Ignore this step if you are already in the
matrix menu screen from a previous operation.)
2. Press (Mat) then [A] to specify
matrix A.
3. To nd A
2
, press or press the power key
and type in the required index of 2. For other powers
of A, press the power key and type in the required
index. (For example, press and then to
specify A
3
.)
4. Press to display the answer screen.
Determinant of A
1. From the matrix menu screen, press (Det) then
(Mat) and [A] to specify det A.
2. Press to display the answer.
The identity matrix
1. From the matrix menu screen, press ( ) then
(Iden) to specify the identity matrix. For a 3 3
identity matrix, press .
EXE
EXE
EXIT
EXIT
OPTN F2
F1 ALPHA SHIFT
EXE
EXIT EXE
OPTN F2
F1 ALPHA
x
2
3
EXE
F3
F1 ALPHA
EXE
F6
s
F1
3
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 239
2. Press to display the answer screen.
Calculate (I A)
1
and store it as B
1. From the matrix menu screen, press then ( )
and (Iden) 3 to specify the 3 3 matrix I. Press
the subtraction key and then press ( )
followed by (Mat) and [A] to specify the
matrix A. Press to close the set of brackets and
then press [x
1
] to nd the inverse matrix.
2. Press then (Mat) and [B] to store the
resulting matrix as matrix B.
3. Press to display the resulting matrix B.
Calculate the product A
1
by entering
as a list
1. Enter A
1
as before. (Press (Mat) then
[A] followed by [x
1
].)
2. For the second matrix, we enter each row of the
matrix as a set of elements enclosed in square
brackets. All of the row sets are then enclosed in
another set of square brackets. Use [ [ ] to
open a set of square brackets and [ ] ] to close
the set. The keys to be pressed can be seen in the
screen shown.
3. Press to display the answer screen.
Fill cells of a matrix with a given value
1. Set the dimensions of matrix A. (Lets use 3 3.)
2. From the matrix menu screen, press ( ) then
(Fill). Enter the given value. (Lets use 5.) Press the
comma key and then press ( ) followed by
(Mat) and [A] to enter matrix A. Press
to close the set of brackets. Press .
3. To display matrix A, press twice to return to
the MAT screen. Then press ( MAT) to enter the
matrix editing screen and highlight Mat A. Press
.
EXE
(
F6
s
F1
F6
s
F1 ALPHA
)
SHIFT
F1 ALPHA
EXE
1 2
3 4
5 6
1 2
3 4
5 6
F1 ALPHA
SHIFT
SHIFT
SHIFT
EXE
F6
s
F3
,
F6
s
F1 ALPHA
)
EXE
EXIT
F1
EXE
240 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
For the TINspire CAS
Entering a matrix
1. Open a new Calculator document. Press kto access the catalog. Select Option 5
then highlight the mbyn matrix symbol.
2. Press . Create the matrix with Number of rows: 3
and Number of columns: 3, pressing eto move
from one box to the next.
3. Highlight OK and press . Fill in the values in the
matrix using the cursor keys to move from one
element to the next.
4. Move the cursor to the right of the matrix. Press /,
h, then Ato store the matrix as matrix A. Press
to display the matrix.
Inverse of A
1. With matrix A entered in the calculator, press Athen
the power key land type in the index of 1 to
specify the matrix A
1
.
2. Press to display the required matrix.
Powers of A
1. With matrix A entered in the calculator, press Ato
recall matrix A to the screen.
2. To nd A
2
, press qor press the power key land
type in the required index (2). For other powers of
A, press the power key and type in the required index.
For example, press land then 3to specify A
3
.
3. Press to display the required matrix.
Determinant of A
1. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector (press 8or
use the cursor keys to highlight 7: Matrix & Vector
and press ).
2. Select 2:Determinant.
3. Press Ato specify matrix A and press )to close the
set of brackets. Press to display the answer.
The identity matrix
1. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector. Select
6: Create and then select 2: Identity.
2. For a 3 3 identity matrix, press 3. Press to
display the required matrix.
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 241
Calculate (I A)
1
and store it as B
1. Press ( to open a set of brackets. Press band
select 7: Matrix & Vector then 6: Create and
2: Identity. Press 3and then )to specify the 3 3
matrix I.
2. Press the subtraction key () and then press Ato
specify the matrix A. Press )to close the set of
brackets and then press the power key (l) and type
in 1 as the index to specify the inverse matrix.
3. With the cursor placed after the full expression
(press the right arrow key once), press / and h,
then press Bto store the matrix as matrix B.
4. Press to display the resulting matrix B.
Alternatively, you can store the resulting matrix
after the calculation has been performed. Input
(I A)
1
and press to display the resulting
answer matrix. To store this as matrix B, press /,
hthen B.
Calculate the product A
1
by entering
as a list
1. Enter A
1
as before. (Press Athen the power key
(l) and type in the index of 1.)
2. Press the right arrow to expand the cursor to the
baseline. Press the multiplication key (r).
3. Enter the second matrix. First press / and ( to
set up a set of square brackets. Enter each row of the
matrix. Each element in a row needs to be separated
by a comma (press the ,key). Each row of the
matrix needs to be separated by a semicolon. To
insert a semicolon, press kto access the Catalog
and select Option 4 (by pressing 4). Highlight
the ; symbol and press . The keys to be pressed
can be seen in the screen shown.
4. Place the cursor at the end of the expression and
press to display the resulting matrix.
1 2
3 4
5 6
1 2
3 4
5 6
242 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Fill cells of a matrix with a given value
1. Set up a new matrix A with specied dimensions.
(Lets use 3 3.) Press band select 7: Matrix &
Vector. Select 6: Create and then 1: New Matrix.
Enter the number of rows followed by a comma and
then the number of columns. Press )to close the
set of brackets. Press /, h and A to store the
new matrix as matrix A. Press to display the
matrix.
2. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector. Select
6: Create and then 5: Fill. Enter the given value.
(Lets use 5.) Press the comma key (,) and then
press Ato enter matrix A. Press . You will see a
message on the screen that indicates that this
command has been done.
3. To display matrix A, press Aand .
Solving simultaneous equations
Consider x + y + z = 4
2x y 2z = 6
3x 2y = 2
This set of linear equations can be set up as a matrix equation of the form
AX = B.
Use a graphics calculator to solve this set of equations by each of the methods
listed below.
1 Find A
1
. Hence nd X by calculating A
1
B.
2 Set up the augmented matrix [A B]. Perform Gaussian elimination (using row
operations) to obtain [I  X] and hence nd X.
3 Set up the augmented matrix [A B]. Perform Gaussian elimination but this
time use the Reduced RowEchelon Form function of your calculator to
nd X.
(Hint: For the TINspire CAS calculator, look for the Reduced RowEchelon
Form in the 7: Matrix & Vector menu.)
4 Use the determinant function of your calculator to apply Cramers Rule to solve
the set of equations.
Present your work in a report. Clearly communicate how you performed each
method and discuss your ndings.
x
= ,
y
=
,
z
=
30
11

34
11

20
11

C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 243
Applications of determinants
Using determinants to nd the equation of a line
One of the many applications of determinants is in
determining the equation of a straight line.
You are familiar with the equation of a straight line
through two points. Assume that the given line passes
through points A (x
1
, y
1
) and B (x
2
, y
2
). Let P (x, y)
be a point on this line.
As P is a point on the line then the slope of AP
equals the slope of AB.
=
Therefore (y y
1
)(x
2
x
1
) = (y
2
y
1
)(x x
1
)
x
2
y x
1
y x
2
y
1
+ x
1
y
1
= xy
2
x
1
y
2
xy
1
+ x
1
y
1
(x
1
y
2
x
2
y
1
) (xy
2
x
2
y) + (xy
1
x
1
y) = 0
1 1 + 1 = 0
The multipliers of one have been included to display the determinant form more
clearly and can be written as:
= 0
1 Find the equation of the straight line joining points (2, 4) and (4, 6) using
determinants.
Using determinants to nd the area of a triangle
Similarly the area of a triangle can be
represented in a determinant form:
where the area of LABC equals the total
area of the two trapeziums ADEB and
BEFC less the area of trapezium ADFC.
2 Demonstrate that the area of LABC = and use this
determinant to nd the area of a triangle of your design.
A(x
1
, y
1
)
B(x
2
, y
2
)
P(x, y)
y y
1
x x
1

y
2
y
1
x
2
x
1

x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
x x
2
y y
2
x x
1
y y
1
1 1 1
x x
1
x
2
y y
1
y
2
A(x
1
, y
1
)
B(x
3
, y
3
)
C(x
2
, y
2
)
D E F
1
2

1 1 1
x
1
x
2
x
3
y
1
y
2
y
3
y
=
5
x
+
14
244 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Systems of linear equations
A pair of equations, ax + by = u and cx + dy = v, may be written in the form AX = B
where A = , X = and B = .
The matrix equation AX = B can be rearranged to X = A
1
B so that values for x and
y may be found. These values can also be called equilibrium values.
Inputoutput (Leontief) matrices
An inputoutput analysis matrix can be written as X = AX + D where:
matrix X contains the variables to be determined and is called the output matrix
matrix A contains information about the input details and is called the technology
matrix
matrix D contains information about the nal demand and is called the nal
demand matrix.
The matrix equation X = AX + D can be rearranged to make X the subject:
X = (I A)
1
D.
Gaussian elimination
An augmented matrix [A B] can be used to nd the solution of a set of
simultaneous equations when Gaussian row reduction changes [A  B] to [I  X].
An augmented matrix [A B] can be used to nd the inverse of A when Gaussian
row reduction changes [A B] to [A
1
 I].
Determinants
The determinant of A is written det A; det A = ad bc where A = .
If A = , det A = a b + c
where the 3 subdeterminants are referred to as minors.
In general, the determinant of a 3 3 matrix is found by using the
alternating signs of attached to the coefcients of each minor.
a b
c d
x
y
u
v
summary
a b
c d
a b c
d e f
g h i
e f
h i
d f
g i
d e
g h
+ +
+
+ +
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 245
Adjoint matrix
A
1
= , where adj A is the transpose of the cofactor matrix of A, made up of
the minors of A.
Cramers Rule for solving linear equations
Cramers Rule for solving equations: ax
+ by
= u
cx
+ dy
= v
states that x
= and y
= provided ad
bc
0.
adj A
det A

u b
v d
a b
c d

a u
c v
a b
c d

246 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1 Find the equilibrium values of G and H in the following:
G
= H
+ 40
H
= 2G
90
2 A certain economy produces only two commodities, aluminium and gold. To produce
1 tonne of aluminium, 0.01 tonne of aluminium is required. To produce 1 tonne of gold,
0.005 tonne of gold and 0.2 tonne of aluminium are required. The nal demand is for
15 tonnes of aluminium and 11 tonnes of gold. Find the output matrix.
3 Use the Gaussian method of elimination to solve the following system of linear equations:
2x
y
+ z
=
1
3x
+ 2y
z
= 4
x
2y
+ 2z
= 1
4 Use Gaussian elimination to nd the inverse of the following matrices:
a b
5 Evaluate the following determinants:
a b c
6 Evaluate the following determinants and list the property involved.
a b
c given that
= 52 d given that = 13
e given that = 4 f
g given that = 15
5A
CHAPTER
review
5A
5B
5B
3 2
1 1
3 0 1
2 0 1
1 1 2
5C
1 2 3
1 1 2
2 0 0
2 3 2
0 1 4
2 1 1
1 0 1
0 1 1
1 3 2
5D
1 2 3
0 0 0
2 3 5
3 1 4
0 2 2
0 0 5
2 1 3
3 2 1
1 3 2
2 3 1
3 1 2
1 2 3
1 0 2
3 1 0
0 2 1
1 3 0
0 1 2
2 0 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 2
3 4 0
2 2 4
1 2 2
2 3 4
1 4 3
1 0 2
2 1 4
1 2 3
G
=
50,
H
=
10
x
=
1,
y
=
8,
z
=
9
X
=
(15.15 tonnes of aluminium, 14.1 tonnes of gold)
15.15
14.1
0.2 0.4
0.2 0.6
1 1 0
5 7 1
2 3 0
2
0 Property 3
30 Property 7
24
Property 5
(twice)
0 Property 2
15 Property 6
10
13 Property 1
52 Property 4
C h a p t e r 5 M a t r i c e s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s 247
7 Find the i determinant, ii cofactor matrix, iii adjoint matrix and iv inverse of the following:
a b
8 Use the cofactoradjoint method to solve the following system of linear equations:
2x
y
+ 3z
= 4
x
+ 2y
z
=
5
4x
+ y
2z
= 0
9 a State Cramers Rule for solving two equations in two unknowns.
b Use this rule to solve
2x
3y
= 7
3x
+ y
= 5
Modelling and problem solving
1 Let A be a 4
3 matrix. Consider matrix B which is a premultiplier of matrix A, that is, BA.
Find matrix B if it performs the following elementary row operations on A.
a Multiplies the second row of A by 4.
b Adds twice row 3 to row 4.
c Interchanges rows 1 and 3.
2 Let A be a 3 4 matrix. Consider matrix C which is a postmultiplier of A, that is, AC. Find
matrix C if it performs the following elementary row operations on A.
a Adds 3 times the rst column of A to the second column.
b Interchanges the rst and fourth columns of A.
c Multiplies the third column of A by 2.
3 Find the value of a if = 0.
4 The table shown on the next page is part of Scotlands Aggregate Combined Use Matrix
2004 (Purchasers Prices), millions. The Industries intermediate consumption section
shows the inputs of commodities used by Scottish industries in the production of their output.
The Final demand section shows the purchases of each product by each category of nal
demand (for example, consumers, government, exports).
a Find the nal demand matrix D for this system.
b Find the output matrix X.
c Calculate the Leontief matrix (I A) for this system.
5E
1 2
3 4
3 1 1
2 1 2
1 2 3
5E
5F
a + 1
1
2
10
a 1
2a
a
2
0
1
b i
12
ii
iii
iv
7 4 5
5 8 7
1 4 1
7 5 1
4 8 4
5 7 1
1
12

7 5 1
4 8 4
5 7 1
x
=
,
y
=
2 ,
z
=
17
27

2
27

2
9

y
=
and
x
=
where
ax
+
by
=
u
and
cx
+
dy
=
v
a u
c v
a b
c d

u b
v d
a b
c d

B
=
0 0 1 0
0 4 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 2 1
C
=
0 3 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 0 2 0
1 0 0 0
a
=
3
a
D
2
4
1
3
1
6
9
2
5
6
5
2
4
3
3
1
3
8
3
8
2
8
8
4
4
7
4
3
3
2
5
9
8
9
1
3
1
5
9
1
6
4
8
7
7
1
9
5
=
x
=
2,
y
=
1
7 a i
2
ii iii iv
4 3
2 1
4 2
3 1
2 1
1.5 0.5
c
3713
4532
 0
1160
81 609
 0
17
14 100

