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Secretariat of the Partial Agreement

in the Social and Public Health Field


GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATED TO PATE!T A!D MED"ATO! SAFETY
#AL$A!A! LA!G%AGE&
March 2007
The Council of Europe expresses sincere thanks to Professor Afrim Tabaku, Institute
of Public Health, Albania, an his collaborators for his co!operation in the translation
into the Albanian lan"ua"e of the Glossary of Terms related to Patient and
Medication Safet# inclue in the $eport on the Creation of a better medication
safety culture in Europe: Building up safe medication practices prepare b# the
Council of Europe Expert %roup on &afe Meication Practices in 200'(
The En"lish text )as ori"inate b# the Council of Europe Partial A"reement in the
&ocial an Public Health *iel in the frame)ork of the acti+it# on safe meication
practices carrie out b# the Expert %roup on &afe Meication Practices an
o+erseen b# the Committee of experts on Pharmaceutical ,uestions(
The Council of Europe takes no responsibilit# for the translation into the Albanian
lan"ua"e(
2
F'alor (h)'egue( i terma*e +, lidhen me t, (,murin dhe
(igurin, e m'e-imit
&hpesh nohin konfu-ione he ke.kuptime n/ sfer/n e si"uris/ s/ m0ekimit p/r
ars#e se termat e nr#shme ./ p/roren n/ k/t/ fush/ nuk 0an/ t/ mir/p/rcaktuara(
P/r n0/ p/rorim t/ re0t/ t/ t/ h/na+e t/ besueshme t/ okumenta+e shkencore
mbi si"urin/ e m0ekimit, si he p/r t/ m/n0anuar non0/ konfu-ion me institucionet e
kontrollit t/ ku0esit sh/net/sor, ./ tashm/ 0an/ n"ritur, t/ tilla si farmako+i"0ilenca,
/sht/ i ne+o0sh/m p/rorimi i sakt/ i terma+e specifike t/ k/sa0 fushe(
1isa p/rkufi-ime tashm/ 0an/ propo-uar n/ &htetet e 2ashkuara t/ Amerik/s n"a
m0ek/t e ku0esit sh/net/sor he institucionet akaemike si Instiuti i M0ek/sis/,
3/shilli 3omb/tar 3oorinues p/r $aportimin he Paranalimin e %abime+e ./
lihen me 2arin, &ho.ata Amerikane e *armacist/+e t/ &istemit &h/net/sor. si he
Instituti p/r P/rmir/simin e 3u0esit &h/net/sor( 4/ ni+el n/rkomb/tar isa n"a
k/to p/rkufi-ime 0an/ pranuar n"a 5r"ani-ata 2ot/rore e &h/net/sis/ he
*eerata *armaceutike 4/rkomb/tare(
4/ ni+el komb/tar, n/ isa +ene europiane si n/ *ranc/ /sht/ b/r/ n0/ pun/
s.aruese, si re-ultat i bashk/punimit n/rm0et $r0etit Epiemiolo"0ik t/ %abime+e ./
lihen me 2arnat 6$7seau 7pi7miolo"i.ue e l8erreur m7icamenteuse9 he
&ho.at/s *rance-e t/ *armacis/ 3linike, si he n/ &pan0/ n"a Instituti p/r P/rorim
t/ &i"urt/ t/ 2arna+e me mb/shtet0en e &ho.at/s &pan0olle t/ *armaci+e t/
&pitale+e(
1uke u nisur n"a p/rkufi-imet e nr#shme t/ terma+e ./ 0an/ t/ isponueshme he
./ kan/ lih0e me "abimet n/ p/rorimin e barna+e he n"0ar0et e pa/shirueshme
n/ botimet ba-/ he raportimet publike, %rupi i Ekspert/+e mbi Praktikat e &i"urta t/
M0ekimit, n/ bashk/punim me 3omitetin e 3/shillit t/ Europ/s &P!&,&, ka hartuar
n0/ f0alor shp0e"ues termash me ./llim ./ t/ p/roren terma ./ kan/ t/ n0/0tin
kuptim, he ./ t/ m/n0ano0/ sa me shum/ t/ 0et/ e munur ebatet e pafr#tshme
:
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
accident
Albanian; aksient
2
a-(ident; n0< n"0ar0e e paplanifikuar, e papritur he e pa<shirueshme, -akonisht me
