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Top school in India

By:
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What is effective leadership?
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THE ABILITY

TO INFLUENCE

PEOPLE
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French & Raven



LEGITIMATE

COERCIVE

REWARD

EXPERT

REFERENT
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Weber



LEGITIMATE

TRADITIONAL

CHARISMATIC

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Another view



CONTROL RESOURCES

AWARE OF IT

WANT TO HAVE POWER

KNOW HOW TO USE IT

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MANAGER
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
MOTIVATION
CONTROL
CULTURE
VISION

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NO CONSISTENT SET
OF TRAITS


Also see Attribution Theory
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1. PEOPLE INHERENTLY DISLIKE WORK,
WILL AVOID IT
2. NOT TAKE RESPONSIBILITY, WANT
FORMAL DIRECTION
3. WANT SECURITY, LITTLE AMBITION
4. MUST BE COERCED, CONTROLLED,
THREATENED
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1. WORK NATURAL AS PLAY, REST

2. SELF DIRECTION, SELF CONTROL

3. ACCEPT, SEEK RESPONSIBILITY

4. ABILITY TO MAKE GOOD DECISIONS
NORMAL
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Lewin, Lippit, Whyte


Satisfaction Productivity
Laissez
Faire
+
-
?
+
+
?
Demo.
Author.
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Ohio State


INIATING STRUCTURE:
STRESS GOALS
DEFINES, STRUCTURES ROLES

CONSIDERATION
CONCERN FOR SUBORDINATES
NEEDS, FEELSINGS
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BEHAVIOR MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
Ohio
State

IS




Con-
sideration

Michigan

Production
Oriented



Employee
Oriented
Managerial
Grid

Concern for
Production



Concern for
People
Fiedler

Task
Oriented



Relationship
Oriented


Hershey
Blanchard

Task
Behavior



Relationship
Behavior

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LIFE CYCLE
Hersey & Blanchard
TASK BEHAVIOR
LOW HIGH
SUBORDINATE MATURITY
HIGH MODERATE LOW
LOW
HIGH
TELLING
SELLING PARTICIPATING
DELEGATING
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PATH - GOAL
House
4 BEHAVIORS
DIRECTIVE

SUPPORTIVE

ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED

PARTICIPATIVE
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DIRECTIVE
INFORMS SUBORDINATES WHAT IS
EXPECTED

SCHEDULES WORK

GIVES SPECIFIC GUIDANCE
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SUPPORTIVE

IS FRIENDLY

SHOWS CONCERN FOR NEEDS OF
SUBORDINATES
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ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED

SETS CHALLENGING GOALS

EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO PERFORM
AT THEIR HIGHEST LEVEL
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PARTICIPATIVE

CONSULTS WITH SUBORDINATES

USES THEIR SUGGESTIONS
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FINDINGS

Directive leadership; greater satisfaction
when tasks are ambiguous or stressful
than when they are highly structured.
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FINDINGS

Supportive leadership; higher
performance and satisfaction with
structured tasks.
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FINDINGS

Directive leadership; perceived as
redundant by subordinates with high
perceived ability or with considerable
experience.
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FINDINGS

Clear formal authority; use more
supportive behavior and less directive.
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FINDINGS

Directive leadership; higher satisfaction
when substantive conflict within the
group.
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FINDINGS

Achievement leadership; increases
subordinates expectancies that effort will
lead to high performance when tasks are
ambiguous.
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FINDINGS

Participative leadership; people with
internal locus of control more satisfied
with it.
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FINDINGS

Directive leadership; people with external
locus of control more satisfied with it.
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LEADER PARTICIPATION
Vroom & Jago
See participative decision making
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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
ALSO SEE TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP
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TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP

INFLUENCES PEOPLE
TO PERFORM
ABOVE NORMAL EXPECTATIONS
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TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP
CHARISMATIC

INSPIRATIONAL

INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION

INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION
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PRINCIPLE CENTERED
BEHAVIOR BASE IS PRINCIPLES

HONESTY

FAIRNESS

INTEGRITY

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY
ATTRIBUTE LEADERSHIP SKILLS TO
SUCCESSFUL PEOPLE
PEOPLE IN TRADITIONAL ROLES
PEOPLE WE LIKE
HIGH STATUS PEOPLE
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS/THINGS
Head of the table
Height
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PRACTICAL APPROACH?
FACTORS IN
THE MANAGER
THE SUBORDINATES
THE SITUATION

ANALYZE AND BE FLEXIBLE
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THE MANAGER
VALUE SYSTEM
BELIEF ABOUT INVOLVING SUBORDINATES
CONFIDENCE IN SUBS.
LEADERSHIP INCLINATIONS
DIRECTIVE, SUPPORTIVE
SKILL IN DELEGATING
OTHER FACTORS
TOLERANCE FOR AMBIGUITY
CONTROL
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THE SUBORDINATES
INDEPENDENCE
TAKE RESPONSIBILITY
TOLERANCE FOR AMBIGUITY
INTEREST
UNDERSTAND, AGREE WITH GOALS
KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCE
EXPECTATIONS
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THE SITUATION

TYPE OF ORGANIZATION
VALUES, CULTURE
GEOGRAPHICAL DISPERSION

INFORMATION AVAILABLE?

TIME PRESSURE
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DIFFICULT TO BE FLEXIBLE?
PERSONALITY STRUCTURED AT VERY EARLY
AGE

COMPLEX HISTORY OF PAST BEHAVIOR

LITTLE FEEDBACK ABOUT CAUSE & EFFECT

TOP MANAGEMENT INFLUENCE
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SUBSTITUTES FOR
LEADERSHIP
PERSONAL FACTORS

LOCUS OF CONTROL

INDEPENDENCE

EXPERIENCE
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SUBSTITUTES FOR
LEADERSHIP
JOB, ORG. FACTORS

ROUTINE

STRUCTURED

GOALS, RULES, ETC.
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SUBSTITUTES FOR
LEADERSHIP
GROUP FACTORS

NORMS

COHESION

INFORMAL LEADER
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