93
10 501
 0
2
48 238

2
13 756

3
19 116

6
10 168

0
3945
4273

1716
81 609

195
8570

285
14 100

41
10 501

7
17 256

2
48 238

3
13 756
 0
4
10 168

821
4532

383
4273

69 438
81 609

107
8570

1 918
14 100

1 982
10 501

939
17 256

1 511
48 238

2 979
13 756

1 601
19 116

672
10 168

24
4532

106
4273

778
81 609

4733
8570

15
14 100

83
10 501

36
17 256

78
48 238

141
13 756

127
19 116

33
10 168

48
4532

136
4273

136
81 609

209
8570

16 713
14 100

78
10 501

128
17 256

1 415
48 238

628
13 756

286
19 116

41
10 168

100
4532

52
4273

97
81 609

64
8570

82
14 100

10 194
10 501

150
17 256

373
48 238

216
13 756

152
19 116

64
10 168

130
4532

416
4273

981
81 609

103
8570

106
14 100

1 587
10 501

14 203
17 256

2 140
48 238

649
13 756

384
19 116

274
10 168

209
4532

915
4273

2 120
81 609

522
8570

1 370
14 100

2 606
10 501

1 226
17 256

39 454
48 238

2 302
13 756

848
19 116

1 348
10 168

4
4532

9
4273

34
81 609

9
8570

14
14 100

7
10 501

25
17 256

452
48 238

13 719
13 756

1
19 116

5
10 168

29
4532

18
4273

75
81 609

38
8570

11
14 100

39
10 501

61
17 256

349
48 238

365
13 756

17 543
19 116

71
10 168

23
4532

42
4273

192
81 609

44
8570

11
14 100

88
10 501

113
17 256

423
48 238

438
13 756

129
19 116

8 699
10 168

(I A) =
b
X
4
5
3
2
4
2
7
3
8
1
6
0
9
8
5
7
0
1
4
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5
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1
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7
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6
4
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2
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1
3
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1
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A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y a n d
s h i n g
M i n i n g
M a n u f a c t u r i n g
E n e r g y a n d w a t e r
C o n s t r u c t i o n
D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d c a t e r i n g
T r a n s p o r t a n d
c o m m u n i c a t i o n
F i n a n c e a n d b u s i n e s s
P u b l i c a d m i n .
E d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h a n d
s o c i a l w o r k
O t h e r s e r v i c e s
T o t a l i n t e r m e d i a t e
d e m a n d
C o n s u m e r s
G o v e r n m e n t
G r o s s c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n
E x p o r t s R U K
E x p o r t s R o W
T o t a l n a l d e m a n d
A
g
r
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1
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1
3
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9
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1
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3
1
3
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7
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C
o
n
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u
c
t
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1
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1
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4
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2
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b
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3
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2
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1
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2
3
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1
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7
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1
0
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1
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5
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1
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2
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1
2
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1
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6
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2
9
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1
7
1
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3
4
4
6
5
4
2
3
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1
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1
0
1
6
8
T
o
t
a
l
i
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t
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
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c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n
2
2
0
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2
4
0
6
1
9
4
5
9
5
1
2
8
6
4
4
1
6
9
1
1
5
7
3
8
1
5
5
3
0
7
7
6
1
5
1
0
4
3
9
8
7
8
0
6
7
1
6
2
9
9
9
2
6
3
9
3
1
4
7
2
8
3
2
2
2
5
1
5
1
0
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1
5
1
4
4
9
2
3
2
1
2
0
248 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 5
eBookplus eBookplus
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Matrices and applications
In this
chapter
6A Geometric transformations
and matrix algebra
6B Linear transformations
6C Linear transformations and
group theory
6D Rotations
6E Reections
6F Dilations
6G Shears
6
Transformations
using matrices
250 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Geometric transformations
and matrix algebra
In your junior mathematics studies you encountered the
idea of translation, reection, rotation and dilation and how
these transformations changed the position, size and orientation
of the original gure. However, at that stage your investigations were
limited to identifying the type of transformation that had taken place, the position of
the mirror line or centre of rotation, and perhaps the size of the image gure.
However, now you have skills with matrices that will allow much greater detailed
explanation of the position of images or, conversely, the transformation necessary to
map point (x, y) onto point (z, w).
The matrix algebra used is very straightforward and because we are limiting our dis
cussion at this stage to 2dimensional space, most of our matrices will be of order
2 2. Throughout this section you will be reminded of the properties of groups and
how transformations involved in matrix algebra can be considered to be a group.
Transformations
A transformation t is an operation which maps
each point of the Cartesian plane onto some
other point on the plane.
Consider point P(x, y). Under a transformation
t this point is mapped onto P(x, y). The point
P(x, y) is referred to as the original or preimage
point and P(x, y) is the image.
This transformation can be written in its most
general form as (x, y) = t(x, y).
t
P(x, y)
x
y
P
'
(x', y')
Find the coordinates of the image points of A(2, 1) and B(3, 0) under the transformation
dened by the equations:
x = 2x 4xy + y
2
4
y = 6 2xy + x 2y
2
THINK WRITE
Think of x and y as functions of x
and y.
Substitute x = 2 and y = 1 into equations
for x and y.
For A(2, 1)
x = 2(2) 4(2)(1) + (1)
2
4
x = 4 + 8 + 1 4
x = 9
y = 6 2(2)(1) + (2) 2(1)
2
x = 6 + 4 + 2 2
x = 10
Write the coordinates of the transformed
image. The symbol is used to denote
maps onto.
A(2, 1) A(9, 10)
1
2
1
WORKEDExample
group properties of 2
2 matrices
applications of matrices in both liferelated and purely mathematical situations
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 251
Translations
The equations used in the previous example dene a general transformation or map
ping. A translation is a specic transformation that involves a shift of each point in the
same direction.
x = x + a
y = y + b
Each xcoordinate is moved a units parallel to the
xaxis and each ycoordinate is moved b units
parallel to the yaxis.
The image of P is written P and this
translation can be expressed in matrix
equation form as
= + where
1. is the vector holding the image coordinates (x, y) of point P
2. represents the original coordinates (x, y) of point P
3. is the translation vector and represents information about the horizontal
and vertical displacement.
THINK WRITE
Substitute x = 3 and y = 0 for B. For B(3, 0)
x = 2(3) 4(3)(0) + (0)
2
4
x = 6 0 + 0 4
x = 2
y = 6 2(3)(0) + (3) 2(0)
2
x = 6 0 + 3 0
x = 9
Write the coordinates of the transformed image. B(3, 0) B(2, 9)
Sketch each original point and its image.
Notice that the transformation of A seems quite
unconnected with the transformation of B.
3
4
5
B(3, 0)
A(2, 1)
x
y
A'(9,10)
B'(2, 9)
t
t
0
P(x, y)
x
y
t
b
a
P
'
(x', y')
x
y
x
y
a
b
x
y
x
y
a
b
252 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Note t (lower case) denotes the translation itself and T (upper case) denotes the matrix
of the translation.
Therefore (x
, y
)
= t(x, y) can be written in matrix form as
=
+ T
=
+
=
x
y
x
y
x
y
a
b
x a +
y b +
Find the image of triangle PQR with vertices P(2, 3), Q(0, 1) and R(1, 2) under the
translation vector . Sketch the original and image gures.
THINK WRITE
State the general translation matrix
equation.
= +
Substitute x and yvalues for each
point in turn. Consider P(2, 3).
For P(2, 3)
= +
=
=
Write the coordinates of the point P,
the image of P. P(2, 3) maps to
P(7, 4).
P(2, 3) P(7, 4)
Consider Q(0, 1). For Q(0, 1)
= +
=
=
5
1
1
x
y
x
y
a
b
2
x
y
2
3
5
1
2 5 +
3 1 +
7
4
3
4
x
y
0
1
5
1
0 5 +
1 1 +
5
0
2
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 253
Note that the image has been moved 5 units to the right and 1 unit down but remains
unchanged in shape, area, size and orientation. Such a transformation is said to be
congruent.
Successive translations
The translation above could have been achieved by a succession of translations that
have the nal effect of 5 across and 1 down. Any number of successive translations
could achieve this: and or the reverse order, and , and so on.
THINK WRITE
Write the coordinates of the point Q, the
image of Q. Q(0, 1) maps to Q(5, 0).
Q(0, 1) Q(5, 0)
Consider R(1, 2). For R(1, 2)
= +
=
=
Write the coordinates of the point R, the
image of R. R(1, 2) maps to R(4, 3).
R(1, 2) R(4, 3)
Sketch both the original and the image
points for the triangle PQR.
5
6
x
y
1
2
5
1
1 5 +
2 1 +
4
3
7
8
Q(0, 1)
P(2, 3)
R(1, 2)
x
y
R
'
(4, 3)
Q
'
(5, 0)
P
'
(7, 4)
5
0
0
1
3
2
2
3
Show that the translation T
1
= followed by T
2
= maps the point P(2, 3) from the
previous example to the same point P(7, 4) as found in Worked example 2, and that the
order of the translation has no effect on the result.
THINK WRITE
Set up the general matrix equation.
= + T
1
3
2
2
3
1 x
y
x
y
3
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
254 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
Use T
1
followed by T
2
. For P(2,
3)
=
+
=
P(2,
3)
P
(5,
1)
is the image, P
of image P
.
=
+ T
2
=
+
=
P
(5,
1)
P
(7,
4)
Therefore P(2, 3) P(5, 1) P(7, 4)
Use T
2
followed by T
1
. = +
=
=
P(2, 3) P(4, 6)
= +
=
P(4, 6) P(7, 4)
Therefore P(2, 3) P(4, 6) P(7, 4)
Sketch the translated image in 2 stages.
2
x
y
2
3
3
2
5
1
3
x
y
x
y
x
y
5
1
2
3
7
4
4
x
y
2
3
2
3
2 2 +
3 3 +
4
6
x
y
4
6
3
2
7
4
5
x
y
P
''
(7, 4)
P(2, 3)
P' (4, 6)
P' (5, 1)
t
2
2
t
1
t
2
t
1
1
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 255
This example shows, but does not prove, that a set of translations is commutative; that
is, the order of operation does not affect the nal result.
Translation of a curve
Find the equation of the curve y
= x
2
under the translation of T
= .
Sketch the original and image curves on the same set of axes.
THINK WRITE
Set up the general matrix equation.
=
+
To nd the image of the curve we
must express x and y as found in the
original function in terms of x
and y
.
=
x
= x
1
y
= y
+ 4
Substitute for x and y in the original
function to obtain the function in
terms of the image coordinates.
y = x
2
becomes
y + 4 = (x 1)
2
Rearrange and expand this function.
y = x
2
2x + 1 4
y = x
2
2x 3
State the equation of the image curve. The equation of the image is y = x
2
2x 3.
To assist in graphing the image curve,
rst nd the intercepts with the xaxis
and the yaxis.
xaxis intercepts occur when y = 0
0 = (x 3)(x + 1)
xaxis intercepts occur when
x 3 = 0 or x + 1 = 0
3 x = 3 x = 1
yaxis intercepts occur when x = 0
y = 0
2
2(0) 3
y = 3
Sketch the original and image
functions.
Note that the turning point (0, 0) maps
to (1, 4) which was the translation
vector.
1
4
1
x
y
x
y
1
4
2
x
y
x
y
1
4
3
4
5
6 y
(3, 0)
(1, 0)
3
4
y = x
2
x
0
y' = x'
2
2x' 3
4
WORKEDExample
256 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
We can use a graphics calculator to draw the original function and its image on the
same axes. Consider the function y
= x
2
and its image y
= x
2
2x
3 found in
Worked example 4.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press to display the MAIN MENU. Use the
cursor keys to highlight GRAPH.
2. Press . Enter the rst equation y
= x
2
as Y1.
Press to enter X and then press to show
the index of 2. Press .
3. Enter the second equation y
= x
2
2x
3 as Y2.
Remember to press to enter X. Press .
4. To distinguish between the two graphs on the screen,
we can change the appearance of Y2. Highlight the
equation and press (STYL). Select , or
for a different line style. In this example,
was chosen.
5. Press to graph the curves.
6. To see the two curves more clearly, we need to set up
a view window. Press (VWIN) and enter
values for Xmin and Xmax. From the screen at right
you can see that 6 and 6 have been chosen. Press
after each entry. Scroll down to enter values
for Ymin and Ymax. The values 6 and 6 have been
chosen. Again, press after each entry.
7. Press to return to the GRAPH function screen
and then press (DRAW) to see the graphs.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Graphing the original
and its image
MENU
EXE
X,q,T x
2
EXE
X,q,T EXE
F4 F2 F3
F4 F3
EXE
SHIFT F3
EXE
EXE
EXIT
F6
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 257
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Graphs & Geometry document (press
/Nand select 2: Graphs & Geometry).
2. To draw the graph of y = x
2
, type in x
2
(by pressing
Xand then q) into the function entry line next to
f1(x) =.
3. Press to obtain the curve labelled with its
equation.
4. To enter the second equation, type x
2
2x 3 into
the function entry line next to f2(x) = and press .
5. To see the two curves more clearly, we can alter the
scale settings of the axes. Press band then press
4to select 4: Window.
6. Press 1to select 1: Window settings. The values
in the Window Settings box can now be changed.
Enter the values as shown. Press eto move to the
next setting. (To return to a previous setting, press
the shift button (g) followed by e.)
7. Press euntil OK is highlighted and press . The
graphing window will appear with the new scale.
258 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
8. If necessary, the label for each graph can be moved
to a different position. Press d. A pointer () will
appear in the work area. Use the NavPad to move the
pointer so that it hovers over the equation. The
pointer will then appear as an open hand (). Press
/and then x. The hand will close ({) and the
equation will ash. Use the NavPad to move the
equation to the desired location and then press d.
Note: When the function entry line is shaded, you cannot edit the function entry line
because you are in the graph work area. To move between the graph work area and the
function line, press e.
Also, if the function entry line is covering too much of the graph and you wish to hide
it, press /and then G. To bring the entry line back, press /and then G.
Geometric transformations
and matrix algebra
1 Find the image of each of the following points under the transformation dened by
x = 2xy 3y + x
2
y = xy + 4y x
a (0, 0) b (2, 4) c (1, 1) d (5, 2)
Sketch the original point and its image.
2 Find the image of each of the following points under the translation T = .
a (0, 0) b (2, 4)
c (3, 5) d (4, 1)
3 The vertices of a triangle are given by A(0, 0), B(3, 5) and C(7, 2). Find the image of
the vertices under each of the following translations:
a b c d
1. A translation T can be written as = + T in matrix equation form.
The matrix is the vector representing the coordinates of the point (x, y)
and represents the coordinates of the point (x, y) the image of (x, y)
after translation.
2. A translation results in an image congruent to the original object.
3. A set of translations is commutative the order of operation does not affect
the nal result.
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
remember
6A
WORKED
Example
1
WORKED
Example
2
2
5
4
2
4
0
0
2
0
0
(0, 0) (0,
26) (0, 4) (51, 7)
(2,
5) (4,
9)
(5, 0) (
2,
4)
A
(4, 0), B
(7, 5), C
(11, 2) A
(0,
2), B
(3, 3), C
(7, 0) A
(0, 0), B
(3, 5), C
(7, 2)
A
(4, 2), B
(7, 7), C
(11, 4)
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 259
4 The line y
=
x
+ 4 undergoes a succession of translations dened by T
1
= and
T
2
= . Show that the order in which these translations take place has no effect on
the result.
5 The line y
= 2x
+ 3 undergoes a translation dened by T
= . Find the equation of
the image and sketch the original line and its image.
6 Find the equation of the image of each of the following curves under the following
translations. Graph the original curve and its image using a graphics calculator.
a y
=
x
2
b y
= x
2
4 c y
= x
2
x
6
d x
2
+ y
2
= 4 e y
2
+ x
2
+ 6y
= 0
7 Rearrange a matrix equation to nd the translation vector that maps each of the pairs of
points:
a (2, 4) (0, 1) b (4, 1) (3, 5) c (6, 2) (2, 5)
Linear transformations
Have you ever wondered how pro
grammers who develop computer
games move and manoeuvre char
acters on a screen to get them to
spin or shrink as they appear to
move further away from the
observer? The study of linear trans
formation forms the foundation for
these changes of form and size
the warping of the plane on which
the characters are mapped.
There are many different ways in which the original, or preimage, can be changed
or moved so that it looks different, or is in a different place.
A linear transformation l is a mapping of the preimage P(x, y) onto the image
P(x, y) where:
x = ax + by
y = cx + dy
for all real values of a, b, c, and d. In matrix form this system is written as:
=
= L where L = and is called the transformation matrix.
WORKED
Example
3
4
3
2
1
WORKED
Example
4
1
2
3
1
5
1
2
0
2
2
4
2
x
y
a b
c d
x
y
x
y
x
y
a b
c d
Check with your teacher.
y
(
x
3)
2
1
y
=
(
x
5)
2
5
y
=
x
2
+
3
x
4
x
4
x
+
y
4
y
+
4
=
0
x
2
+
8
x
+
y
2
+
2
y
+
8
=
0
2
3
1
6
4
7
5
y
=
2
x
+
7
3.5 1.5
y' = 2x' + 7
7
3
0
x
y
y = 2x + 3
260 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
This type of transformation leaves the origin unchanged and therefore differs from a
translation. The transformation matrix can also be extracted from information about the
original and image points. An example of this is shown in the following worked
example.
Find the images of the vertices of a unit square ABCD under
the transformation given by
L = .
THINK WRITE
Set up the initial matrix equation where
the image of P is given as P. =
Investigate the transformation of each
point in turn.
(Recall that the symbol is used to
denote maps onto.)
For point A(0, 1)
= =
That is, A(0, 1) A(2, 1)
For point B(1, 1)
= =
That is, B(1, 1) B(3, 0)
For point C(1, 0)
= =
That is, C(1, 0) C(1, 1)
For point D(0, 0)
= =
That is, D(0, 0) D(0, 0)
Plot the image on the same axes as the
original.
1 2
1 1
1
x
y
1 2
1 1
x
y
2
x
y
1 2
1 1
0
1
2
1
x
y
1 2
1 1
1
1
3
0
x
y
1 2
1 1
1
0
1
1
x
y
1 2
1 1
0
0
0
0
3
C(1, 0)
y
A(0, 1)
D(0, 0)
B(1, 1)
x
A'(2, 1)
B' (3, 0)
C' (1, 1)
5
WORKEDExample
x
y
A(0, 1)
D(0, 0)
B(1, 1)
C(1, 0)
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 261
As hinted at in the introduction to this section, there are two ways to conceptualise a
transformation. The more obvious way is to imagine that the points move to new
positions on the Cartesian plane. The other less obvious notion is that it is actually the
Find the matrix of the linear transformation that maps A(1, 1) onto A
(2,
1) and B(2,
1)
onto B
(1,
1).
THINK WRITE
Set up the initial matrix equation.
=
State matrix equations for points A, A
,
B and B
.
For point A:
=
and for point B:
=
Multiply the matrices to arrive at 4
simultaneous equations for 4
unknowns, a, b, c and d.
From the equation for point A:
2
= a
+ b
1
= c
+ d
From the equation for point B:
1
= 2a b
1 = 2c d
This is really 2 sets of 2 equations in 2
unknowns that can be solved by
elimination.
If you wish to use your graphics
calculator, enter this as
A = , B =
and nd A
1
B.
a + b = 2 [1]
c + d = 1 [2]
2a b = 1 [3]
2c d = 1 [4]
[1] + [3]: 3a = 3
a = 1
[2] + [4]: 3c = 2
c =
Find b by substituting a = 1 into
Equation [1] and nd d by substituting
c = into Equation [2]. List the
values for a, b, c and d.
Sub. a = 1 into [1]: 1 + b = 2
b = 1
Sub. c = into [2]: + d = 1
d =
a = 1, b = 1, c = , d =
Use these values to build L, the linear
transformation matrix.
L =
1
x
y
a b
c d
x
y
2
2
1
a b
c d
1
1
1
1
a b
c d
2
1
3
4
1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
2 1 0 0
0 0 2 1
2
1
1
1
2
3

5
2
3
 2
3

2
3

1
3

2
3

1
3

6
1 1
2
3

1
3

6
WORKEDExample
262 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Cartesian plane on which the original points are plotted that undergoes distortions to
yield the transformed image. Perhaps the former is more straightforward, but the end
product will be the same.
Linear transformations
1 ii Which of the following transformations are linear?
ii Write the transformation matrices for each of these.
a x
= x
+ y b x
= x
1 c x
= 2x 3y
y
= 2x + y y = y + 2 y = 3x + 2y
d x = + y e x = x
2
y = 1 +
y = y
2
2 a Find the images of the points A(1, 2), B(2, 0) and C(3, 1) under the following
transformations:
i ii iii iv
b Sketch the original triangle from a and its 4 different images.
3 Find the image of the points (given below) under the transformation dened by:
x = x 2y
y = 2x + y
a A(2, 3) b B(3, 1) c C(4, 1)
Plot the original point and its image in each case.
4 Find the image of the preimage points A(4, 1), B(4, 1) and C(0, 5) under the trans
formation dened by:
x = x + 3y
y = x 2y
Plot the original and image points.
5 Find the matrix of the linear transformation which maps:
a (1, 2) (3, 1) and (3, 0) (1, 4)
b (2, 3) (0, 0) and (2, 4) (1, 1)
c (2, 1) (1, 1) and (2, 1) (3, 6)
d (3, 4) (5, 0) and (3, 2) (2, 4)
1. A linear transformation can be represented by = or
= L where L = is the transformation matrix that maps
point (x, y) onto the image (x, y).
2. The transformed image can be found using = .
3. The transformed image is not congruent to the object.
x
y
a b
c d
x
y
x
y
x
y
a b
c d
x
y
a b
c d
1
x
y
remember
6B
x
1
y

WORKED
Example
5
2 1
1 1
1 0
0 1
2 0
0 2
1 0
0 1
WORKED
Example
6
i
A
(
0
,
1
)
,
B
(
4
,
2
)
,
C
5
,
2
)
i
i
A
1
,
2
)
,
B
2
,
0
)
,
C
(
3
,
1
)
i
i
i
A
(
2
,
4
)
,
B
(
4
,
0
)
,
C
6
,
2
)
i
v
A
(
1
,
2
)
,
B
(
2
,
0
)
,
C
3
,
1
)
A
(8,
7) B
1, 5)
1 1
1.75 2.5
1
3

1.5
2
2
3

2
iv
No change
1 1
2 1
2 3
3 2
2
a
2
b
i
i
i
C
'
(
6
,
2
)
B
'
(
4
,
0
)
A
'
(
2
,
4
)
x
y
A
B
C
0
x
y
B
'
(
4
,
2
)
C
'
(
5
,
2
)
A
'
B
(
2
,
0
)
A
(
1
,
2
)
C
(
3
,
1
)
0
2
b
i
i
i
x
B
(
2
,
0
)
A
(
1
,
2
)
B
'
(
2
,
0
)
C
'
(
3
,
1
)
A
'
(
1
,
2
)
y
C
(
3
,
1
)
0
C
(2,
7)
3
3
2 2 4 6 8
x
y
B
C
5
4
3
2
1
A
A'
C'
B'
2
3
4
5
6
7
5 a b
1
3
 1
2
3

1
1
3

1
6

1.5 1
1.5 1
4
A
(7,
6), B
1, 2), C
(15,
10)
A' (7, 6)
C' (15, 10)
B' (1, 2)
B(4, 1)
A(4, 1)
C(0, 5)
10
y
x
5
5
4 1 45 7 10 15
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 263
Linear transformations and
group theory
Earlier in your Mathematics C course of study you were introduced to group theory
(Chapter 4). You found that a system formed a group if the properties of closure and
associativity applied and an identity element and inverse existed. These properties
apply to many areas of mathematics including linear transformations. In Chapter 4
we investigated whether matrices, in general, formed a group; now we will study
groups that perform linear transformations.
Closure
If l
1
is a linear transformation that maps (x, y) (x, y) then
(x, y) = l
1
(x, y)
If l
2
is a linear transformation that maps (x, y) (x, y) then
(x, y) = l
2
(x, y)
Therefore it follows that
(x, y) = l
2
[l
1
(x, y)]
where l
1
is followed by l
2
and maps (x, y) (x, y). This double transformation can be
represented as a single, where l = l
2
l
1
. This is known as composition of transform
ations, where the order is signicant.
From the Mathematics B course you would be familiar with the idea of composition
of functions, where g(x) = h(f(x)) indicates that f(x) is the inner function within the
structure and general shape of h(x).
In matrix form
= L
2
= L
2
= L
2
L
1
= L where L is a 2 2 matrix and L = L
2
L
1
We can verify this result by considering the image
of the point P(1, 2) after a linear transformation
L
1
= followed by a linear transformation
L
2
= . Show that following this double
transformation produces the point P(3, 1). If we mapped
P(1, 2) directly to P(3, 1) in a single transformation,
nd the transformation matrix L. Is this transformation
matrix L equivalent to L
1
L
2
or L
2
L
1
?
x
y
x
y
L
1
x
y
x
y
x
y
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5 6
P
P
"
P
'
l
1
l
2
l
0
y
x
1 2
2 1
3 3
3 4
264 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Associativity
As seen with matrix operations, matrix multiplication is associative; that is,
(L
1
L
2
)L
3
= L
1
(L
2
L
3
). Therefore linear transformations are associative; that is,
(l
1
l
2
)l
3
= l
1
(l
2
l
3
).
Identity
Remember the identity element (IE) is one which leaves the original number
unchanged. When dealing with linear transformation this means that matrix multi
plication has been performed which leaves the original point unchanged. This is the
identity transformation and is denoted by l
i
and the matrix is I.
For a 2
2 matrix, I
= .
Inverse transformations
An inverse transformation is one that maps the image
back to the original point where
(x, y)
(x
, y
)
(x, y).
This transformation is denoted by l
1
.
As with other inverses ll
1
= l
1
l
As with other inverses ll
1
= l
i
If l
1
and l
2
are 2 linear transformations such that L
1
= and L
2
= :
a nd P, the image of P (1, 3) under l
1
b nd P, the image of P under transformation l
2
c nd the single transformation of P such that l = l
2
l
1
d verify that P (as found in part b) is equal to LP
THINK WRITE
a Use matrix operation to nd P, the
image of P(1, 3) under l
1.
.
a = =
b Find P, the image of P under
transformation l
2
.
b = =
c Find the single transformation of P such
that l = l
2
l
1
.
c L = =
d Verify that P (as found in part b) is
equal to LP.
d LP = = = P
Therefore P(1, 3) P(0, 4)
1 1
2 2
0 0
2 1
x
y
1 1
2 2
1
3
4
4
x
y
0 0
2 1
4
4
0
4
0 0
2 1
1 1
2 2
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
1
3
0
4
7
WORKEDExample
1 0
0 1
P(x, y)
x
y
l
1
l
P
'
(x
'
, y
'
)
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 265
If L is the linear transformation matrix and A is the transformation matrix which returns
the point to the original, then A
= L
1
.
As with general matrix terminology, the transformation l is nonsingular; that is, l
has an inverse if it has a matrix l
1
that will map the image back to the original.
Therefore, only linear transformations that have an inverse l
1
can be considered to
form a group. If l is singular then the set of linear transformations does not form a
group.
Abelian groups
If the composition of linear transformations is commutative, then the set will form an
Abelian group. But in general, multiplication of linear transformations is not commu
tative, that is l
1
l
2
l
2
l
1
.
a Find the image of the point P(2, 3) under l
1
followed by l
2
with
L
1
= L
2
=
b Verify that l
2
= l
1
1
in 2 ways.
THINK WRITE
a Set matrices in = LP form. a = =
P is the point (13, 1). Now nd P
using P = L
2
P.
= =
State the image of P under l
1
followed by l
2
.
The image of the point P(2, 3) under l
1
followed by l
2
is (2, 3).
Since P(x, y) = P(x, y), L
2
has mapped
P(x, y) back onto the original, therefore
L
2
is the inverse linear transformation of L
1
.
b Verify this by showing L
2
L
1
= I. b L
2
L
1
= =
Verify by nding the inverse of L
1
. L
1
1
=
L
1
1
=
L
1
1
=
L
1
1
= L
2
State the conclusion. Therefore L
2
= L
1
1
2 3
1 1
0.2 0.6
0.2 0.4
1
x
y
x
y
2 3
1 1
2
3
13
1
2
x
y
0.2 0.6
0.2 0.4
13
1
2
3
3
1
0.2 0.6
0.2 0.4
2 3
1 1
1 0
0 1
2
1
ad bc

d b
c a
1
2 3

1 3
1 2
0.2 0.6
0.2 0.4
3
8
WORKEDExample
266 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Images of curves nonsingular transformations
So far we have mainly considered only the images of individual points under linear
transformation where
= L . Now consider the image of a curve essentially
a set of points.
Determine whether the following linear transformation, l
1
, is singular or nonsingular.
x = 2x + y
y = 2x + 3y
THINK WRITE
State l
1
in matrix form.
L
1
= for L =
Test to determine whether the
determinant = 0.
 L
1
 = ad bc = 6 2 = 8
State your conclusion. Since det L
1
0, L
1
is nonsingular, that is, it
has an inverse.
1
2 1
2 3
a b
c d
2
3
9
WORKEDExample
x
y
x
y
Find the image of the line y = 2x 3 under the linear transformation L = .
Sketch the original line and its image.
THINK WRITE
We need to express the original
function in terms of the image points so
we need to nd and substitute
image points for the original points x
and y.
= L
L
1
= L
1
L
= L
1
Evaluate the inverse.
=
=
2 1
0 3
1
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
2
x
y
1
6 0