paso0a t< pa<shirueshme(
==
Pr shum ite punon!sit e siguris dhe autoritetet e shndetit publi"
nu" e "an in"ura!uar prdorimin e f!als #a"sident# "ur ai i referohet
dmtimee ose ng!ar!ee $ i sh"a"to!n ato% &! a"sident shpesh sht
i paparashi"ueshem'n! ndodhi e rastit( ose n! a"t i )otit#' dhe si
paso! sht i pashmangshm% Meg!ithat shumica e dmtimee dhe e
ng!ar!ee $ i sh"a"to!n ato !an t parashi"ueshme dhe t
mn!anueshme% *!o sht arsye!a $ BM+ "a endosur ta he$ nga
prdorimi f!aln a"sident% ,-. /e$!a e n! termi t 0a"onshm nga f!alori
yn nu" do t !et e leht% Termi 1"sident# mbetet shum i prdorshm si
n f!alorin e 0a"onshm dhe n at profesional m!e"sor dhe padyshim
do te a0hdo! t shfa$et n arti"u!t e drguar pr botim n BM+% &e po u
"r"o!m botuese t !en sy2elt n 0bulimin dhe "thimin mbrapsht t
materialee "u prdoret termi !o i dre!t 31# dhe ne "emi besim se le4uesit
tan do t na mba!n n "onta"t du"e na n!oftuar men!her pr rastet "ur
f!ala #a"sident# #hyn npr material%#
>7

actie error
Albanian; "abim +eprimi
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim
2 2
gabim *e)rimi3 n0< "abim i lihur me performanc<n e operuesit t< ?+i0<s s< par<@ t<
n0< sistemi kompleks, efektet e t< cilit nihen pothua0se men0<her<(
A'
&inonim; "abim me efekt t< re0tp<rre0t<
3# p<rkufi-im <sh< p<rnr#shuar pak n"a Instituti I M0ek/sise; n!< gabim
$< ndodh n< nielin e operuesit t< i!<s s< par<, efe"tet e t< cilit ndihen
pothua!se men!<her<%#
2=

actie failure
Albanian; <shtim +eprimi
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim eprimi
2
d/(htim *e)rimi3 +eprime ose procese "0at< h<nies s< ku0esit t< re0tp<rre0t< t< t<
s<murit, por .< nuk arri0n< .<llimet e pritura, p(sh( "abime n< moskr#er0e ose "abime
n< kr#er0en e +eprime+e( 1isa <shtime +eprimi mun t< nihmo0n< n< <mtimin e t<
s<murit, kurse t< t0era 0o(
>=,=7
Me.<n<se termi <shtim nuk <sht< p<rkufi-uar n< f0alor, p<rorimi i ti0 nuk
rekomanohet( 40< t0et<r kuptim ek-iston p<r termin <shtim +eprimi; n!
gabim $ ndodh pr arsye t shum gabimee dhe sh"el!ee t t!era%
5sht shtir $ "to gabime t parashi"ohen dhe "an n! ndi"im t
men!hershm t padshirueshm n sigurin( n sh"el!e( anash"alim(
ina"tii0im t mbro!t!ee e"0istuese@
2:
administration error
Albanian; "abim aministrati+
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabime $ lidhen me barin
2
gabim admini(trati*3 Bfar<o llo0i "abimi n< m0ekim, i mokr#er0es ose kr#er0es s<
+eprime+e, .< shfa.et n< fa-<n e p<rorimit, n< rastet kur bari uhet t< 0epet n"a
infermieri, ose t< merret n"a +et< i s<muri, apo n"a n0< ku0estar(
40< "abim "0at< pun<s me sistemin e p<rorimit t< barna+e; p<rkufi-imi
he llo0i uhet t< p<rcaktohen m< n< holl<si n< taksonomin< e "abime+e t<
m0ekimit(
A
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
aderse drug eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e e
pa<shirureshme .< lihet me
p<rorimin e barna+e
shih "0ithashtu ;
tregues i ng!ar!ee te
padshirueshme $ ndi"o!n n
m!e"im,
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme e
mundshme $6 lidhet me barnat(
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme nga
barnat dhe e shmangshme(
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme nga
barnat