3 1
0 2
x
y
1
2

1
6

0
1
3

x
y
10
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 267
Images of curves singular transformations
If a linear transformation L is singular, then L does not have an inverse and the method
shown in Worked example 10 cannot be used. We need to use a different approach as
shown in the next worked example.
THINK WRITE
Express x and y in terms of the original
points.
=
Therefore
x = x y
y = y
Substitute for x and y in terms of the
image points, into the original function.
Simplify and rearrange the image
equation.
y = 2x 3 becomes
y = 2( x y) 3
= x y 3
y = x 3
State the equation of the image. Some
texts drop the primes on x and y at this
stage, but if they are left in it reminds us
that the graph of this function is the image
of the original.
y = x 4
The image of y = 2x 3 has the equation
y = x 4 .
Sketch the original and image functions.
3
x
y
1
2
 x
1
6
 y
0x
1
3
 y
+
1
2

1
6

1
3

4
1
3

1
2

1
6

1
3

2
3

5
3
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

6
x
y
3
3
y = 2x 3
4
1
2
y' = x' 4
3
2
1
2
1
1
2
0
Find the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under the linear transformation L = .
Sketch the original curve and its image.
THINK WRITE
State the initial transformation in
general matrix form.
= L
=
1 2
2 4
1
x
y
x
y
1 2
2 4
x
y
11
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
268 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
Find values for x and y. =
Notice that the equation for y equals
twice the equation for x. Therefore this
should be stated as the function of the
image.
y = 2x
State the equation of the image. The image of x
2
+ y
2
= 1 has the equation
y = 2x.
Sketch the original curve and its image.
2
x
y
x 2y +
2x 4y +
3
4
5
x
y
x
2
+ y
2
= 1
y' = 2x'
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (1, 0)
(0, 1)
1. (a) Linear transformations are closed.
(b) If (x, y) = l
1
(x, y) where l
1
is a linear transformation that maps
(x, y) (x, y) and l
2
is a linear transformation that maps
(x, y) ( x, y) then (x, y) = l
2
(x, y)
= l
2
[l
1
(x, y)]
where l
1
is followed by l
2
2. Linear transformations are associative; that is, (l
1
l
2
)l
3
= l
1
(l
2
l
3
).
3. The identity transformation is denoted by l
i
and is represented by the identity
matrix I.
4. An inverse transformation is one that maps the image back to the original point
where (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) and is denoted by l
1
.
As with other inverses ll
1
= l
1
l
= l
i
Only linear transformations that have an inverse l
1
can be considered to form
a group.
5. If linear transformations are commutative, then they will form an Abelian
group. But in general, multiplication of transformations is not commutative,
that is l
1
l
2
l
2
l
1
.
remember
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 269
Linear transformations and
group theory
1 If l
1
and l
2
are 2 linear transformations such that L
1
= and L
2
= :
a nd P, the image of P(2, 5) under l
1
b nd P, the image of P under transformation l
2
c nd the single transformation of P such that l = l
2
l
1
d verify that P is equal to LP.
2 a Find the image of the point P(1, 4) under l
1
followed by l
2
with
L
1
= L
2
=
b Verify that l
1
= l
1
1
in 2 ways.
3 Determine whether, in each of the following linear transformations, l
1
is singular or
nonsingular:
a x = 3x y b x = 2x y
y = x + 2y y = 4x 2y
4 A linear transformation l
1
is dened as x = 2x + 5y
y = x + 3y
a What will the image of P(3, 5) be?
b Is this linear transformation singular?
c Show that l
1
1
(l
1
P ) = P.
d Use this linear transformation to state the image of the following curves:
i y = x ii y = 3x + 2 iii x
2
+ y
2
= 2
5 Find the image of the line y = 3x + 2 under the linear transformation L = .
Sketch the original line and its image.
6 Find the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 9 under each of the following transformations.
a b c
7 Find the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 9 under each of the following transformations.
a b c
8 Show that under any linear transformation the image of a straight line is itself a
straight line.
9 a Sketch the following lines on separate axes.
i y = 2x 1
ii y = x + 4
b Find the image of each line under the linear transformation
c Sketch each image with the original line.
10 Find the image of each of the following functions under the linear transformation .
a y = x
2
b y = 2x + 5
6C
WORKED
Example
7
2 1
0 1
0 1
1 2
WORKED
Example
8
3 1
5 2
2 1
5 3
WORKED
Example
9
WORKED
Example
10
4 2
1 0
1 3
1 4
1 3
1 0
1 1
3 2
WORKED
Example
11
2 0
2 0
2 4
3 6
8 4
4 2
2 4
1 1
5 3
2 1
P
(9, 5)
P
(5, 1)
0 1
2 1
Check with your teacher.
P
(1, 4)
Check with your teacher.
Nonsingular Singular
P
(31, 18)
det
A
=
1 (nonsingular)
d i
y
=
x
ii
y
=
x
+
iii
10
x
34
x
+
29
y
2
=
2
4
7

10
17

2
17

17
x
26
x
+
10
y
2
=
9
10
y
2
+
x
2
x
=
81
13
x
2
+
10
x
+
2
y
2
=
9
y
=
x
=
x
3
2

y
= x
1
2

x
y
y = x + 4
4
4
y' = 4
0
b i y = x +
ii y = 4
3
10

1
5

x
2
6xy + 9y
2
2x + 5y = 0
11y = 4x 5
9 a, c ii
Check with your teacher.
y = x 2
1
2

5
y
y = 3x + 2
x
2
0
4
y' = x' 2
1 _
2
2
2 _
3
270 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Rotations
A rotation is a transformation in
which the plane rotates about a
xed point called the centre of
rotation. This point is usually taken
as the origin. The rotation in an
anticlockwise direction is con
sidered to be a positive rotation and
in a clockwise direction to be a
negative rotation.
Examine the diagram at right to
note that the centre of rotation is the
only point that doesnt move.
In a rotation:
1. each original point rotates through the same angle of rotation.
2. the image is congruent to the original the length, angle and area
remain unchanged in the image. This is referred to as a congruent
transformation.
3. r
q
denotes rotation in a positive direction through an angle of and R
A
'
B
'
C
'
1 0
0 1
x
y
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
x
y
90
90
0 1
1 0
SLE 4: Demonstrate the use of the transformation matrices (rotation,
reection, dilation) as an application of 2 2 matrices to geometric
transformations in the plane.
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 271
Hence R
90
= and is the matrix of rotation.
In general terms
(x, y) (y, x)
=
x = y
y = x
As mentioned earlier, these rotation matrices should not be learned. They are quite
similar and can be too readily confused. Sketch the original (1, 0) and (0, 1) points and
then use their images to build the rotation matrices.
Rotation of 180
In the diagrams below, notice that point (1, 0) is mapped onto point (1, 0) and point
(0,1) is mapped onto (0, 1).
Therefore R
180
= where (x, y) (x, y).
Rotation of 270
In the diagrams below, notice that point (1, 0) is mapped onto point (0, 1) and point
(0, 1) is mapped onto point (1, 0).
Therefore R
270
= where (x, y) (y, x).
Rotation of 360
R
360
= because R
360
essentially leaves the original unchanged (or mapped onto
itself).
0 1
1 0
x
y
P(x, y)
P' (x
',
y
'
)
x
y
0 1
1 0
x
y
x
y
(1, 0)
180 (1, 0)
y
(0, 1)
(0, 1)
1
8
0
x x
y
1
8
0
P(x, y)
0
P'(x', y')
1 0
0 1
y y
x
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
0 2
7
0
x
(1, 0) 270
(0, 1)
0 x
y
P(x, y)
2
7
0
P
'
(x', y')
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
272 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
General rotation of
= x (horizontal)
and sin
= y (vertical)
R
=
R
, where
is taken in a clockwise, negative rotation about
the origin, and is shown in the diagram to the right.
R
=
R
= since cos (
)
= cos
and sin (
)
=
sin
Both R
and R
x
A'
B
'
sin
cos
cos sin
sin cos y
P(x, y)
x
P
'
(x', y')
cos ( ) sin ( )
sin ( ) cos ( )
cos sin
sin cos
cos 90 sin 90
sin 90 cos 90
0 1
1 0
Find the image of the point (2, 2) under a rotation of about the origin. Sketch the
original point and its image.
THINK WRITE
Write the general rotation matrix and
sketch the original point (shown on next
page).
R
4

c
1
cos sin
sin cos
12
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 273
THINK WRITE
Substitute for .
(Note: The small c is the symbol for
circular or radian measure.)
=
Always use a sketch to develop the matrix. =
Set up the general matrix form for
transformations.
=
=
=
Rationalise the denominator and simplify. =
=
State the coordinates of the image point. The image of the point (2, 2) is (2 , 0).
Sketch the original and the image points.
2
c
4
 R
4

cos
4
 sin
4

sin
4
 cos
4

3
2
1
1
4

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

4
x
y
1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

2
2
2
2

2
2
 +
2
2

2
2

4
2

0
5
4
2

2
2

0
2 2
0
6
2
7
(2, 2)
x
y
(2 2, 0)
0
274 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the image of the line y
=
x
+ 4 under the rotation of about the origin. Sketch the
original line and its image.
THINK WRITE
Write the general R
matrix. R
=
Substitute for
and evaluate using
the relevant triangle of ratios.
=
=
Set up the general transformation
matrix model, rearranged so that
is the subject.
=
=
Evaluate the inverse of R.
=
=
Multiply out the matrices. x
= x
+ y
y
= x + y
Substitute for x and y in the original
function.
y = x + 4 becomes
x + y = x y + 4
After applying the Distributive Law and
rationalising the denominator, this
expression can be simplied.
y = +
y = ( 2)x + 4( 1)
6

c
1
cos sin
sin cos
2
6

c
1
2
3
6

cos
6
 sin
6

sin
6
 cos
6

3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

3
x
y
x
y
6

x
y
x
y
R
6

1
x
y
4
1
3
4

1
4


3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

x
y
3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

x
y
5
3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

6
1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

7
(1 3)x
3 1 +

8
3 1 +

3 3
13
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 275
Rotations
1 Construct matrices for the following anticlockwise rotations about the origin (the
angles are given in radians).
a b
c d 2
2 Find the image of the following points under the given anticlockwise rotations about
the origin.
a (2, 1)
=
c
b (0, 4) =
c
c (6, 3) =
c
d (1, 3) = 60
e (2, 3) = 90 f (1, 1) =
c
3 a Find the equation of the image of the line y = 3x + 1 as a result of the following
rotations:
i = 45 ii =
c
iii =
c
b Sketch each original line and its image.
4 Find the equation of the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1 after a rotation of
c
. What do
you notice? Can you explain why this is so?
THINK WRITE
Use your calculator only at the end to
simplify surds for sketching purposes.
8
x
y
4
4 10.9
2.9
y = x + 4
y' = (3 2) x' + 4 (3 2)
1. For general rotation in an anticlockwise direction about the origin
R
= .
2. Use the special rightangled triangles to obtain the trigonometric ratios.
3. Rotation is a congruent transformation.
cos sin
sin cos
remember
6D
2

3
2

WORKED
Example
12
3

4

6

WORKED
Example
13
2

2

eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 6.1
2

0 1
1 0
1 0
0 1
0 1
1 0
1 0
0 1
(1
,
+
)
3
2
 3
1
2

(0,
4)
( , )
3 2
2

9 2
2

(
)
1
2

3 3
2

3
2

3
2

(
3, 2) (
,
+
)
3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

a i
y
=
+
ii
y
=
+
iii
y
x
2

2
4

x
3

1
3

x
3

1
3

No change, rotation about the centre of the circle.
3 b i
y
y = 3x + 1
x
1
0.35
0
0.7 1
y = +
x _
2
2 _
4
1 _
3
276 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Reections
A reection is a linear transformation in
which every point of the original is reected
through a straight line called a mediator.
This line can be thought of as a mirror.
The diagram at right shows LABC reected
through the mediator m, at x = 1.
In a reection:
1. corresponding points of the image and
original gures are equidistant from and
perpendicular to the mediator
2. length, angle and area of the image and
original are unchanged, hence it is a congruent transformation
3. any points of the original on the mediator are left unchanged.
We usually let m denote the reection transformation and M the reection matrix.
Reection in the xaxis (where y = 0)
Again, sketch the points (1, 0) and (0, 1) from the identity matrix I = .
Under a reection in the xaxis, point
(0, 1) will map to (0, 1) and point
(1, 0) will map onto itself because it
is on the mediator.
Therefore M
y = 0
= .
= =
= =
x
y
A
B C
x = 1
m
A
'
C' B'
1 0
0 1
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
m
y = 0
0
1 0
0 1
SLE 4: Demonstrate the use of the transformation matrices (rotation, reection, dilation) as
an application of 2
2 matrices to geometric transformations in the plane.
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 277
Reection in the yaxis (where x = 0)
If you sketch the original points (1, 0) and (0, 1)
you will notice that if these points are reected in
the yaxis then point (1, 0) will map to (1, 0) and
point (0, 1), which is on the mediator, will map
onto itself.
Therefore, M
x = 0
= .
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (1, 0)
0
m
x = 0
1 0
0 1
Find the image of point (3, 1) under reection M
y = 0
. Sketch the original and its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the diagram to construct your
reection matrix.
M
y = 0
=
Write the initial transformation matrix
statement.
= M
y = 0
Substitute the necessary values and
evaluate.
=
=
Sketch the original and image points. The image is the point (3, 1).
1
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
m
y = 0
0
1 0
0 1
2
x
y
x
y
3
1 0
0 1
3
1
3
1
4
x
y
P(3, 1)
P' (3, 1)
0
m
y = 0
14
WORKEDExample
278 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the image of y
= x under reection in the yaxis. Sketch the original and its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the diagram to construct your
reection matrix.
M
x
= 0
=
Write the initial transformation matrix
statement and rearrange it to have the
original points as the subject.
= M
x
= 0
= M
1
Substitute for M
x = 0
and evaluate the
inverse.
=
=
Multiply to give expressions for x
and y.
x = x
y = y
Substitute for x and y into the original
equation.
y = x becomes
y = x
Sketch the original and image graphs.
Note the origin is left unchanged.
1
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (1, 0)
0
m
x = 0
1 0
0 1
2
x
y
x
y
x
y
x = 0
x
y
3
x
y
1
1

1 0
0 1
x
y
1 0
0 1
x
y
4
5
6
0
x
y
y = x
y' = x'
m
x = 0
15
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 279
Reection in line y
= x
To nd this reection, sketch the situation as described.
Remember to note the main points from the introduc
tion to this section:
1. corresponding points of the image and original
gures are equidistant from and perpendicular to the
mediator
2. length, angle and area of the image and original are
unchanged, hence it is a congruent transformation
3. any points of the original on the mediator are left unchanged.
We nd that (1, 0) and (0, 1) map to each other, therefore
M
y
= x
= .
=
=
x
y
y = x
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
0
0 1
1 0
Find the equation of the image y = x
2
reected in the line y = x.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the relevant diagram to establish
the reection matrix.
M
y = x
=
Set up the initial matrix equation
and rearrange to have x and y as the
subject.
= M
y = x
= M
y = x
Find the inverse of M
y = x
. =
=
1
=
=
x
y
y = x
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
0
0 1
1 0
2
x
y
x
y
x
y
1 x
y
3
1
1

0 1
1 0
x
y
0 1
1 0
x
y
16
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
280 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Reection in the line y
= x tan
q
This line might be more easily recognised as
y
= mx, where m is the gradient of the line
which passes through the origin.
Remember that the gradient m
=
and tangent ratio
= .
Therefore the tangent and gradient ratios provide
the same information: .
Carefully examine these diagrams that illustrate
reection of the points (1, 0) and (0, 1) in the line
y
= x tan
.
Note the following from these diagrams.
For the point A(1, 0):
1. point A is reected to a point equidistant from and perpendicular to the line
2. the angle from the xaxis to A
is 2
y = x tan
A(1, 0)
1
A' (cos 2 , sin 2 )
0
B'(cos(90 2 ), sin(90 2 ))
B(0, 1)
90 2
90
x
y
0
=
=
m
y = x tan
y
2
y
1
x
2
x
1

y
2
y
1
x
2
x
1

rise
run

C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 281
3. therefore XOB = (90 ) = 90 2
4. the xcoordinate = cos (90 2)
5. the ycoordinate = sin (90 2) because the angle is in the fourth quadrant.
6. Hence point (0, 1) [cos (90 2), sin(90 2)].
7. Using trigonometric ratios, this simplies to yield (sin 2, cos 2). (Remember that
sin 30 = cos 60, etc.)
Using all this information from the reection of points (1, 0) and (0, 1) in the line
y = x tan yields: M
y = x tan
= .
cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 cos 2
Find the matrix for the reection in the line y = x.
THINK WRITE
Note that the sign applies only to the 3.
Use a sketch to express as the tangent
ratio of some angle.
tan =
State the general reection matrix in the line
y = x tan , then substitute for .
M
y = x tan
=
M
y = x
=
Evaluate these ratios using the following
triangle.
=
3
1
3
1
2 3
3
 3
2
3

cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 cos 2
3
cos
2
3
 sin
2
3

sin
2
3
 cos
2
3

3
1
2
3
1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

17
WORKEDExample
282 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the image of the line y
=
x
1 as reected in the line y
= x.
THINK WRITE
Use the matrix from the previous
example as M
y
= x
.
M
y
= x
=
Set up the initial matrix
transformation and inverse
statement.
= M
y
= x
= M
y = x
Find the inverse and multiply the
matrices.
=
=
x
=
x
+ y
y
= x
+ y
3
x
y
x
y
1
3
x
y
3
x
y
1
1
4

3
4


1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

x
y
1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

x
y
1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

4
3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

3
2

5
1 3 +
2

1 3
2

3 3
18
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 283
In the reections covered so far, the mediator has always passed through the origin. If
we return to the original reection in the line x
= 1, it needs to be broken into two trans
formations: a reection and a translation. Reecting in the line x
= 1 can be thought of
as reection in the yaxis (x
= 0) followed by a shift 2 to the right (x
= 1 is 1 unit to the
right of the origin therefore the image would be 2
1
= 2 units to the right). Thus the
transformations matrices would be followed by the addition of . Verify this
by checking that (0, 0)
(2, 0).
Reections
1 Write the matrices for the following reections:
a m
x = 0
b m
y = 0
c m
y = x
d m
y = 2
e m
y = x
f m
y = x
2 Find the images of each of the following points under the reection given below.
Sketch each original and its image.
a yaxis b xaxis c y = x d y = x
i (3, 1) ii (4, 2) iii (1, 3) iv (2, 4) v (3, 0) vi (2, 1)
3 Find the image of the following curves under each of the reections given below.
a y = x b y = x
2
c y = 2x
2
+ 1 d y = x
2
i yaxis ii xaxis iii y = x iv y = x (part a only)
THINK WRITE
Sketch the original and its image. To
assist in graphing the image, a
calculator can be used to obtain
y = 0.27x 0.73.
6
0
x
y
y' x'
y =
+ 1
x 1
y =
=
3x
(3 2) 3
1 0
0 1
2
0
1. Reection is a congruent transformation.
2. Reection occurs through a mediator, m.
3. Reection in the line y = x tan is represented by M = .
cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 cos 2
remember
6E
3
WORKED
Example
14
3
3

WORKED
Example
15,16,17,18
3
3

1
a
b
c
d
and
then
e
f
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
0 1
1 0
1 0
0 1
0
4
1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

0 1
1 0
2 a
i
(
3,
1)
ii
(
4, 2)
iii
(1,
3)
iv
(2, 4)
v
(
3, 0)
vi
(2,
1)
x
y
m
x = 0
(i)'
(v)'
(ii)'
(iv)'
(iii)'
(vi) (vi)' (i)
(ii)
(iv)
(v)
(iii)
0
3
c i
y
=
2
x
2
+
1
ii
y
=
2
x
1
iii
y
=
d i
y
2
ii
y
=
x
2
iii
y
=
x 1
2

x
2 b i (3, 1) ii (4,
2)
iii
(
1, 3)
iv
(
2,
4)
v
(3, 0)
vi
(
2, 1)
x
y
m
y = 0 (v)'
(i)'
(iii)'
(iii)
(iv)'
(ii)'
(vi)'
(vi)
(i)
(ii)
(iv)
(v)
0
3
a
i
y
i
i
i
y
i
i
i
y
=
x
i
v
y
=
(
1
)
2
x
o
r
y
0
.
2
6
8
x
b
i
y
=
x
2
i
i
i
y
2
i
i
i
y
12 

3
x
2 c i
(1,
3)
ii
(
2,
4)
iii
(3, 1)
iv
(
4, 2)
v
(0,
3)
vi
(1, 2)
2 d i
(
,
+
)
ii
(2
+
, 2
1)
iii
(
,
+
)
iv (1 + 2 , 2) v ( , ) vi (1 , + )
3
2

3
2

3 3
2

1
2

3 3
1
2

3 3
2

3
2

3
2

3 3
3
2

3 3
2

3
2

3
1
2

284 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Dilations
So far we have investigated 4 kinds of trans
formations. The translation shifted the gure
on the plane; the general linear transform
ation produced an image that, on occasions,
bore little resemblance to its original.
The rotation and reection transform
ations are congruent transformations with
the original basically repositioned on the
plane. A dilation is a transformation in
which point P and image P are collinear
from a xed point, usually the origin O, as
shown in the gure below.
The length OP = kOP where k is referred
to as the dilation factor.
If k > 0, a dilation may be an enlargement (for k > 1) or a reduction (for 0 < k < 1).
If k < 0 then the image of the original has been mapped through the origin in a
reverse direction.
In this diagram, k = , therefore the
image appears half the distance from the
xed point O and on the opposite side of
O to the original points.
In a dilation:
1. length and area are not preserved; the
shape will appear similar, but not con
gruent to the original
2. the dilation d is denoted by the matrix D
k, x
with the dilation factor of k given parallel
to the xaxis and the anchor line being the yaxis.
O
P
P'
O
A
A'
B
B'
C C'
k > 1
O C' C
B
A
A'
B'
0 < k < 1
1
2

O
A
C
B
A'
B'
C'
k < 0
SLE 4: Demonstrate the use of the transformation matrices (rotation, reection, dilation) as an
application of 2 2 matrices to geometric transformations in the plane.
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 285
Dilation parallel to the xaxis
The dilation matrix D
k, x
of the points (1, 0) and (0, 1)
under the dilation d
k, x
is given by D
k, x
=
where
1. (0, 1) is left unchanged since it is on the anchor line
2. the xcoordinate is mapped k 1 units away from the
anchor line.
This is shown graphically in the gure at right.
Dilation parallel to the xaxis can be thought of as pulling the plane away from the
xed point or anchor line in this case, the yaxis.
Dilation parallel to the yaxis
This dilation pulls the plane away from the xaxis
so all points on the xaxis are anchored.
The gure at right shows that
D
k, y
=
where
1. (1, 0) is left unchanged since it is on the anchor line
2. the ycoordinate is mapped k 1 units away from
the anchor line (the xaxis).
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (k, 0)
0
k 0
0 1
0
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(0, k)
1 0
0 k
Find the coordinates of the image of point (4, 3) under the dilation factor of 2 parallel to
the xaxis. Sketch the original point and its image.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
Sketch the dilation and construct the
matrix from the sketch.
D
2, x
=
Write the general transformation matrix
equation.
= D
2, x
1
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (2, 0)
0
2 0
0 1
2
x
y
4
3
19
WORKEDExample
286 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
THINK WRITE
Multiply the matrices to produce the
image coordinates.
=
=
Point (4, 3) maps to image point (8, 3) under a
dilation of 2 parallel to the xaxis.
Sketch the original point and its image.
3
x
y
2 0
0 1
4
3
8
3
4
x
y
P(4, 3) P' (8, 3)
0
Find the equation of the image of y = 2x + 1 under the dilation d
2, x
. Sketch the original line
and its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the dilation and construct the
matrix from the sketch.
D
2, x
=
Set up the general transformation
matrix equation and rearrange to
have as the subject.
= D
2, x
= D
2, x
1
Find the inverse of D
2, x
and substitute it
into the equation.
=
=
Multiply the matrix equations. x = x
y = y
1
0
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0) (2, 0)
2 0
0 1
2
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
3
1
2

1 0
0 2
x
y
1
2
 0
0 1
x
y
4
1
2

20
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 287
THINK WRITE
Substitute x and y in the original
equation and simplify.
y = 2x + 1 becomes
y = 2( x) + 1
y = x + 1
Sketch the original and its image.
Note that (0, 1) remains unchanged
since it is on the anchor line of the
yaxis.
5
1
2

6
0
x
y
y = 2x + 1
y' = x' + 1
(0, 1)
Find the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 9 with a dilation factor of parallel to the yaxis.
Sketch the original circle and its image.
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
Sketch the situation and use this to
construct the dilation matrix.
=
Set up the general transformation
matrix equation and rearrange to put
as the subject.
=
=
Calculate the inverse of D and
substitute it into the equation.
=
=
1
3

1
(0, )
1
3
x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
0
D
1
3
 y ,
1 0
0
1
3

2
x
y
x
y
D
1
3
 y ,
x
y
x
y
D
1
3
 y ,
1 x
y
3
1
1
3


1
3
 0
0 1
x
y
1 0
0 3
x
y
21
WORKEDExample
288 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
If you think about the original shape and its image as shown in this example you will
understand that the dilation factor of , in effect, shrinks the original shape, parallel to
the yaxis so the gure falls back towards the anchor line (the xaxis) and leaves all
points on the xaxis unchanged.
Dilation about the origin, d
k
The previous dilations have been mapped parallel
to an axis, where that axis has provided the anchor
line for the stretching of the plane. However, a dilation
about the origin does not anchor to a line, but rather to
a point the origin. The diagram at right shows
this stretch that results in both x and y coordinates
being mapped a dilation factor of k from the origin.
Therefore, if the original point is on the origin it will
map onto itself. Only the dilation factor is given in
the dilation matrix:
D
k
=
THINK WRITE
Multiply the matrices and write
expressions for x and y.
x = x
y = 3y
Substitute x and y into the original
equation and rearrange to t the general
equation of an ellipse.
x
2
+ y
2
= 9 becomes
(x)
2
+ (3y)
2
= 9
x
2
+ 9y
2
= 9
This can be written as + = 1
since is the general equation of an
ellipse about the origin.
Therefore
a = 3 So the length of the semimajor axis is 3.
b = 1 So the length of the semiminor axis is 1.
Sketch the original and its image.
4
5
x
2
9

y
2
1

x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
 + 1 =
6
x
y
x
2
+ y
2
= 9
x'
2
+
y'
2
= 1
9 1
0
1
3

x
y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(0, k)
(k, 0)
P(x, y)
P'(k
x
, k
y
)
0
k 0
0 k
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 289
Find the image of y = x
2
under a dilation factor of 2 about the origin. Sketch the original
and its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the situation to construct the
matrix.
D
2
=
Set up the initial transformation matrix
equation.
= D
2
=
Evaluate the inverse and multiply. =
=
x = x
y = y
Substitute for x and y into the original
equation and simplify.
y = x
2
becomes
y = ( x)
2
= x
2
y = x
2
Sketch the original and its image.
The minus sign results in the image
reversing its position with respect to the
origin, and the factor of 2 results in the
broader parabola.
1
x
y
(1, 0)
(0, 2)
(0, 1)
(2, 0)
0
2 0
0 2
2
x
y
x
y
x
y
D
2
1
x
y
3
1
4

2 0
0 2
x
y
1
2
 0
0
1
2

x
y
1
2

1
2

4
1
2

1
2

1
4

1
2

5
y = x
2
y' =
1
x'
2
2
y
x
0
22
WORKEDExample
290 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
History
of mathematics
MAURI TS CORNELI US ESCHER ( 1 8 9 8 1 9 7 2 )
Portrait of M. C. Escher
2000 Cordon Art, Baarn,
Holland. All rights reserved.
During his life . . .
World War I and
World War II take
place.
Flight technology
develops from
the Wright
brothers rst ight
in 1903 to the
moon landing in
1969.
Israel is established.
Maurits Escher is quoted as having said I
never got a pass mark in math. And just
imagine mathematicians now use my
prints to illustrate their books. I guess they
are quite unaware that I am ignorant about the
whole thing. Escher was born on
17 June 1898 in the Netherlands.
His early work was mainly concerned with
the representation of visible reality, such as
landscapes and buildings. However, he
gradually became more interested in studying
the abstract spacelling patterns used by the
Moors in mosaics found in Spain. He also
studied a paper by Polya on 17plane
crystallographic groups; however, instead of
using geometrical motifs, Escher used
animals, plants or people to ll the space on
his intricate prints.
Even though he professed ignorance of all
things mathematical, Escher incorporated
many mathematical ideas in his works
innity, Mobius strips, stellations,
deformations, reections, rotations, Platonic
solids, spirals and the hyberbolic plane.
Original Escher prints are highly prized
possessions now, but it was not until 1951
that he actually began to earn a reasonable
income from his prints. Widely regarded as a
graphic artist, his designs have appeared on
postage stamps, bank notes, Tshirts, jigsaw
puzzles, record album covers, and, as he
remarked, in many scientic and
mathematical publications.
Relativity by M. C. Escher
2000 Cordon Art, Baarn, Holland. All rights reserved.
His work has been held in high regard by
both artists and mathematicians. He died in
1972, in the Netherlands.
Research
1. Research Mobius strips, stellations,
deformations, reections, rotations,
Platonic solids, spirals and the
hyberbolic plane.
2. Look through scientic and
mathematical publications to see if any
use Eschers prints as covers or
illustrative pages.
1. Dilation occurs in relation to an anchor line or point.
2. Dilation is not a congruent transformation.
remember
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 291
Dilations
Sketch the original and its image for all questions.
1 Find the image of each of the following points under the dilations given:
a 2, parallel to the xaxis b
3, parallel to the yaxis
i (2, 1) ii (4, 3) iii (0, 3) iv (3, 0) v (2, 5) vi ( , 3)
2 Find the image of the line y = 3x 2 under the following dilations:
a dilation factor 2 parallel to the xaxis
b dilation factor 1 parallel to the yaxis
3 Find the image of the ellipse = 1 with a dilation factor of
a , parallel to the yaxis b 4, parallel to the xaxis
4 Find the image of y = 2x
2
with a dilation factor of 4
a parallel to the xaxis b parallel to the yaxis
5 Find the image of the line y = 3x 2 under a dilation factor of about the origin.
6 Find the image of each of the points in question 1 under the following dilations:
a , about the origin b 4, about the origin
7 Find the image of the ellipse in question 3 with a dilation factor of
a 2, about the origin b , about the origin
Shears
The nal transformation discussed in this
chapter is that of shears, which can be thought of
as a push from one side that results in a change
in shape. An example of this is seen when
changing a rectangle into a parallelogram.
Where a dilation pulls the plane from a certain
anchor point or line, a shear pushes from one
side and any points on the anchor line again
remain unchanged.
A shear parallel to the xaxis (see the gure shown at
right) moves every point in the plane parallel to the xaxis
by a distance proportional to its distance from the xaxis.
That is, points on the xaxis remain anchored while
points further away are pushed further from their original
position.
6F
WORKED
Example
19
1
2

WORKED
Example
20
WORKED
Example
21
x
2
4

y
2
9
 +
1
2

WORKED
Example
22
1
4

1
2

1
4

y
x
Push
0
y
x 0
1 a i
4, 1)
ii
(
8, 3)
iii
(0, 3)
iv
(6, 0)
v
(4, 5)
vi
(1,
3)
(iii) (ii) (iii)' (ii)'
(iv)'
(i)'
(vi)' (vi)
(iv)
(i)
(v)' (v)
x
y
0
1 b
i
(2,
3)
ii
(
4,
9)
iii
(0,
9)
iv
(3, 0)
v
(2,
15)
vi
( , 9)
1
2

x
y
0
(iii) (ii)
(iii)'
(v)'
(ii)'
(iv)'
(i)'
(vi)'
(vi)
(i)
(iv)
(v)
2
(a)
(b)
x
y
y = 3x 2
0
y
=
x
2 1
8

y
=
8
x
2
y
=
3
x
1
2

6 a
i
(1, )
ii
(
2, 1 )
iii
(0, 1 )
iv
(1 , 0)
v
(1, 2 )
vi
( ,
1 )
1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
4

1
2

6 b i
(
8,
4)
ii
(16,
12)
iii
(0,
12)
iv
(
12, 0)
v
(
8,
20)
vi
(
2,
12
)
7 a
+
=
1
b
4
x
2
+
=
1
x
2
16

y
2
36

16y
2
9

see top right see bottom left
y
=
x
2
3
2

y
3
x
+
2
+
=
1
x
2
4

4y
2
9

+
=
1
x
2
64

y
2
9

3
(b)
(a)
x
y
x
2
4
y
2
9
+ = 1
4 a
y
y = 2x
2
x
y' = x'
2 1
8
292 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Similarly a shear parallel to the yaxis (see the gure shown
at right) moves every point in the plane parallel to the
yaxis by a distance proportional to its distance from the
yaxis.
The shear transformation matrix uses similar notation to
other linear transformations, where S
k, x
denotes the shear
with a shear factor of k parallel to the xaxis and S
k, y
denotes
the shear with a factor of k parallel to the yaxis.
That is, S
k, x
= , S
k, y
= .
Shears parallel to the xaxis
As can be seen from the gure at right, point (1, 0)
remains unchanged because it is anchored to the
xaxis while point (0, 1) is mapped to (k, 1). This
means that point (2, 1) will map to (2k, 1).
Shears parallel to the yaxis
The gure at right shows the point (0, 1) unchanged by
the shear because it lies on the yaxis while point
(1, 0) is mapped to (1, k).
y
x 0
1 k
0 1
1 0
k 1
y
x
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(k, 1)
0
(1, k)
y
x
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
0
The vertices of a triangle are O(0, 0), A(2, 0) and B(2, 3). Find the image of these
points OAB under a shear factor of 2 parallel to the yaxis. Sketch the original and
its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the initial unit diagram and use
this to determine the shear matrix.
S
2, y
=
1 y
x
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
(1, 2)
0
1 0
2 1
23
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 293
THINK WRITE
Set up the initial general transformation
matrix equation.
= S
2, y
Substitute S
2,y
and solve for each point
in turn.
For O(0, 0), the equation is:
=
=
O(0, 0) is unchanged because it is on
the anchor axis.
So O(0, 0) O(0, 0)
For A(2, 0), the equation is:
=
=
So A(2, 0) A(2, 4)
For B(2, 3), the equation is:
=
=
Note that the ycoordinate is not
actually multiplied by 2.
So B(2, 3) B(2, 7)
Sketch the image points with the
original.
2
x
y
x
y
3
x
y
1 0
2 1
0
0
0
0
x
y
1 0
2 1
2
0
2
4
x
y
1 0
2 1
2
3
2
7
4
B' (2, 7)
A' (2, 4)
y
x
A(2, 0)
B(2, 3)
O(0,0)
294 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the image of the parabola y
= 2x
2
under the shear factor of 3, parallel to the yaxis.
Sketch the original and its image.
THINK WRITE
Sketch the initial unit diagram and use
this to determine the shear matrix.
S
3, y
=
Set up the initial general transformation
matrix equation.
= S
3, y
Rearrange in terms of x and y.
=
Find the inverse of S
3, y
.
=
=
Multiply to nd expressions for x and y. x
= x
y
=
3x
+ y
x
y
3
x
y
S
3 y ,
1
x
y
4
1
1

1 0
3 1
x
y
x
3x y +
5
6
7
1
2

y = 2x
2
y' = x'(2x' + 3)
x
y
0
24
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 295
Shears
1 Find the image of each of the following points under a shear factor of
i 2 parallel to the yaxis ii parallel to the xaxis
a (3, 0) b (2, 1) c (4, 1) d (3, 2)
e (2, 5) f (0, 5)
Sketch each pair of original and image points.
2 A parallelogram has vertices A(0, 0), B(1, 3), C(6, 3) and D(5, 0).
Sketch the original shape and its image under the shear factor of
a 3 parallel to the xaxis b 3 parallel to the yaxis
c 1 parallel to the xaxis d 1 parallel to the yaxis
3 Find the image of each of the following curves under a shear factor of
i 3 parallel to the yaxis ii 3 parallel to the xaxis
a y = x b y = x
c y = x
2
d y = 2x + 5
Sketch the original and image curves.
Transformations
1 Transform the ellipse = 1 under the dilation of d
2
. Give the equation of
the new ellipse, fully supporting your response with matrix operations and a
fully labelled diagram.
2 Design a set of 4 or 5 transformations that map a shape of your own choosing
to another shape on the plane. Your response should include all working and
fully labelled diagrams.
3 With your current knowledge of transformations using matrix applications,
investigate whether the following transformations are possible. You may need
to consider a series of transformations.
a A square into a straight line
b A triangle into a square
c A circle into a straight line
d A square into a circle
e A kite into a square
1. A shear can be thought of as a push parallel to an anchor line that transforms
all points on the plane by a distance proportional to their distance from the
anchor line.
2. A shear is not a congruent transformation.
remember
6G
WORKED
Example
23
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Building a
transformation matrix
SkillSHEET 6.2
Finding the image of
a curve after
transformation
1
4

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WORKED
Example
24
x
2
4

y
2
1
 +
Possible; perform a singular linear transformation
Not possible
Possible; perform a singular linear transformation
Not possible
Possible; one way is to perform a translation then a linear transformation
1
+
=
1
x
y0
x
2
1
6
y
2
4
+
=
1
x
2
4
y
2
1
+
=
1
x
2
1
6






y
2
4






1 i a
6
x
y
P'
P
3
0
1
i
c
d
P P
'
y
x
0
7
y
P
'
4
2
0
3
x
P
1 i b
P' 5
1
x
P
y
0
2
1 ii a
(3, 0)
b
(2 , 1)
c
(
3 , 1)
d
(2 ,
2) e (3 , 5) f (1 , 5)
1
4

3
4

1
2

1
4

1
4

1 i a (3, 6) b (2, 5) c (4, 7)
d (3, 4) e (2, 9) f (0, 5)
2 a
x
y
B(1, 3)
B'(10, 3)
C(6, 3)
C'(15, 3)
A = A' D(5, 0)
3 d ii
y' = x' +
2
7
5
7
y = 2x + 5
y
x
296 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Geometric transformations and matrix algebra
A general transformation maps each point of the Cartesian plane onto some other
point of the plane.
A translation, t, moves each xcoordinate a units parallel to the xaxis and each
ycoordinate b units parallel to the yaxis, such that = + T, where
(x, y) is the image of point (x, y) and T is the transformation matrix. The
translation t results in a congruent transformation.
Linear transformations
A linear transformation, l, warps the plane such that = L . Linear
transformations are not congruent transformations.
Rotations
A rotation, r, rotates the plane about a xed point to result in a congruent
transformation. The matrix representing the rotation is R
= .
Reections
A reection, m, reects every point of the original through a straight line called a
mediator and results in a congruent transformation. The reection matrix
M
y = x tan
= .
Dilations
A dilation, d, transforms each point P to P where P and P are collinear with a xed
point O. The matrix D
k, x
represents a dilation of k units parallel to the xaxis
anchored from the yaxis. The matrix D
k
represents a dilation factor of k units
through the origin and D
k
represents the same dilation in the reverse direction.
Shears
A shear, s, is a transformation like a push from one side. The matrix S
k, x
moves
every point in the plane parallel to the xaxis by a distance proportional to its
distance from the xaxis. Points on the xaxis remain unchanged.
summary
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
cos sin
sin cos
cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 cos 2
C h a p t e r 6 Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s i n g m a t r i c e s 297
1 State all congruent transformations.
2 Find the image of the following points under the translation T
=
a (0, 0) b (3, 1) c (4,
2)
3 The line y = 2x 1 undergoes a succession of translations dened by T
1
= and
T
2
= . Show that the order in which these occur has no effect on the result.
4 Find the equation of the image of y = 2x
2
under the translation of .
5 Find the image of points A(0, 1) and C(3, 2) under the transformation .
6 Find the matrix of the linear transformation which maps (1, 2) to (3, 2) and (3, 3) to (1, 1).
7 Find the image of y = x + 1 under the linear transformation . Sketch the original
and image curves.
8 Find the image of the following points under the given anticlockwise rotations about the
origin.
a (2, 1) where = b (3, 0) where =
c (4, 1) where = d (2, 5) where = 60
9 Find the image of the line y = 2x + 2 through a rotation of . Sketch the original and the
image.
10 Find the image of each of the following points under the reection as given:
a (3, 1) in the yaxis b (2, 2) in the line y = x
c (1, 2) in the line y = x d (2, 1) in the line y = 2
CHAPTER
review
6A
6A
1
3
6A
1
4
2
3
6A
2
1
6B
2 3
1 0
6B
6C
1 2
1 1
6D
3

4

6D
2

6E
3
Translations, rotations and reflections
(1, 3) (2, 4) (3, 1)
Check with your teacher.
y = 2x
2
8x + 7
A(3, 0) C(12, 3)
2
1
3
 2
2
3

2
2
3
 2
1
3

7 y = 2x + 3
x
y
y = x + 1
y' = 2x' + 3
(2, 1)
( , )
3
2

3 3
2

( , )
5 2
2

3 2
2
 (1 + , + 2 )
5
2
 3 3
1
2

9 y = + 1
x
2

y
y = 2x + 2
x
y' = x'
+ 1
1
2
(3, 1) (2, 2)
( + , + 1)
1
2
 3
3
2
 (2, 3)
y = 2x + 3 See graph top of page.
y = + 1 See graph top of page.
x
2

298 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
11 Find the image of the line y = 3x under reection in the line y = x. Sketch the original and
the image.
12 Find the image of each of the following points under the dilation factors given:
a (2, 1), 2 units parallel to the yaxis b (2, 4), unit about the origin
c (4, 1), 4 units about the origin d (0, 2), 3 units parallel to the xaxis
13 Find the image of y = 3x under the dilation factor of 3 parallel to the xaxis.
14 Find the image of each of the following points under the given shear factor:
a (3, 1), unit parallel to the yaxis b (1, 1), 3 units parallel to the xaxis
15 Find the image of the curve y = 2x
2
under a shear factor of 2 parallel to the yaxis.
Modelling and problem solving
1 Under a certain transformation, the circle (x 2)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4 becomes (x + 2)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4.
It is claimed that three different transformations could have achieved this outcome. Investigate
this claim giving details of the possible transformations and their matrices of transformation.
2 A square, ABCD, formed by the points A(0, 0), B(1, 0), C(1, 1) and D(0, 1) is mapped to
A(0, 0), B(3, 0), C(3, 3) and D(0, 3) after two successive transformations. Analyse this
mapping to determine the transformations involved, and nd a single transformation matrix
that could achieve this result.
6E
6F
1
2

6F
6G
1
2

Digital doc:
Test Yourself
Chapter 6
eBookplus eBookplus
6G
11 y = x
1
3

y = 3x
y
x
y' = x'
1
3
(2, 2) (1, 2)
(16, 4) (0, 2)
y = x
(3, 2 )
1
2
 (2, 1)
y = 2x
2
+ 2x
1 Rotation of 90:
or reection in yaxis:
or translation 4 left:
0 1
1 0
1 0
0 1
4
0
2 Dilation of 3 about the origin followed
by reection in the yaxis:
3 0
0 3
7
In this
chapter
7A Vectors and scalars
7B Position vectors in two
and three dimensions
7C Multiplying two
vectors the dot
product
7D Resolving vectors
scalar and vector
resolutes
7E Timevarying vectors
syllabus
reference
Core topic:
Vectors and applications
Introduction
to vectors
300 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Vectors and scalars
Introduction
In mathematics, one of the important distinctions that we make is between scalar quan
tities and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have magnitude only; vector quantities
have direction as well as magnitude. Most of the quantities that we use are scalar, and
include such measurements as time (for example 1.2 s; 15 min), mass (3.4 kg; 200 t)
and area (3 cm
2
; 400 ha).
However, consider the measurement of velocity. A velocity of 20 km/h has both
magnitude and direction. One of the boats shown below may travel 20 km/h north from
Townsville, while the other one may travel 20 km/h east from the same point. Although
they both are travelling at the same speed (magnitude) they are travelling in different
directions; they do not end up in the same place!
Now consider the force involved in Daniel
and Anna ghting over who gets to use the
television remote control.
Daniel exerts a force of 40 N and Anna
exerts a force of 50 N and they apply these
forces as shown.
In what direction will the remote control
move and what is the force in that direction?
That is, what is the resultant force?
The resultant force depends not only on the size
of each force but the direction in which the forces
are applied. In the following discussion we will develop
techniques to nd the resultant force.
A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction.
50 N
40 N
150
denition of a vector,
including standard unit
vectors i, j and k
relationship between vectors
and matrices
two and threedimensional
vectors and their algebraic
and geometric representation
operations on vectors
including addition, and
multiplication by a scalar
unit vectors
scalar product of two vectors
resolution of vectors into
components acting at right
angles to each other
calculation of the angle
between two vectors
applications of vectors in
both liferelated and purely
mathematical situations
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 301
Vector notation
A vector is shown graphically as a line, with a head (end) and
tail (start). The length of the line indicates the magnitude and
the orientation of the line indicates its direction.
In the gure at right, the head of the vector is at point B
(indicated with an arrow), while the tail is at point A.
When writing this vector we can use the points A and B to indicate the start and end
points with a special arrow to indicate that it is a vector: . Some textbooks use a
single letter, in bold, such as w, but this is difcult to write using pen and paper, so
can also be used. The symbol (~) is called a tilde.
Equality of vectors
Since vectors are dened by both magnitude and direction:
two vectors are equal if both their magnitude and direction are equal.
In the gure, the following statements can be made:
=
(directions are not equal)
(magnitudes are not equal).
Addition of vectors
Consider a vector which measures the travel from A to B and another vector, ,
which measures the subsequent travel from B to C. The net result is as if the person
travelled directly from A to C (vector ). Therefore we can say that .
To add two vectors, take the tail of one vector and join it to the head of another.
The result of this addition is the vector from the tail of the rst vector to the head
of the second vector.
Returning to Daniel and Anna who are ghting over the television remote control
(see page 300), we see that the forces they apply to the remote control unit can be rep
resented as a sum of two vectors.
From this gure we are able to get a rough idea of the magnitude and direction of the
resultant force. In the following sections, we will learn techniques for calculating the
resultant magnitude and direction accurately.
The negative of a vector
If is the vector from A to B, then is the vector from
B to A.
We can subtract vectors by adding the negative of the
second vector to the rst vector.
A
B
AB
w
w
~
u
~
v
~
z
~
u
+ =
u
A
B
u
~
u
~
302 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Multiplying a vector by a scalar
Multiplication of a vector by a number (scalar) affects only
the magnitude of the vector, not the direction. For example,
if a vector has a direction of north and a magnitude of 10,
then the vector has a direction of north and magnitude
of 30.
If the scalar is negative, then the direction is reversed.
Therefore, has a direction of south and a magnitude
of 20.
Using the vectors shown at right, draw the result of:
a b c d .
THINK WRITE
a Move so that its tail is at the head
of .
a
Join the tail of to the head of to
nd .
b Reverse the arrow on to obtain . b
c Reverse to get . c
Join the tail of to the head of to
get which is the same as
or .
d Reverse to get . The vectors are
now aligned properly with the head of
joining the tail of .
d
Join the tail of to the head of to
get .
Note that this is the same as .
u
~
v
~
u
+ u
1
v
u
~
v
~
v
~
2
u
+
u
~
v
~
u + v
~ ~
u
u
~
u
~
1
v
u
~
v
~
2
v
+ u
( ) +
u
~
v
~
v
~
+u
~
1
u
u
~
v
~
2
u
+ ( )
u
~
v
~
v u
~ ~
1
WORKEDExample
u
~
3u
~
2u
~
N
S
E W
u
3u
2u
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 303
Use the vectors shown at right to draw the result of:
a b .
THINK WRITE
a Increase the magnitude of by a factor
of 2 and by a factor of 3.
a
Move the tail of to the head of .
Then join the tail of to the head of
to get .
b Increase the magnitude of by a factor
of 2 and by a factor of 4.
b
Reverse the arrow on to get .
Join the tail of to the head of .
r
~
s
~
2r
3s
+ 2s
4r
1
r
2r
~
3s
~
2
3s
2r
2r
3s
2r 3s
+
2r
~
3s
~
3s
~
2r
~
3s
~
+
1
s
4r
~
2s
~
2
4r
4r
4r
~
2s
~
3
4r
2s
4r
~
2s 4r
~ ~
2s
~
2
WORKEDExample
The parallelogram ABCD can be dened by the two vectors
and .
In terms of these vectors, nd:
a the vector from A to D
b the vector from C to D
c the vector from D to B.
THINK WRITE
a The vector from A to D is equal to the
vector from B to C since ABCD is a
parallelogram.
a
b The vector from C to D is the reverse of D
to C which is .
b
c The vector from D to B is obtained by
adding the vector from D to A to the vector
from A to B.
c
c
~
b
~
C
B A
D
b
AD c
=
b
CD b
=
DB c
+ =
b
=
3
WORKEDExample
304 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
A cube PQRSTUVW can be dened by the three vectors , and
as shown at right.
Express in terms of , and :
a the vector joining P to V
b the vector joining P to W
c the vector joining U to Q
d the vector joining S to W
e the vector joining Q to T.
THINK WRITE
All of the opposite sides in a cube are equal in
length and parallel. Therefore all opposite
sides can be expressed as the same vector.
a The vector from P to V is obtained by
adding the vector from P to Q to the vector
from Q to V.
a
b The vector from P to W is obtained by
adding the vectors P to V and V to W.
b
c The vector from U to Q is obtained by
adding the vectors U to P and P to Q.
c
d The vector from S to W is obtained by
adding the vectors S to R and R to W.
d
e The vector from Q to T is obtained by
adding the vectors Q to P, P to S and S to T.
e
Q
W
S
P
U
V
T
R
b
~
a
~
c
~
a
PV a
+ =
PW a
+ + =
UQ b
+ =
a
=
SW a
+ =
QT a
+ + =
b
+ =
4
WORKEDExample
A boat travels 30 km north and then 40 km west.
a Make a vector drawing of the path of the boat.
b Draw the vector that represents the net displacement of the boat.
c What is the magnitude of the net displacement?
d Calculate the bearing (from true north) of this net displacement vector.
THINK WRITE
a Set up vectors (tail to head), one
pointing north, the other west.
a
Indicate the distances as 30 km and
40 km respectively.
b Join the tail of the vector with the head
of the vector.
b
1
N
S
E W N (30 km)
~
W (40 km)
~
2
N
N (30 km)
~
N + W
~ ~
W (40 km)
~
5
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 305
Vectors and scalars
1 a Draw the result of:
b Draw the result of:
i ii iii
i ii iii
THINK WRITE
c Let R km = length of + . c
The length (magnitude) of can be
calculated using Pythagoras theorem.
d Indicate the angle between and
+ as .
d
Use trigonometry to nd .
The true bearing is 360 minus 53.13. Therefore the true bearing is:
= 360 53.13
= 306.87
1
N
N (30 km)
~ R = N + W
~ ~ ~
W (40 km)
~
2
R
R 30
2
40
2
+ =
900 1600 + =
50 km =
1
N
N (30 km)
~
N + W
~ ~
W (40 km)
~
2
sin
40
50
 =
0.8 =
53.13 =
3
1. Denition: A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction.
2. Equality of vectors: Two vectors are equal if both magnitude and direction are equal.
3. Addition of vectors: To add two vectors, take the tail of one vector and join it
to the head of the other. The result of addition is the vector from the tail of the
rst vector to the head of the second.
4. Subtraction of vectors: Subtract vectors by adding the negative of the second
vector to the rst vector.
5. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar: Multiply the magnitude of the vector by
the scalar; maintain the direction of the original vector.
remember
7A
r
~
s
~
WORKED
Example
1
r
+ r
WORKED
Example
2
2r
2s
+ 2r
2s
3s
4r
a i
ii
iii
s
~
s
~
r
~
r + s
~ ~
s
~
s
~
r
~
r s
~ ~
s
~
r
~
s r
~ ~
Same as
1 a i
except scaled by a factor of 2. Same as
1 a ii
except scaled by a factor of 2.
s
~
3s
~
r
~
4r
~
3s 4r
~ ~
306 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2 The pentagon ABCDE at right can be dened by the four
vectors, , , and .
Find in terms of these 4 vectors:
a the vector from A to D
b the vector from A to B
c the vector from D to A
d the vector from B to E
e the vector from C to A.
3
A girl travels 4 km north and then 2 km south. What is the net displacement vector?
4 In the rectangle ABCD, the vector joining A to B is denoted
by and the vector joining B to C is . Which pairs of points
are joined by:
5
Consider the following relationships between vectors , and .
i
ii
Which of the following statements is true?
6 A rectangular prism (box) CDEFGHIJ can be
dened by three vectors , and as shown
at right.
Express in terms of , and :
a the vector joining C to H
b the vector joining C to J
c the vector joining G to D
d the vector joining F to I
e the vector joining H to E
f the vector joining D to J
g the vector joining C to I
h the vector joining J to C.
7 A pilot plans to y 300 km north then 400 km east.
a Make a vector drawing of her ight plan.
b Show the resulting net displacement vector.
c Calculate the length (magnitude) of this net displacement vector.
d Calculate the bearing (from true north) of this net displacement vector.
A 6 km north B 6 km south C 2 km north
D 2 km south E 2 km north
a ? b ?
c ? d ?
A B
C D
E
B
C
D
E A
v
~
u
~
t
~
s
~
WORKED
Example
3
s
multiple choice
B
C
D A
v
~
u
~
u
+ u
3u
2v
2u
+
multiple choice
u
2v
+ =
w
=
u
= u
=
u
2
3
 v
= u
3
2
 v
=
u
3v
=
C
G
J
F
I
E
D
H
t
~
s
~
r
~
WORKED
Example
4
r
WORKED
Example
5
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
EXCEL Spreadsheet
Position vector
s
+
s
+ + +
s
A to C D to B
B to D A to C
r
+
s
+
r
+
t
+
r
+ +
s
500 km
53.1
clockwise from N
a, b
Flight
path
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 307
8 Another pilot plans to travel 300 km
east, then 300 km northeast. Show that
the resultant bearing is 67.5 degrees.
How far east of its starting point has the
plane travelled?
9 An aeroplane travels 400 km west, then
600 km north. How far is the aeroplane
from its starting point? What is the
bearing of the resultant displacement?
10 On a piece of graph paper draw a vector, , that is 3 units east and 5 units north of the
origin. Draw another vector, , that is 5 units east and 3 units north of the origin.
On the same graph paper, draw the following vectors.
11 Find the direction and magnitude of a vector joining point A to point B, where B is
10 m east and 4 m north of A.
12 Consider a parallelogram dened by the vectors and ,
and its associated diagonals, as shown at right. Show that
the vector sum of the diagonal vectors is .
13 Show, by construction, that for any vectors and :
(This is called the Distributive Law.)
14 Show, by construction, that for any three vectors , and :
(This is called the Associative Law.)
15 Show, by construction, that for any two vectors and :
16 As you will learn shortly, vectors can be represented by two values: the horizontal
(or x) component and the vertical (or y) component.
Consider the vector , dened by joining the origin to the point (4, 5), and the
vector , dened by joining the origin to (2, 3). Find the horizontal and vertical com
ponents of each vector.
Demonstrate, graphically, that the sum has an xcomponent of 6 (that is,
4 + 2), and a ycomponent of 8 (that is, 5 + 3).
17 Using the same vectors, and , as in question 16, demonstrate graphically that the
difference vector, , has an xcomponent of 2 and a ycomponent of 2.
18 Using the same vectors, and , as in question 16, demonstrate graphically that:
a the vector has an xcomponent of 16 and a ycomponent of 20
b the vector has an xcomponent of 4 and a ycomponent of 6.
a b c d
e f g h
i j
a
+ a
3b
+ a
3b
4a
0.5a
2.5b
+ a
2.5b
4a
2.5a
1.5b
2.5a
2a
b
~
a
~
u
3 u
+ ( ) 3u
3v
+ =
a
+ ( ) c
+ a
+ ( ) + =
r
3r
3r
( ) =
w
+
w
4w
2v
512.1 km; find bearing
using trigonometry
721.1 km, 326.3
(clockwise from N)
10
Each part of answer
has coordinate labelled
a
,
b
, . . .
j
. The original
vectors and are
also drawn.
a
a
~
a
g
e
d
b
h
b
~
f
15 5
5
15
5
5
15
15
j
i
c
Magnitude
=
10.77, direction 68.2
True.
SLE 3: Use addition and
subtraction in
liferelated
situations.
12
18
Check with
your teacher.
308 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
19 Using the results from questions 16, 17 and 18, what can you deduce about an
algebraic method (as opposed to a graphical method) of addition, subtraction and
multiplication of vectors?
20
In terms of vectors and in the gure above, the vector joining O to D is given by:
21
In terms of vectors and , the vector joining E to O above is:
22 A girl walks the following route: 400 m north 300 m east 200 m north
500 m west 600 m south 200 m east
Make a vector drawing of these six paths. What is the net displacement vector?
23 Which of the following are vector quantities?
speed velocity displacement force volume angle
24 Which of the following are scalar quantities?
speed time acceleration velocity length displacement
25 A 2dimensional vector can be determined by its length and its angle with respect to
(say) true north. What quantities could be used to represent a 3dimensional vector?
Position vectors in two and
three dimensions
Introduction
As a vector has both magnitude and direction, it can be represented in 2dimensional
planes or 3dimensional regions in space. (It is easier to discuss 2dimensional vectors
as they t the page nicely!)
Position vectors in two dimensions
In the gure at right, the vector joins the point A to
point B.
An identical vector can be considered to join the origin
with the point C.
It is easy to see that is made up of two components:
one along the xaxis and one parallel to the yaxis. Let be
a vector along the xaxis, with magnitude 1. Similarly, let
be a vector along the yaxis, with magnitude 1.
A B C D
E none of these
A B C D
E none of these
multiple choice
O
D
b
~
a
~
a
3a
3b
+ 2a
4b
+ 3b
2a
2a
3b
multiple choice
O
E
b
~
a
~
a
3a
4b
+ 4b
3a
3a
4b
3 a
4b
C
D
u
~
i
~
j
~
x
y
B
A
u
~
x
y
u
One can deduce that
x
and
y
components can be added/subtracted/
multiplied separately.
0
Displacement, velocity, force
Speed, time, length
1 magnitude and 2 angles
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 309
We can say the vector is the position vector of point C
relative to the origin.
With vectors, it is equivalent to travel along from the
origin directly to C, or to travel rst along the xaxis to D and
then along the yaxis to C. In either case we started at the
origin and ended up at C. Clearly then, is made up of some
multiple of in the xdirection and some multiple of in the
ydirection.
For example, if the point C has coordinates (6, 3) then
.
Position vectors in three dimensions
In 3 dimensions, a point in space has 3 coordinates, so a third
component, along the zaxis, is needed. Let be a vector
along the zaxis, with magnitude 1. The orientation is now
such that the xaxis is coming directly out from the page as
shown at right.
For example, if the point C has coordinates
(6, 2, 4), then its position vector would be
denoted by .
Relationship between vectors
and matrices
From our earlier work on matrices, we know that a matrix is an array that can store
numbers. These numbers could be the components of a vector, so for the vector
, the components could be expressed as .
So as a matrix, the components of could be expressed as and the
components of could be expressed as .
We will look further at the relationship between vectors and matrices later in the
chapter.
The magnitude of a vector
By using Pythagoras theorem on a position vector, we can nd its length, or magnitude.
Consider the vector at right.
The magnitude of , denoted as or u, is given by:
=
=
= 3
O
3
C
D
u
~
6i
~
3j
~
y
x
0
z
x
y
u
6i
3 j
+ =
k
(6, 2, 4)
0
C
v
~
4k
~
6i
~
2j
~
z
x
y
v
6i
2 j
4k
+ =
v
ai
b j
ck
+ + =
a
b
c
u
6i
3 j
+ =
6
3
v
6i
2 j
4k
+ =
6
2
4
C (6, 3)
u
~
3j
~
6i
~
x
y
u
6
2
3
2
+
u
45
5
310 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Consider, now, the general position vector relative to the origin, for the point with
coordinates (x, y):
The magnitude of a vector, , is given by .
The direction of a vector
From what we already know about trigonometry, we can work out the angle () that
makes with the positive xaxis (that is, anticlockwise from the positive xaxis). This
gives us the direction of .
This angle can be calculated as:
= tan
1
( )
= tan
1
0.5
= 0.464 radians
= 26.6
The result obtained by this method needs to be adjusted if the angle is in the 2nd,
3rd, or 4th quadrants.
The direction of a vector, , is given by = tan
1
with appropriate
adjustment depending on the quadrant involved.
u
xi
y j
+ =
u
xi
y j
+ = u
x
2
y
2
+ =
C (6, 3)
u
~
3j
~
6i
~
x
y
u
3
6

u
xi
y j
+ =
y
x

Using the vector shown at right, nd:
a the magnitude of
b the direction of (express the angle with respect to the positive
xaxis)
c the true bearing of .
THINK WRITE
a Use Pythagoras theorem or the rule
for magnitude of a vector with the
x and ycomponents 3 and 5
respectively.
a
Simplify the surd.
b The angle is in the 4th quadrant
since x = 3 and y = 5.
b
Use trigonometry to nd the angle ,
from the x and ycomponent values.
= tan
1
Use a calculator to simplify. = 59
c The negative sign implies that the
direction is 59 clockwise from the
xaxis.
c
The true bearing from north is the
angle measurement from the positive
yaxis to the vector .
true bearing = 90 + 59
= 149.
(3, 5)
u
~
y
x
u
1
u
3
2
5 ( )
2
+ =
2 u
9 25 + =
34 (= 5.831 to 3 decimal places) =
1
2
5
3

3
1
2
u
6
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 311
Consider the vector shown in worked example 6. The vector can be expressed in com
ponent form (or rectangular form) as . One way of nding the magnitude and
direction (the angle the vector makes with the positive xaxis) is to convert the vector
from rectangular form to polar form using a graphics calculator.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT. Decide whether
you want the angle displayed in degrees or radians.
In this example we want degrees. Press [SET
UP] and alter the setting for Angle if necessary. Press
(Deg) for degrees.
2. Press to accept this setting. Next press
then ( ) to show more options.
3. Press (ANGL) and then ( ) for more
options. There are three options shown. The one we
need is Pol(, which converts vectors in rectangular
form to polar form.
4. Press (Pol() and enter the components 3 and 5,
separated by a comma (press ). Press to close
the set of brackets.
5. Press to perform the conversion. The rst
number (which is highlighted) is the magnitude of
the vector and the second number is the angle the
vector makes with the positive xaxis.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Decide whether you want the angle displayed in
degrees or radians. In this example we want degrees.
Press cto access the home screen and select
8: System Information followed by 2: System
Settings. Press euntil you reach Angle and then
select Degree by using the arrow keys. Press to
accept this setting.
2. Continue pressing euntil you highlight OK. Press
to select OK.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Finding the magnitude and direction
of a vector in two dimensions
3i
5 j
MENU
SHIFT
F1
EXE OPTN
F6
s
F5 F6
s
F1
, )
EXE
312 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3. We will rst dene as the vector u and then
convert this to polar form. Press /Nand select
1: Add Calculator to open a new calculator
document. Press band select 1: Actions.
4. Select 1: Dene. Press U(to name the vector as u)
then =followed by /(to set up square
brackets. Enter the components 3 and 5, separated
by a comma (press ,), within the square brackets.
Use the right arrow key to move the cursor to the
right of the second square bracket and press .
5. Press Uto nominate vector u. Then press band
select 7: Matrix & Vector followed by C: Vector.
6. Select 4: Convert to Polar and press to perform
the conversion. The exact values for the magnitude
and the angle are shown.
7. To obtain the approximate values, press /.
Note that if no other operations are required, you can
enter the vector directly by using square brackets. You
then continue in the same way to convert to polar form.
Unit vectors
As we have seen, any vector is composed of x and y (and z, in 3 dimensions)
components denoted by , (and ). The vectors, , and are called unit
vectors, as they each have a magnitude of 1. This allows us to resolve a vector into its
components.
3i
5 j
xi
y j
zk
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 313
If a 2dimensional vector makes an angle of with the positive xaxis and it has
a magnitude of then we can nd its x and ycomponents using the formulas:
Vectors can be expressed in different forms. In the graphics calculator tip on page 311,
we converted a vector in rectangular form to polar form so we could obtain the
magnitude and direction of the vector. The reverse process can also be performed.
Consider the vector in Worked example 7 where the magnitude is 30 and the angle to
the positive xaxis is 140. To nd the x and ycomponents, we convert the vector to
rectangular form. Check that the calculator is set to degrees.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT. Press
then ( ) to show more options. Press
(ANGL) and then ( ) for more options. There
are three options shown. The one we need is Rec(,
which converts vectors in polar form to rectangular
form.
u
x u
cos q =
y u
sin q =
Consider the vector , whose magnitude is 30 and whose
bearing (from N) is 310. Find its x and ycomponents and
write in terms of and .
THINK WRITE
Change the bearing into an angle with
respect to the positive xaxis ().
The angle between and the positive
yaxis is 360 310.
Calculate . = 90 + 50
= 140
Find the x and ycomponents using
trigonometry.
x =
= 30 cos 140
= 22.98
y =
= 30 sin 140
= 19.28
Express as a vector.
u
~
310
N
S
E W
y
x
u
1
u
~
y
x
50
2
u
3
4
u
cos
u
sin
5
u
22.98i
19.28 j
+ =
7
WORKEDExample
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Finding the x and ycomponents
of a vector
MENU OPTN
F6
s
F5
F6
s
314 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
2. Press (Rec() and enter 30 for the magnitude
followed by a comma. Then enter 140 for the angle
and close the set of brackets.
3. Press to perform the conversion. The rst
number (which is highlighted) is the xcomponent
of the vector and the second number is the
ycomponent. Hence .
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document (press /Nand
select 1: Add Calculator). To enter the vector in
polar form, rst press /(to set up square
brackets. Then enter 30 for the magnitude followed
by a comma. Press /kand highlight the angle
symbol ().
2. Press to insert the angle symbol on the calculator
page and enter 140 for the angle. Move the cursor to
the right of the second square bracket. The vector is
now entered in polar form.
3. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector followed by
C: Vector. Select 5: Convert to Rectangular and
press to perform the conversion. The exact values
for the x and ycomponents are shown. To obtain the
approximate values, press /. Hence
.
F2
EXE
u
22.98 i
19.28 j
+ =
u
22.98 i
19.28 j
+ =
A bushwalker walks 16 km in a direction of bearing 050, then walks 12 km in a direction
of bearing 210. Find the resulting position of the hiker giving magnitude and direction
from the starting point.
THINK WRITE
Draw a clear diagram to represent
the situation.
1
x
y
a
~
1
6
k
m
b
~
1
2
k
m
50
30
210
240
8
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 315
Clearly, in 3 dimensions, this is much more difcult as you need two angles (for
instance, an angle with respect to the xaxis and another with respect to the zaxis).
Unit vectors can also be found in the direction of any vector. This is merely the
original vector divided by its magnitude.
The unit vector of any vector , in the direction of denoted by , is:
THINK WRITE
Express position vectors as angles
from the direction of the xaxis.
= 16 cos 40 + 16 sin 40
= 12 cos 240 + 12 sin 240
Simplify position vectors. = 12.2567 + 10.2846
= 6 10.3923
Use the Triangle Law
of addition of vectors.
+ = (12.2567 6) + (10.2846 10.3923)
= 6.2567 0.1077
Find the angle . = tan
1
= tan
1
= 0.986
Find the magnitude.  +  =
=
=
= 6.26
State the resultant vector in terms of
magnitude (distance) and direction
(bearing).
Final position is 6.26 km from the starting point in
a direction of bearing 091.
2
a
3
a
a
~
~
b
a
~
b
~
+
a
5
y
x

0.1077
6.2567

6
a
x
2
y
2
+
6.26
2
0.11 ( )
2
+
39.2
7
u
 =
Find the unit vector in the direction of .
Continued over page
THINK WRITE
Express the vector in component form.
Compute the magnitude of the vector .
u
1
u
6i
3 j
+ =
2
u
6
2
3
2
+ =
45 =
3 5 =
9
WORKEDExample
C (6, 3)
u
~
3j
~
6i
~
316 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
As seen above, the unit vector is obtained by dividing each component by the
magnitude of the vector. We can also use a graphics calculator to achieve this. Consider
the vector in Worked example 9 which can be expressed in component form as
.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. First nd the magnitude of . Repeat the steps
shown on page 311 to change the vector into
polar form. The magnitude is 6.7082.
(Alternatively, calculate .)
2. Consider the components of as the matrix .
Press until you return to the MAT
screen. Enter the matrix using square brackets (each
row is listed within a set of square brackets) as
shown in the screen at right.
3. Press and then [Mat] followed by
[U] to store this matrix as matrix U.
4. Press to display the matrix and then press
again to return to your calculation screen.
Next we need to divide each component of the vector
by the magnitude of the vector to obtain the unit
vector. Since we are using matrices, we need to
change this to multiplying matrix U by the reciprocal
of the magnitude.
THINK WRITE
Divide each component of the original
vector by the magnitude to get .
= +
= +
Comrm that has a magnitude of 1.
=
=
=
= 1
3
u
6
3 5
 i
3
3 5
 j
2 5
5
 i
5
5
 j
4
u
x
2
y
2
+
20
25

5
25
 +
25
25

Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Finding the unit vector in the
direction of the vector
u
6i
3 j
+
u
6
2
3
2
+
u
6
3
EXIT
SHIFT
ALPHA
EXE
EXE
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 317
Enter 6.7082 and press [x
1
] to obtain the
reciprocal of the magnitude. Press and then enter
matrix U by pressing [Mat] followed by
[U].
5. Press . The approximate values for the
components of the unit vector are shown. Hence
.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Begin with a new calculator page. To dene the
vector as u, rst press band select 1: Actions
followed by 1: Dene. Press U(to name the vector
as u) then =followed by /(to set up square
brackets. Enter the components, separated by a
comma, within the square brackets. Move the cursor
to the right of the second square bracket and press
.
2. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector followed by
C: Vector.
3. Select 1: Unit Vector and press Uto enter the
required vector. Close the set of brackets by
pressing )and then press . The exact values
for the components of the unit vector are shown.
Hence .
These steps also apply to nding the unit vector for a
threedimensional vector.
Locating vectors
In the gure at right, is the position vector of point A
and is the position vector of point B relative to the origin.
The vector describing the location of A relative to B is
easily found using vector addition as or .
Similarly, the vector describing the location of B relative to A is . This
result also applies in 3 dimensions and can be formalised as follows.
If A and B are points dened by position vectors and respectively, then
SHIFT
SHIFT
ALPHA
EXE
u
0.8944i
0.4472 j
+ =
u
2 5
5
 i
5
5
 j
+ =
a
OA ( )
O
A
B
a
~
b
~
y
x
b
OB ( )
BA ( )
b
+ a
AB ( ) b
AB b
=
318 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Magnitudes in three dimensions
Pythagoras theorem also applies in the case of a 3dimensional line or vector. Let x, y
and z be the components of a vector, , in 3dimensional space, that is
. The magnitude of is
a Find the position vector locating point B (3, 3) from point A (2, 5).
b Find the length of this vector.
THINK WRITE
a Express the point A as a position vector .
a Let
Express the point B as a position vector .
Let
The location of B relative to A is .
b The length of is . b =
=
= (or 8.06)
1
a
OA a
2i
5 j
+ = =
2
b
OB b
3i
3 j
= =
3
AB ( ) b
AB b
=
3i
3 j
2i
5 j
+ ( ) =
i
8 j
=
AB b
AB b
1
2
8 ( )
2
+
65
10
WORKEDExample
u
xi
y j
zk
+ + = u
x
2
y
2
z
2
+ + =
Consider the point in 3dimensional space given by the coordinates
(2, 4, 3).
Find the magnitude of the position vector, , joining this point to
the origin.
THINK WRITE
Express as a position vector.
Since the vector is in 3dimensional
space, use the 3D version of
Pythagoras theorem to nd the
magnitude.
Substitute the components for each
direction and compute the magnitude.
(= 5.39 to 2 decimal places)
(2, 4, 3)
u
~
z
x
y
u
1
u
2i
4 j
3k
+ + =
2 u
x
2
y
2
z
2
+ + =
3 u
2
2
4
2
3
2
+ + =
29 =
11
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 319
We are now in a position to resolve the problem of nding, accurately, the resultant
force acting on the television remote control when Daniel and Anna are pulling on it.
First redraw the diagram to show the addition of
vectors.
Taking the direction of Annas force as the i
~
direction,
Annas force, = 50i
~
+ 0j
~
Daniels force, = 40 cos 150i
~
+ 40 sin 150j
~
= 34.6410i
~
+ 20j
~
Resultant force, + = (50 34.6410)i
~
+ 20j
~
= 15.3590i
~
+ 20j
~
Magnitude =  + 
Magnitude = 25.2 N
Direction = tan
1
Direction = 52.48
30
150
50 N
40 N
Resultant
force
Daniels
force
Annas
force
a
20
15.3590

1. Magnitude of a vector: If , the magnitude is given by
Speed is the magnitude of velocity which is a vector quantity.
2. Direction of a vector (2D only): If , the direction is given by
= tan
1
3. The x and ycomponents of a vector: Given magnitude and direction, the x
and ycomponents are given by:
4. Unit vector: The unit vector of a vector , in the direction of , is denoted by
and is:
5. Locating vectors: If A and B are points with position vectors and
respectively then .
u
xi
y j
zk
+ + =
u
x
2
y
2
z
2
+ + =
u
xi
y j
+ =
y
x

x u
cos =
y u
sin =
u
 =
a
AB b
=
remember
320 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Position vectors in two and
three dimensions
1 State the x, y and z components of the following vectors:
2 For each of the following nd:
i the magnitude of the vector
ii the direction of each vector. (Express the direction with respect to
the positive xaxis.)
3 Find the true bearing of each vector in question 2.
4 Consider the vector shown at right. Its
magnitude is 100 and its bearing is 210 True.
Find the x and ycomponents of , and
express them as exact values (surds).
State the answer in the form .
5
A vector with a bearing of 60 degrees from N and a magnitude of 10 has:
A xcomponent = , ycomponent =
B xcomponent = , ycomponent =
C xcomponent = , ycomponent = 5
D xcomponent = 5, ycomponent =
E none of the above
6 An aeroplane travels on a bearing of 147 degrees
for 457 km. Express its position as a vector in terms
of and .
7 A ship travels on a bearing of 331 degrees for
125 km. Express its position as a vector in terms
of and .
a b c
a b
c d
7B
3i
4 j
2k
+ 6i
3k
3.4i
2 j
1
2
 k
+ +
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
EXCEL Spreadsheet
Position vector
WORKED
Example
6a, b
(6, 6)
v
~
y
x
(4, 7)
w
~
y
x
(3.4, 3.5)
a
~
y
x
(320, 10)
b
~
y
x
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital docs:
SkillSHEET 7.1
Bearings
WORKED
Example
6c
WORKED
Example
7
100
210
N
S
E W
y
x
w
~
w
xi
y j
+ =
multiple choice
3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

5 3
5 3
i
3, 4,
2 6, 0,
3
3.4,
, 2
1
2

a i
ii
45
b i
ii
119.7
c i
4.88
ii
225.8
d i
320.16
ii
358.2
72
65
a
045
b
330.3
c
224.2
d
091.8
50i
50 3 j
3
2
248.9i
383.3 j
60.6i
109.3 j
+
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 321
8 A pilot ies 420 km in a direction 45 south of east and then 200 km in a direction
60 south of east. Calculate the resultant displacement from the starting position
giving both magnitude and direction.
9 The instructions to Blackeye the Pirates hidden treasure say: Take 20 steps in a
northeasterly direction and then 30 steps in a southeasterly direction. However, a
rockfall blocks the rst part of the route in the northeasterly direction. How could
you head directly to the treasure?
10 Two scouts are in contact with home base. Scout A is 15 km from home base in a
direction 30 north of east. Scout B is 12 km from home base in a direction 40 west
of north. How far is scout B from scout A?
11 Find unit vectors in the direction of the given vector for the following:
12
A unit vector in the direction of is:
13 Not all unit vectors are smaller than the original vectors. Consider the vector
. Show that the unit vector in the direction of is twice as long as .
14 Find the unit vector in the direction of .
15 Find a unit vector in the direction of for the vector of question 4.
16 Consider the points A (0, 1) and B (4, 5) in the gure at
right. A vector joining A to B can be drawn.
a Show that an equivalent position vector is given by:
.
b Similarly, show that an equivalent position vector joining
B to A is given by: .
17 For each of the following pairs of points nd:
i the position vectors locating the second point from the rst point
ii the length of this vector.
18 Find the position vectors from question 17, by going from the second point to the rst.
a b
c d
e
f f =
A B C D E none of these
a (0, 2), (4, 5) b (2, 3), (5, 4) c (4, 5), (0, 2)
d (5, 4), (2, 3) e (3, 7), (5, 7) f (7, 3), (3, 3)
WORKED
Example
8
WORKED
Example
9
(3, 4)
0
a
~
y
x
(3, 4)
0
d
~
y
x
b
4i
3 j
+ = e
4i
3 j
+ =
c
2 j
+ =
3.5i
2.7 j
+
multiple choice
3i
4 j
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
+
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
3
25
 i
4
25
 j
0.3i
0.4 j
+ = v
0.1i
0.02 j
=
w
(4, 5)
A
B
(0, 1)
y
x
4i
4 j
+
4i
4 j
WORKED
Example
10
615 km at 49.8 south of east
36 steps 11.3 south of east
20.8 km
Check with
0.98i
0.20 j
1
2
 i
3
2
 j
Check with your teacher.
SLE 3: Use addition and
subtraction in
liferelated
situations.
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
+
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
4
5
 i
3
5
 j
+
4
5
 i
3
5
 j
+
1
3
 i
2
3
 j
+
0.792i
0.611 j
+
17
a i ii
b i ii
c i ii
d i ii
e i ii
2
f i ii
4
4i
7 j
65
3i
+ 10
4i
7 j
+ 65
3i
10
2i
4i
18 a
b
c
d
e
f
4i
7 j
+
3i
4i
7 j
3i
+
2i
4i
your teacher.
322 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
19 Find unit vectors in the direction of the position vectors for each of the vectors of
question 17.
20 Let and .
a Find:
b Conrm or reject the statement that
21 Let and .
a Find:
b Conrm or reject the statement that .
22 To nd the distance between two vectors, and , simply nd .
Find the distance between these pairs of vectors:
23 A river ows through the jungle from west to east at a speed of 3 km/h. An explorer
wishes to cross the river by boat, and attempts this by travelling at 5 km/h due north.
Find:
a the vector representing the velocity of the river
b the vector representing the velocity of the boat
c the resultant (net) vector of the boats journey
d the bearing of the boats journey
e the magnitude of the net vector.
24 Consider the data from question 23. At what bearing should the boat travel so that it
arrives at the opposite bank of the river due north of the starting position?
i ii iii iv v vi
i ii iii iv v vi
a and b and
u
5i
2 j
= e
2i
3 j
+ =
u
+ u
+
u
+ u
+ =
u
3i
4 j
+ = e
5i
=
u
+ u
+
u
+ u
+ =
a
3i
2 j
+ 2i
3 j
+ 5i
2 j
2i
5 j
+
19 a
b
c
d
e
f
4
65
 i
7
65
 j
3
10
 i
1
10
 j
+
4
65
 i
7
65
 j
+
3
10
 i
1
10
 j
2 58
329.0
29 13
5
29
 i
2
29
 j
2
13
 i
3
13
 j
+
3i
+
10
Reject, because magnitudes different.
5
26
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
+
5
26
 i
1
26
 j
2i
3 j
+
13
Reject, because magnitudes different.
3i
5 j
3i
5 j
+
031.0
km/h 34
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 323
25 Find the magnitude of the following 3dimensional vectors.
26 By calculating the difference between two position vectors, a vector representing the
separation of the two vectors can be dened. Find the distance between the
following 3dimensional vectors.
27 If four points C, D, E and F in 3dimensional space are located as follows:
C = (2, 6, 0), D = (3, 1, 2), E = (4, 8, 10), F = (2, 6, 6), show that CD is parallel
to EF.
28 A boat travels east at 20 km/h, while another boat travels south at 15 km/h. Find:
a a vector representing each boat and the difference between the boats
b the magnitude of the difference vector
c the bearing of the difference vector.
29 Consider the vector and the vector . Find the angles of each
of these vectors with respect to the xaxis. Show that these two vectors are
perpendicular to each other. Also show that the products of each vectors
corresponding x and ycomponents add up to 0. Can you conrm that this is a pattern
for all perpendicular vectors?
30 A river has a current of 4 km/h westward. A boat which is capable of travelling at
12 km/h is attempting to cross the river by travelling due north. Find:
a a vector representing the net velocity of the boat
b the bearing of the actual motion of the boat
c how long it takes to cross the river, if the river is 500 m wide (from north to south).
(Hint: The maximum speed of the boat is still 12 km/h.)
a b
c
d
e f
a and b and
c and d and
WORKED
Example
11
(3, 4, 5)
0
z
y
x
(3, 4, 5)
0
z
y
x
0.5i
2k
3 j
+
2i
2 2 j
+
7i
14 j
21k
+ i
+ +
4i
3 j
2k
+ 5i
2 j
+ 2i
+ 5i
+ +
i
2 j
3k
+ + 3i
+ i
3 j
+ 8i
5 j
2k
+ +
u
3i
4 j
+ = v
4i
3 j
=
35 13
2 6 62
, CD i
7 j
2k
= EF 2i
14 j
= 4k
, , 20i
15 j
20i
15 j
+
25
053.1
53.1, 36.9 Difference = 90
4i
12 j
+
341.6
0.0417 h or 2.5 minutes
SLE 3: Use addition and
subtraction in
liferelated
situations such
as the effect of
current ow on
a boat.
5 2 5 2
3.64
7 14
11
3
324 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Multiplying two vectors the dot product
Introduction
In a previous section we studied the result of multiplying a vector by a scalar. What
happens if a vector is multiplied by another vector? There are two possibilities: either
the result is a scalar (called the scalar product or dot product) or the result is a vector
(called the cross, or vector product). In this course we will study only the former.
The scalar or dot product of two vectors, and , is denoted by .
Calculating the dot product
There are two ways of calculating the dot product. The rst method follows from its
denition. (The second method is shown later.) Consider the two vectors and below.
By denition, the dot product is given by:
cos [1]
where is the angle between (the positive directions of) and .
Note: The vectors are not aligned as for addition or subtraction, but their two tails are
joined.
Properties of the dot product
1. The dot product is a scalar. It is the result of multiplying three scalar quantities: the
magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them.
2. The order of multiplication is unimportant (commutative property), thus
3. The dot product is distributive, thus
4. Since the angle between and itself is 0
u
u
~
v
~
=
u
=
a
+ ( ) a
+ =
u
2
=
Let and . Find .
THINK WRITE
Find the magnitudes of and .
Draw a rightangled triangle showing
the angle that makes with the
positive xaxis since is along the
xaxis.
u
3i
4 j
+ = v
6i
= u
1
u
3
2
4
2
+ =
5 =
v
6
2
=
6 =
2
u
5
3
u
~
y
x
12
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 325
Note: An easier method for nding the dot product will now be shown.
Unit vectors and the dot product
Consider the dot product of the unit vectors , and . Firstly, consider in
detail. By denition, and, since the angle between them is 0, cos = 1, thus
. To summarise these results:
(since = 0)
(since = 0)
(since = 0)
(since = 90)
(since = 90)
(since = 90)
Using this information, we can develop another way to calculate the dot product of
any vector. Let and , where x
1
, y
1
, z
1
, x
2
, y
2
, z
2
are constants. Then we can write as:
Considering the various unit vector dot products (in brackets), the like products
( , and , shown underlined) are 1; the rest are 0. Therefore:
[2]
This is a very important result.
We only need to multiply the corresponding x, y and z components of two vectors
to nd their dot product.
THINK WRITE
Find cos , knowing that u = 5 and the
xcomponent of is 3.
cos =
Find using equation 1. =
Simplify.
= 5 6
= 18
3
u
3
5

4
u
cos
5
3
5

i
1 =
i
1 =
i
1 =
j
1 =
k
1 =
i
0 =
i
0 =
j
0 =
u
x
1
i
y
1
j
z
1
k
+ + = v
x
2
i
y
2
j
z
2
k
+ + =
u
x
1
i
y
1
j
z
1
k
+ + ( ) x
2
i
y
2
j
z
2
k
+ + ( ) =
x
1
x
2
i
( ) x
1
y
2
i
( ) x
1
z
2
i
( ) y
1
x
2
j
( ) y
1
y
2
j
( ) + + + + =
+ y
1
z
2
j
( ) z
1
x
2
k
( ) z
1
y
2
k
( ) z
1
z
2
k
( ) + + +
i
x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
z
2
+ + =
Let and . Find .
THINK WRITE
Write down using equation 2.
Multiply the corresponding
components.
Simplify.
u
3i
4 j
2k
+ + = v
6i
= 4 j
+ u
1
u
3i
4 j
2k
+ + ( ) 6i
4 j
+ ( ) =
2
u
3 6 4 4 2 1 + + =
3 18 16 2 + =
4 =
13
WORKEDExample
326 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The following steps show how a graphics calculator can be used to nd the dot product
of two vectors. Consider the vectors and in Worked
example 13.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT. Enter the
components of vector as a matrix. Then press
and [Mat] followed by [U] to store
as matrix U. Press to display the matrix and
again to return to the calculation screen.
Repeat this procedure to enter the components of
vector as a matrix and store as matrix V.
2. To calculate the dot product using matrices, we rst
need to transpose the elements of matrix U before we
multiply by matrix V. Press then (MAT)
followed by (Trn) to access the transpose
function.
3. Press [Mat] then [U] to enter matrix
U. Press followed by [Mat] then
[V] to enter matrix V.
4. Press to display the value for the dot product.
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document. Dene the
vector and the vector by entering each set of
components within square brackets.
2. Press band select 7: Matrix & Vector then
C: Vector followed by 3: Dot Product. Press U,
then the comma key (,) followed by Vand close
the set of brackets by pressing ). Press to
obtain the value of the dot product.
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Finding the dot product
of two vectors
u
3i
4 j
2k
+ + = v
6i
4 j
+ =
MENU
u
SHIFT ALPHA
EXE
EXE
v
OPTN F2
F4
SHIFT ALPHA
SHIFT ALPHA
EXE
u
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 327
Finding the angle between two vectors
Now that we have two formulas (equations 1 and 2) for calculating the dot product, we
can combine them to nd the angle between the vectors:
Rearranging the nal two equations, we obtain the result that:
[3]
Note: The angle will always be between 0 and 180 as 180 is the maximum angle
between two vectors.
Special results of the dot product
Perpendicular vectors
If two vectors are perpendicular then the angle between them is 90 and equation 1
(page 324) becomes:
(since cos 90 = 0)
If , then and are perpendicular.
u
x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
+ + z
2
=
= u
cos
cos q
x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
z
2
+ +
u
 =
Let and . Find the angle between them to the
nearest degree.
THINK WRITE
Find the dot product using equation 2. =
Simplify. = 4 2 + 3 3 + 1 2
= 3
Find the magnitude of each vector.
=
=
=
=
Substitute results into equation 3.
cos =
Simplify the result for cos . =
= 0.142 695
Take cos
1
of both sides to obtain and
round the answer to the nearest degree.
= cos
1
(0.142 695)
= 98
u
4i
3 j
+ + = v
2i
3 j
2k
=
1 u
4i
3 j
+ + ( ) 2i
3 j
2k
( )
2
3 u
4
2
3
2
1
2
+ +
26
v
2
2
3 ( )
2
2 ( )
2
+ +
17
4
3
26 17

5
3
442

6
14
WORKEDExample
u
uv cos 90 =
uv 0 =
0 =
u
0 = u
328 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Parallel vectors
If vector is parallel to vector then = k where k R.
Note: When applying the dot product to parallel vectors, (the angle between them)
may be either 0 or 180 depending on whether the vectors are in the same or opposite
directions.
Find the constant a if the vectors and are perpendicular.
THINK WRITE
Find the dot product using equation 2.
Simplify.
Set equal to zero since and are perpendicular.
Solve the equation for a. a = 4
u
4i
3 j
+ = v
3 i
a j
+ =
1
u
4i
3 j
+ ( ) 3i
a j
+ ( ) =
2 12 = 3a +
3
u
12 3a + 0 = =
4
15
WORKEDExample
u
Let . Find a vector parallel to such that the dot product is 87.
THINK WRITE
Let the required vector . Let =
=
Find the dot product of .
=
Simplify. = 25k + 4k
= 29k
Equate the result to the given dot product 87. 29k = 87
Solve for k. k = 3
Substitute k = 3 into vector .
=
u
5i
2 j
+ = u
1
v
ku
= v
k 5i
2 j
+ ( )
5ki
2k j
+
2
u
5i
2 j
+ ( ) 5ki
2k j
+ ( )
3
4
5
6
v
15i
6 j
+
16
WORKEDExample
1. Scalar (dot) product: The scalar or dot product of two vectors and is
denoted by .
2. Calculation of dot product:
cos (where is the angle between the two vectors).
3. Algebraic calculation of dot product:
Let and .
Then .
4. Special results:
(a) If , then and are perpendicular.
(b) If , , then are parallel.
u
=
u
x
1
i
= y
1
j
z
1
k
+ + v
x
2
i
= y
2
j
z
2
k
+ +
u
x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
z
2
+ + =
u
0 = u
kv
= k R u
and v
remember
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 329
Multiplying two vectors
the dot product
1 Find the dot product of the vectors and using equation 1.
2 Compare the result from question 1 with that obtained by nding the dot product
using equation 2. Which is probably the most accurate?
3 Find in each of the following cases.
a ,
b ,
c ,
d ,
e ,
f ,
g ,
h ,
4
The dot product of and is:
5
Consider the two vectors shown at right. Their dot product is:
6 Consider the vectors and at right. Their magnitudes are
7 and 8 respectively. Find .
7 Let . Show that .
8 Let and let . Find their dot product.
9 Let , and . Demonstrate, using these vectors,
the property:
Formally, this means that vectors are distributive over subtraction.
10 Repeat question 9 for the property:
Formally, this means that vectors are distributive over addition.
A 0 B 3 C 12 D 21 E 27
A 30 B 21.2 C 21.2 D 0
E There is insufcient data to determine the dot product.
7C
WORKED
Example
12
3i
3 j
+ 6i
2 j
+
WORKED
Example
13
u
2i
3 j
5k
+ + = v
3i
3 j
6k
+ + =
u
4i
2 j
3k
+ = v
5i
2k
+ =
u
4 j
5k
+ = v
3i
7 j
+ =
u
5i
9 j
+ = v
2i
4 j
=
u
3i
+ = v
4k
+ =
u
10i
= v
2i
=
u
3 j
5k
+ = v
=
u
6i
2 j
2k
+ = v
4 j
=
multiple choice
u
3i
3 j
3k
+ = v
2 j
6k
+ =
multiple choice
6
5
45
u
~
v
~
50
u
~
v
~
u
xi
y j
+ = u
x
2
y
2
+ =
u
2i
5 j
+ = v
2 j
4k
+ =
u
3i
2 j
+ = v
2 j
= w
5i
2 j
=
w
( ) w
=
w
+ ( ) w
+ w
=
23.99
Dot product = 24; more accurate,
since no angle needed
36
12
9 and 10 Check
with your teacher.
45
12
36
26
1
20
0
0
330 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
11
If , which of the following is perpendicular to ?
12
If then:
13
If then:
14 Find the dot product of the following pairs of vectors.
15 Find the angle between each pair of vectors in question 14 to the nearest degree.
16
The angle between the vectors and is closest to:
17
The angle between the vectors and is closest to:
18 Find the constant a, if the vectors and are perpendicular.
19 Find the constant a, such that is perpendicular to
.
20 Let . Find a vector parallel to such that their dot product is 40.
21 Let . Find a vector parallel to such that their dot product is 80.
A B C
D E
A is parallel to B and have equal magnitudes
C is perpendicular to D is a multiple of
E None is true.
A B must be equal to the zero vector,
C is perpendicular to
D must be equal to
E None is true.
a and b and
c and d and
A 0 B 67 C 90
D 113 E 180
A 0 B 69 C 90
D 111 E 180
multiple choice
u
5i
4 j
3k
+ + = u
5i
4 j
3k
3i
4 j
5k
+ + 5i
3i
5k
+ 5i
3k
+
multiple choice
u
( ) u
+ ( ) 0 =
u
multiple choice
u
( ) u
+ ( ) v
2
=
u
= u
2 v
4i
3k
7 j
4k
+ i
2 j
3k
+ 9i
4 j
+
8i
3 j
+ 2i
3 j
4k
+ 5i
5 j
5k
+ 5i
5 j
5k
+
WORKED
Example
14
multiple choice
2i
3 j
+ 2i
3 j
multiple choice
2i
3 j
4 i
6 j
+
WORKED
Example
15
v
ai
3 j
+ = u
6i
2 j
=
v
ai
2a j
3k
+ =
u
4i
3 j
2k
+ =
WORKED
Example
16
u
2i
4 j
+ = u
4i
3 j
= u
12 2
7 25
15 a 107
b 87
c 81
d 109
a = 1
a =
3
5

4i
8 j
+
64
5
 i
48
5
 j
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 331
History
of mathematics
CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (1832 1898)
During his lifetime ...
The Braille reading system is invented by
Louis Braille.
Morse code is developed.
Famine devastates Ireland.
Edison develops the light bulb.
Charles Dodgson was an English writer and
mathematician. He wrote several
mathematics books but is best known for
his ctional works produced under the pen
name Lewis Carroll. Dodgson was the son
of a clergyman and was the third of eleven
children. His education included a period at
Rugby, a school where the game of Rugby
originated in 1823. Dodgson went on to
study at Christ Church College at Oxford
University. After completing his studies he
lectured in mathematics at Oxford from
1855 until 1881. He also became a
clergyman in 1861 but did not take up a
position in the church, possibly because he
had a stutter.
Dodgsons most famous achievements were
two books which have become classics of
childrens literature: Alices Adventures in
Wonderland and Through the LookingGlass.
His main character was inspired by Alice
Liddell who was the second daughter of the
Dean of his college. Alices Adventures in
Wonderland was published in 1865 and became
a huge success. Through the LookingGlass,
published in 1872, was equally successful.
Dodgson also wrote humorous poetry. His
poem Jabberwocky is a masterpiece, although it
is often thought of as being just a piece of
nonsense verse. The word chortle which is
used for the rst time in this poem was invented
by Dodgson and is derived from the two words
chuckle and snort.
Dodgsons mathematical works include
Euclid and his Modern Rivals, A Syllabus of
Plane Algebraical Geometry, and An
Elementary Treatise on Determinants. These
were well written but have not survived the test
of time.
Dodgson was interested in logic and loved
puzzles. His books contain many mathematics
and logic puzzles including this example from
Through the LookingGlass: Contrariwise,
said Tweedledee, if it was so, it might be; and
if it were so, it would be; but as it isnt, it
aint. Thats logic. One of the puzzles he
invented was If 6 cats kill 6 rats in 6 minutes,
how many will be needed to kill 100 rats in
50 minutes?
Questions
1. What was Dodgsons job at Oxford
University?
2. Name his two most famous works.
3. Who was the inspiration for the
character of Alice?
4. If 6 cats kill 6 rats in 6 minutes, how
many will be needed to kill 100 rats in
50 minutes?
Mathematics lecturer
Alices Adventures
in Wonderland
and
Through the
LookingGlass
The daughter of the Dean of his college
12 cats
332 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Resolving vectors scalar and
vector resolutes
Introduction
Consider the two vectors, and , shown at right. The angle between
them, as for a dot product, is given by . It can be shown that is
made up of a component acting in the direction of and another
component acting perpendicular to .
Firstly we wish to nd the component in the direction of .
The scalar resolute
To obtain the component of in the direction of , we perform the following construction:
1. Drop a perpendicular from the head of to (this is perpendicular to ). This line
joins at point A.
2. We wish to nd the length of the line OA.
This construction is shown at right.
Let the length of (its magnitude) be denoted by . Then,
from trigonometry:
OA = cos
But from the denition of the dot product:
cos
(from the rst equation)
Therefore, solving for OA:
But we know that , the unit vector in the direction of , and therefore
This quantity, the length OA, is called the scalar resolute of on . It effectively
indicates how much of is in the direction of .
The scalar resolute of on is given by , where is the unit vector in the
direction of .
u
~
v
~
O
A
v
~
u
~
=
u
OA =
OA
u
 =
u

v
=
u
 u
= u
OA u
=
v
3i
4 j
+ = a
6i
2 j
=
a
1
u
3
2
4
2
+
2
u u

u
5

17
WORKEDExample
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 333
Notes:
1. The two scalar resolutes are not equal.
2. The scalar resolute of on can easily be evaluated as .
Vector resolutes
Consider, now, the vector joining O to A at right. Its magnitude
is just the scalar resolute , while its direction is the same
as , that is . This quantity is called the vector resolute of
parallel to and is denoted by the symbol .
The vector resolute of parallel to is given by:
[4]
Consider the geometry of the above gure. The original vector can be seen to be
the sum of two other vectors, namely and . This second vector is called the vector
resolute of perpendicular to and can be computed simply as follows:
(by addition of vectors)
(by rearranging the vector equation)
By substitution for from equation 4, the vector resolute of perpendicular to
is given by:
[5]
In practice, once has been calculated, simply subtract it from to get .
THINK WRITE
Simplify. =
=
Find the scalar resolute of on using . =
Simplify. =
=
= 2
b Find the magnitude of . b =
=
Find by dividing by .
=
=
Find the scalar resolute of on using .
=
Simplify.
=
=
=
3
1
5
 3i
4 j
+ ( )
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
+
4
a
3
5
 i
4
5
 j
+ ( ) 6i
2 j
( )
5
18
5

8
5

10
5

1
a
6
2
2 ( )
2
+
40
2
a

1
40
 6i
2 j
( )
3
a
1
40
 6i
2 j
( ) 3i
4 j
+ ( )
4
1
40
 18 8 ( )
10
40

10
2

v
.
u

O
A
v
~
u
~
v

~
v
( )
u

v

u
( )u
=
v

v

v
+ =
v

=
v

v
^
v
( )u
=
v

v
334 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
The dot product and the unit vector can be found on a graphics calculator, and then
used to nd a scalar resolute or a vector resolute. Consider the vectors
and in Worked example 18.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select RUNMAT. Enter the
components of both vectors as matrices and store as
matrix U and matrix V.
Let and . Find:
a the scalar resolute of on
b the vector resolute of parallel to
c the vector resolute of perpendicular to .
THINK WRITE
a Find the magnitude of . a =
=
Find .
=
=
Find the scalar resolute using .
=
Simplify. =
=
b Find using equation 4. b =
=
Simplify. =
=
c Find by subtraction of from
as in equation 5.
c =
=
Simplify by subtracting , , and
components.
=
u
2 i
3 j
+ + = v
3i
2 j
+ =
v
namely v

,
v
, namely v
^
1
u
2 ( )
2
3
2
1
2
+ +
14
2
u
u

1
14
 2i
3 j
+ + ( )
3
u
1
14
 2i
3 j
+ + ( ) 3i
2 j
+ ( )
4
1
14
 6 6 1 + ( )
1
14

1
v

v

u
( )u
1
14
 ( )
1
14
 2i
3 j
+ + ( ) [ ]
2
1
14
 2i
3 j
+ + ( )
1
7
 i
3
14
 j
1
14
 k
1
v

v

3i
2 j
1
7
 i
3
14
 j
1
14
 k
( ) +
2
i
20
7
 i
31
14
 j
13
14
 k
+
18
WORKEDExample
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Finding scalar and vector
resolutes
u
2 i
3 j
+ + = v
3i
2 j
+ =
MENU
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 335
2. To nd the scalar resolute of on , we need to
calculate the dot product of (the unit vector of )
and the vector . For a threedimensional vector, we
cannot calculate the magnitude of the vector using
polar form as we did previously for the two
dimensional vector. So calculate the value of
.
3. Press followed by [M] and then
to store this answer for future use.
4. As in the previous graphics calculator tip on
page 326, the dot product is performed by
multiplying the transpose of the rst matrix by the
second matrix. The rst matrix in this case is ,
which is obtained by multiplying matrix U by the
reciprocal of magnitude M. (To access the transpose
function, press then (MAT) and
(Trn).)
5. Press to display the scalar resolute.
6. To nd the vector resolute of parallel to , we
need to calculate . This is the scalar resolute
multiplied by the unit vector .
7. Press to display the components for the
required vector resolute.
8. To nd the vector resolute of perpendicular to ,
we need to subtract the vector resolute of parallel
to (calculated in Step 7) from . Subtract the
appropriate matrices.
9. Press to display the components of the
required vector resolute.
v
2 ( )
2
3
2
1
2
+ +
ALPHA EXE
u
OPTN F2 F4
EXE
v
( )u
EXE
v
EXE
336 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
For the TINspire CAS
1. Open a new Calculator document. Dene the
vector and the vector by entering each set of
components within square brackets.
2. To nd the scalar resolute of on , we need to
calculate the dot product of (the unit vector of )
and the vector . Access the Dot Product function
(press band select 7: Matrix & Vector then
C: Vector followed by 3: Dot Product). To enter ,
rst access the Unit Vector function (press band
select 7: Matrix & Vector then C: Vector followed by
1: Unit Vector). Press Uand then )to close the set
of inner brackets. Press the comma key (,) followed
by Vand then close the set of outer brackets by
pressing ). Press to display the value of the
scalar resolute.
3. To nd the vector resolute of parallel to , we
need to calculate . Press /vto show the
previous answer then press the multiplication key
r. Repeat the steps above to access the Unit Vector
function and press U. Close the set of brackets by
pressing ). Press to display the components of
the required vector resolute.
4. The vector resolute can be found straight after
dening the vectors and (without nding the
scalar resolute rst) as seen in the screen at right.
5. To nd the vector resolute of perpendicular to ,
we need to subtract the vector resolute of parallel
to (calculated in Step 4) from . Press Vthen 
followed by /v(the answer from the previous
line of working). Press to display the components
of the required vector resolute.
u
( )u

u
( )u
=
v
( )u
=
v

=
remember
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 337
Resolving vectors scalar and
vector resolutes
1 For each of the following pairs of vectors, nd:
i the scalar resolute of on .
ii the scalar resolute of on .
2 For each pair of vectors and , nd:
i the scalar resolute of on .
ii the vector resolute of , parallel to , namely .
iii the vector resolute of , perpendicular to , namely .
3 An injured bushwalker is located at a pos
ition relative to a camp given by the vector
. A searcher heads off from the camp
in a direction parallel to the vector .
All measurements are in kilometres.
a How far is the searcher from the camp
when closest to the bushwalker?
b What is the minimum distance between
the searcher and the bushwalker?
4 A distressed yacht is located at a position
given by the vector relative to a
cruiser. A rescue boat is sent off from the
cruiser and travels in a direction parallel to
the vector . If all measurements are in
kilometres nd, to the nearest metre, how
close the rescue boat gets to the yacht.
a and b and
c and d and
e and
a ; b ;
c ; d ;
e ; f ;
Vectors and matrices
As we have seen earlier in the chapter, there is a relationship between vectors and
matrices. If you are using a Casio fx9860G AU graphics calculator, you will have
used this relationship to perform certain functions or calculations.
If we consider the vector , the components could be expressed
as the matrix .
7D
WORKED
Example
17
a
2i
3 j
+ = a
4i
5 j
+ = u
5i
2 j
= a
3i
=
u
2 i
6 j
+ = a
4 j
= u
3i
2 j
= a
4 i
3 j
=
u
8i
6 j
= a
5 i
+ =
WORKED
Example
18
u

v
3i
= v
2i
5 j
+ = u
4i
5 j
+ = v
8i
10 j
+ =
u
4i
3 j
+ = v
3i
4 j
+ = u
+ + = v
2i
+ =
u
2i
3 j
4k
+ + = v
2i
3 j
4k
= u
3i
+ = v
2 j
3k
=
2i
3 j
+
3i
4 j
+
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 7.1
5i
2 j
3i
ai
b j
ck
+ + =
a
b
c
1 a i ii
b i ii
c i
ii
d i
ii
e i
ii
23 13
13

23 41
41

17 29
29

17 10
10

13 10
10

26 17
17

6 13
13

6
5

23
5

23 26
13

3.6 km
0.2 km or 200 metres
316 metres
2 a i ii iii
b i ii iii
c i
0
ii iii
1
10
 v

3
10
 i
1
10
 j
= v
17
10
 i
51
10
 j
+ =
82
41
 v

8i
10 j
+ = v
=
v

0
= v
3 i
4 j
+ =
2d
i
i
i
i
i
i
e
i
i
i
i
i
i
f
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
3






v


23 

i
23 

j
23 

k
+
+
=
v
43 

i
13 

j
53 

k
+
+
=
2
1
2
9









v


2
1
2
9





2
i
3
j
4
k
+
+
(
)
=
v
4
2
9





2
5
i
6
j
8
k
(
)
=
51
1









v


1
5
1
1





i
5
1
1





j
5
1
1





k
+
=
v
1
5
1
1





i
1
7
1
1





j
2
8
1
1





k
+
=
338 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Similarly, for the vector , the components could be expressed as
the matrix .
The properties of vector addition and subtraction, scalar multiplication and the
dot product can be formulated in terms of the properties of matrices.
Addition of and :
Scalar multiplication of :
Dot product of and :
= [a b c]
= [ap + bq + cr]
1 Consider the vectors and .
Use matrix operations to calculate:
a
b the scalar resolute of on
c the vector resolute of parallel to
d the vector resolute of perpendicular to .
In mathematics there is often more than one method to represent an idea. For
example, a fraction of a number can be written using a proper fraction or a
decimal fraction 0.75. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.
A vector in two dimensions can be represented in three ways:
1 in component form using and
2 as a column matrix
3 by giving magnitude and direction.
That is, , or (5, 53.1) can all be used to represent the same vector.
2 Suppose that your class is going to use one of these forms of notation. By
considering the strengths and weaknesses of each, decide which one you will
use.
w
pi
q j
rk
+ + =
p
q
r
v
a
b
c
p
q
r
a p +
b q +
c r +
= +
v
2
a
b
c
2a
2b
2c
=
v
a
b
c
T
p
q
r
p
q
r
u
2i
3 j
4k
+ + = v
2i
3 j
4k
=
u
3
4

i
3i
4 j
+
3
4
21
21
29
 2i
3 j
4k
+ + ( )
4
29
 25i
6 j
8k
( )
21
29

C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 339
Timevarying vectors
Introduction
Consider a vector where the x and ycomponents are not constants, but vary with time.
So, instead of writing , we write .
In theory, x(t) and y(t) can be any functions, but often there is a limitation in that t 0.
For example, suppose x(t) = t
2
and y(t) = t. Thus, .
We can tabulate values for at various values of time t.
So at each point of time we get a new vector; thus
we can talk about a vector function of time.
We can join the heads of each of these vectors, as
shown at right. The dashed line indicates the path that
the head of the vector takes. Note that the tail of all
these vectors is the origin. How can we nd the
equation of this path?
Finding the equation of the path
Consider a vector function of time .
The expressions x(t) and y(t) are referred to as parametric equations.
If we can solve these simultaneous equations, by eliminating t, we can get an
expression in terms of x and y only. This is best seen by example.
The most difcult work is often in step 2, nding equivalent functions of t for both x
and y. Sometimes squaring (or taking the square root of) one or more of the x(t) and y(t)
functions will yield successful results. Otherwise the simultaneous equations can be
solved using substitution as demonstrated in the following example.
t x(t) y(t)
0 0 0
1 1 1
2 4 2
3 9 3
4 16 4
u
xi
y j
+ = u
x t ( )i
y t ( ) j
+ =
u
t
2
i
t j
+ =
u
+
4i
2 j
+
9i
3 j
+
16i
4 j
+
y
x
1
1
2
3
4
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
u
x t ( )i
y t ( ) j
+ =
Let a particles position, as a function of time, be given by . Find the equation
of the path, assuming t 0.
THINK WRITE
Express the and components of
in terms of their time functions.
x = t
2
y = t
Express each equation in terms of an
identical function of t.
x = t
2
y
2
= t
2
Equate the two expressions.
t
2
= x = y
2
So x = y
2
, or
Make y the subject.
y =
u
t
2
i
t j
+ =
1
i
2
3
4 x
19
WORKEDExample
340 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Find the equation of the path of a particle whose position is given by:
, t 0
Sketch the graph of its path.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Express the and components in terms
of their time functions.
x = 2t
y = t
2
t
Express t as a function of x.
t =
Substitute for t in the equation y = t
2
t.
y =
Simplify.
=
Since t 0, 0.
Since t 0, 0
State the domain of the equation. x 0
Use a graphics calculator to sketch the
graph over the domain [0, ).
v
2t i
t
2
t ( ) j
+ =
1
i
2
x
2

3
x
2

2
x
2

4
x
2
4

x
2

5
x
2

x
2

6
7
2
3
0
(1, )
1
4
y
x
20
WORKEDExample
Let a particles position as a function of time be given by .
a Find the equation of the path.
b Sketch the graph of the motion of the particle.
c State the period of the motion.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a Express the and components of in
terms of their time functions.
a x = cos t
y = sin t
Square both sides of each equation so that a
trigonometric identity can be used to eliminate t.
x
2
= cos
2
t
y
2
= sin
2
t
Add the two equations.
x
2
+ y
2
= cos
2
t + sin
2
t
Use the trigonometric identity cos
2
+ sin
2
= 1
to simplify the equation.
x
2
+ y
2
= 1
b The equation represents a circle of radius 1
and centre (0, 0).
b
c The period of cos t and sin t is 2 (the path
makes one revolution every 2).
c Period = 2.
u
cos t i
sin t j
+ =
1
i
2
3
4
21
WORKEDExample
0
y
x
1
1
1
1
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 341
To draw the graph of a timevarying vector, we need to express the components in
terms of parametric equations. Consider drawing the graph of the position vector
= 2cos t + 3sin t from Worked example 22 using a graphics calculator.
For the Casio fx9860G AU
1. Press and select GRAPH. Ensure that the
Angle setting is shown as radians. Press
[SET UP] and alter the setting for Angle if necessary.
Press (Rad) for radians.
2. Press to accept this setting. Press (TYPE)
followed by (Parm) to select the parametric
equations option.
Let a particles position as a function of time be given by . Find the
equation of the path and sketch its graph.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
Express the and components of in terms of
their functions.
x = 2 cos t
y = 3 sin t
In this case, rst eliminate the constants in front of
the trigonometric functions.
= cos t
= sin t
Square both sides of the equation. = cos
2
t
= sin
2
t
Add the 2 equations. + = cos
2
t + sin
2
t
Use the trigonometric identity cos
2
+ sin
2
= 1. + = 1
This is the equation of an ellipse.
u
2 cos t i
3 sin t j
+ =
1
i
2
x
2

y
3

3
x
2
4

y
2
9

4
x
2
4

y
2
9

5
x
2
4

y
2
9

6
0
y
x
2
3
2
3
22
WORKEDExample
Graphics Calculator
Graphics Calculator
tip!
tip!
Vector functions
of time
u
MENU
SHIFT
F2
EXE F3
F3
342 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
3. Enter the xcomponent by completing the entry line
for Xt1= with 2 cos t. (Press to enter t.)
Similarly, enter the ycomponent by completing the
entry line for Yt1= with 3 sin t. Press after each
entry.
4. Press (DRAW) to display the graph. Note that
with the standard window setting used, there are not
equal scale values on the two axes so it doesnt give
a true representation of the shape of the graph.
5. Press (ZOOM) followed by ( )
for more options. Press (SQR) to correct the
VWindow settings so that the xaxis and yaxis
values are identical. (You can also experiment with
other Zoom options to enhance the display.)
6. To obtain a clearer view of the graph, you can adjust
the Window settings. Press (VWIN) and
adjust the values for Xmin, Xmax, Ymin and Ymax.
Alternatively, press (VWIN) followed by
(INIT) to initialise the VWindow. Press
and then press (DRAW) to display the graph
with this new setting.
For the TINspire CAS
1. First ensure that the Angle setting is shown as
radians. Press cto access the home screen and
select 8: System Information followed by 2:
System Settings. Press euntil you reach Angle
and then select Radian by using the arrow keys.
Press to accept this setting.
2. Continue pressing euntil you highlight OK. Press
to select OK. Open a new Graphs & Geometry
document (press /N and select 2: Add Graphs &
Geometry). Press band select 3: Graph Type
followed by 2: Parametric.
3. Enter the xcomponent by completing the entry
line for x1(t) with 2 cos t. Similarly, enter the
ycomponent by completing the entry line for
y1(t) with 3 sin t. (Use the arrow keys to move
between entry lines.)
X,q,T
EXE
F6
SHIFT F2 F6
s
F2
SHIFT F3
SHIFT F3
F1 EXE
F6
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 343
4. Press to display the graph. If the entry line is
covering too much of the graph and you wish to hide
it, press /G. (To bring the entry line back, press
/Gagain.)
5. To obtain a clearer view of the graph, you can adjust
the window settings. Press b and select 4: Window
followed by 1: Window Settings. Adjust the values
for XMin, XMax, YMin and YMax.
Alternatively, press band select 4: Window
followed by 3: Zoom  In. Use the arrow keys to
dene the centre point of the zoom and press .
This will increase the size of the graph by a factor of
approximately 2. (Continue to press to increase
the size of the graph as required.)
These techniques work well for 2dimensional vectors, but 3dimensional vectors
usually are more difcult as the paths are much more complicated. Threedimensional
vectors will not be covered in this part of the course.
Let = (2t + 1) + (3t 4) be the position vector of Ship A.
Let = (3t 2) + (2t + 3) be the position vector of Ship B.
Find where the ships paths cross.
THINK WRITE
Express the and components for the path
of Ship A in terms of their time functions.
Ship A: x = 2t + 1
y = 3t 4
Make t the subject of each equation. = t
= t
Equate the two expressions. =
Simplify the equation and make y the
subject. Call this equation A.
3x 3 = 2y + 8
y = [A]
Express the and components of Ship B
in terms of their time functions.
Ship B: x = 3t 2
y = 2t + 3
Make t the subject of each equation.
= t
= t
u
1
i
2
x 1
2

y 4 +
3

3
x 1
2

y 4 +
3

4
3x 11
2

5
i
6 x 2 +
3

y 3
2

23
WORKEDExample
Continued over page
344 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Note: Timevarying vectors will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8.
Timevarying vectors
Use a graphics calculator to assist where appropriate in the following exercise.
1 For each of the following, nd the equation of the path, assuming t 0.
a
b
c
d
2
The value of when t = 0, for the vector is:
A 0 B C D E none of these
THINK WRITE
Equate the two expressions. =
Simplify the equation and make y the
subject. Call this equation B.
2x + 4 = 3y 9
y = [B]
The ships paths will cross when the two
equations (equations A and B) are equal.
Equating equations A and B:
=
Solve for x. 9x 33 = 4x + 26
5x = 59
x = 11.8
Substitute x = 11.8 into equation B to
nd y.
Substituting into equation B:
y =
= 12.2
State the solution.
Note: Although the paths cross, the ships
might not be there at the same time!
The ships paths cross at the point with
coordinate (11.8, 12.2).
7
x 2 +
3

y 3
2

8
2x 13 +
3

9
3x 11
2

2x 13 +
3

10
11
2 11.8 ( ) 13 +
3

12
If , t 0, then the equation of the path of a particle can be found
by solving the equations x(t) and y(t) simultaneously.
u
x t ( )i
y t ( ) j
+ =
remember
7E
WORKED
Example
19
u
2t i
t j
=
u
t 1 ( )i
3t j
=
u
t 3 + ( )i
4t
2
j
+ =
u
2t i
t
3
j
+ =
multiple choice
u
t 3 + ( )i
4t
2
j
+ =
3i
3i 4 j
+ 4i
4 j
+
y
x
2
 =
y 3x 3 =
y 4 x 3 ( )
2
=
y
x
3
8
 =
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 345
3 a Find the equation of the path of a particle whose position is given by:
b Sketch the graph of its path.
4 a Find the equation of the path of a particle whose position is given by:
b Sketch the graph of its path.
5 Let a particles position as a function of time be given by .
a Find the equation of the path.
b Sketch the graph of the motion of the particle.
c State the period of the motion of this particle.
6 A particles position as a function of time is given by .
a Find the equation of the path.
b Sketch its graph.
c State the period of the motion of this particle.
7 A particles position as a function of time is given by
.
a Find the equation of the path.
b Sketch its graph.
c State the period of the motion of this particle.
8 Let a particles position, as a function of time, be given by:
Find the equation of the path and sketch its graph.
9 Let a particles position, as a function of time, be given by:
Find the equation of the path and sketch its graph.
10 Find the equation of the paths described by each of the following vector functions:
a (Hint: Add x and ycomponents and factorise.)
What is the initial position of ?
When does x = y? What is the position at this time?
b
c
11 Let be the position vector of Ship A.
Let be the position vector of Ship B.
Find where the ships paths cross.
12 Let . Find the equation of the path. Consider vector .
Show that the path of this vector is the same as the path of . Assuming both vectors
equations start when t = 0, do these vectors ever coincide?
WORKED
Example
20
v
t
2
 i
t
2
t + ( ) j
+ =
v
t 1 + ( )i
t
2
2t ( ) j
+ =
WORKED
Example
21
u
cos 2t i
sin 2t j
+ =
u
3cos 2t i
3sin 2t j
+ =
u
1 cos t + ( )i
2 sin t + ( ) j
+ =
WORKED
Example
22
u
3cos 2t i
sin 2t j
+ =
u
2cos t i
4sin t j
=
u
t
2
4 +
t 2 + ( )
2
 i
4t
t 2 + ( )
2
 j
+ =
u
t 2 + ( )i
t 1 + ( )
2
j
+ =
u
2 cos t 3 + ( )i
3 sin t 1 ( ) j
+ =
WORKED
Example
23
u
3t 1 + ( )i
4t 2 ( ) j
+ =
v
2t 3 + ( )i
5t 1 + ( ) j
+ =
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc:
WorkSHEET 7.2
u
t i
t
2
j
+ = v
e
t
i
e
2t
j
+ =
u
b
0
y
x
b
0
1
1
3
y
x
(2, 1)
Note: x 1
0
y
x
1
1
1
1
b
0
y
x
3
3
3
3
b
8
x
2
9
 y
2
+ 1 =
0
y
x
3
1
1
3
9
x
2
4

y
2
16
 + 1 =
0
y
x
2
4
4
2
; ;
t
=
2, y 1 x = u
0 ( ) i
= u
1
2
 i
1
2
 j
+ =
y
=
(
x
1)
2
, x 2
x 3 ( )
2
4

y 1 + ( )
2
9
 + 1 =
x
=
,
y
=
19
7

2
7

y
=
x
2
; No, since is always ahead of . v
y
=
4
x
2
+
2
x
y
=
x
2
4
x
+
3
x
2
+
y
2
=
1
Period
=
x
2
+
y
2
=
9
Period
=
(
x
1)
2
+
(
y
+
2)
2
=
1
Period
=
2
b
0
y
x
2 1
2
3
1
346 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
Vectors and scalars
Denition: A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction.
Equality of vectors: Two vectors are equal if both magnitude and direction are
equal.
Addition of vectors: To add two vectors, take the tail of one vector and join it to the
head of the other. The result of addition is the vector from the tail of the rst vector
to the head of the second.
Subtraction of vectors: Subtract vectors by adding the negative of the second vector
to the rst vector.
Multiplication of vectors (by a scalar): Multiply the magnitude of the vector by the
scalar, maintaining the direction of the original vector.
Position vectors in 2 and 3 dimensions
Magnitude of a vector: If , magnitude =
Direction of a vector (2D only): If , direction = = tan
1
x and ycomponents of a vector: Given magnitude and direction, the x and
y components are given by:
x = cos
y = sin
Unit vector: The unit vector of a vector , in the direction of , denoted by is:
Locating vectors: If A and B are points with position and respectively then
Multiplying two vectors the dot product
Scalar (dot) product: The scalar or dot product of two vectors and is denoted
by .
Calculation of dot product: Where is the angle between two vectors:
cos
Algebraic calculation of dot product: Let and
.
Then .
If , then and are perpendicular.
If , then and are parallel.
summary
u
xi
y j
+ = zk
+ u
x
2
y
2
z
2
+ + =
u
xi
y j
+ =
y
x

u
 =
a
AB b
=
u
=
u
x
1
i
= y
1
j
z
1
k
+ +
v
x
2
i
= y
2
j z
2
k
+ +
u
x
1
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
z
2
+ + =
u
0 = u
kv
k R , = u
C h a p t e r 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o v e c t o r s 347
Resolving vectors scalar and vector resolutes
Scalar resolute of on : Let be a unit vector in the direction of . The scalar
resolute of on is given by .
Vector resolute of parallel to : Let be a unit vector in the direction
of .
Vector resolute of perpendicular to :
or
Timevarying vectors
If , t 0, then the equation of the path of a particle can be found
by solving the equations x(t) and y(t) simultaneously.
v

u
( )u
=
v
( )u
=
v

=
u
x t ( )i
y t ( ) j
+ =
348 M a t h s Q u e s t M a t h s C Ye a r 1 1 f o r Q u e e n s l a n d
1
If and , then is equal to:
2 A re observation tower reaches 40 m above the ground. Susan is 400 m from the tower,
which is at a bearing of 60 (N 60 E) from her. State the position vector from Susans
current position to the top of the tower.
3
The vector with a magnitude of 5 is:
4
Let the position vector for point P be and for point Q be . Then
the magnitude of the vector is given by:
5 A boat sails 5 km due east from H, turns northward at a bearing of 45 (N 45 E) for a
distance of 10 km and then travels due north for a further 5 km to point X.
a Find the position vector from H to X.
b Find the distance from H to X (correct to 2 decimal places).
6
If and , then is equal to:
A B C
D E
A
B
C
D E
A B C
D 4 E 1
A 10 B 0 C 480 D 6 E 33
CHAPTER
review
7A
multiple choice
u
4i
3 j
0.2k
+ = v
2i
4 j
+ = 4u
2.5v
11i
22 j
3.3k
+ 6i
0.8k
+ 8i
12 j
0.2k
21i
13 j
2.3k
11i
13 j
7A,B
Susan
40 m
400 m
E
N
60
7B
multiple choice
3i
+ +
2i
5 j
4k
+ +
5i
5 j
5k
+ +
6i
3 j
4k
+ 25i
7B
multiple choice
3i
4 j
5k
+ i
3 j
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