dhe e pashmangshme
2
ng'ar'e e )ad/(hirue(hme +/ lidhet me )/rdorimin e barna*e #!PP$&3 non0<
<mtim i t< s<murit .< shfa.et "0at< m0ekimit, ose si re-ultat i ku0esit t< p<rshtatsh<m,
ose si re-ultat i ku0esit t< pap<rshtatsh<m, ose t< ku0esit t/ pam0aftuesh/m(
4"0ar0et e pa<shirueshme .< lihen me p<rorimin e barna+e p<rfshi0n<; reaksionet e
pa<shirueshme t< barna+e "0at< p<rorimit t< -akonsh<m t< t#re, si he non0<
<mtim #t<sor "0at< non0< "abimi n< m0ekim, si t< "abime+e n< moskr#er0e, ashtu
ehe t< "abime+e n< kr#er0e(
40< n"0ar0e e pa<shirueshme n< p<rorimin e barna+e mun t< p<rfuno0< n< re-ultate
t< nr#shme, pik<risht n<; p<rke.<simin e patolo"0is< ek-istuese, n< mun"es<
p<rmir<simi t< "0en0es s< pritshme sh<net<sore t< t< s<murit, n< shp<rthimin e n0<
patolo"0ie t< re, .< uhet paranaluar, n< nr#shimin e n0< funksioni or"anik, ose n< n0<
p<r"0i"0e t< <mshme na0 barit t< marr<(
22
7&g!ar!e t padshirueshme nga prdorimi i barnae mund t !en re0ultat
i gabimee n m!e"im ose nga rea"sionet e padshirueshme t barnae
n t cilt nu" "a asn! gabim t prfshir%#
89
&! dmtim( i madh apo i ogl( sh"a"tuar nga prdorimi ,prfshi edhe
nga mosprdorimi. i n! bari% *a dy llo!e ng!ar!esh t padshirueshme nga
prdorimi i barnae ,&PPB.: ato t sh"a"tuara nga gabimet dhe ato $
ndodhin paarsisht nga prdorimi i dre!t i tyre% & $oft se n! ng!ar!e e
padshirueshme nga barnat sh"a"tohet nga ndon! gabim( sipas
pr"ufi0imit a!o sht e shmangshme% &g!ar!et e padshirueshme t
pashmangshme nga barnat ,dmtim( por !o gabim. $uhen rea"sione t
padshirueshme t barnae ,:PB.%#
:>
aderse drug reaction
Albanian; efekt i pa<shiruesh<m i
barit
"0ithashtu shih ;
raportim i detyruar
raportim ullnetar
2
efe-t i )ad/(hirue(h/m i barit3 o t< thot< n0< p<r"0i"0e na0 n0< bari, i cili <sht< i
<msh<m he shfa.et n< o-a, .< -akonisht p<roren n< n0er<- p<r paranalimin,
ia"nostikimin ose m0ekimin e s<mun0e+e, ose p<r korri"0imin apo p<rnr#shimin e
funksione+e fi-iolo"0ikeC
efe-te (erio0e t/ )ad/(hirue(hme t< barna*e3 o t< thot< n0< +eprim i
pa<shiruesh<m, i cili p<rfunon n< +ek0e, <sht< k<rc<nues p<r 0et<n, k<rkon shtrim
t< men0<hersh<m n< spital, ose .<nrim n< spital p<r n0< koh< t< "0at<, .< p<rfunon
me paaft<si t< .<nrueshme ose t< r<n<sishme p<r pun<, ose n< paaft<si, ose <sht<
n0< anomali e linurD efekt i lin0esC
efe-te t/ )a)ritura t/ )ad/(hirue(hme t/ barna*e3 o t< thot< n0< reaksion i
pa<shiruesh<m, nat#ra, r<nesa ose p<rfunimi i t< cilit nuk <sht< n< p<rputh0e me
raportin p<rmbleh<s t< karakteristika+e t< barit(
3apitulli Ea 6*armako+i"0ilenca9 i Fh<-imit 7=D:>GDEEC 64eni 2Gb9 i
amenuar n"a Fh<-imi i 3omisionit 2000D:HDEC i at<s = ,ershor 2000; i
n"0ash<m me p/rkufi-imin e 52&H 65r"ani-at<s 2ot<rore t<
&h<net<sis<9; n!< rea"sion nda! n!< bari $< <sht< i d<msh<m dhe i
b<r< padash!e( i cili ndodh n< do0a $< 0a"onisht p<rdoren p<r n!er<0it p<r
$<llime profila"ti"e( diagnosti"e( ose terapeuti"e t< s<mund!es( ose p<r
prndryshimin e fun"sionee fi0iolog!i"e%# IJH5 Technical $eport 4o AGH
6>G729K
P<roret n< rastet kur ka n0< marr<h<nie shkak<sore me p<rorimin e
n0< bari
20
&inonime 60o te rekomanuara n"a A"0encia Europiane p<r Eler<simin e
Proukte+e M0ek<sore!AEEPM9; efe"t negati( efe"t an<sor( efe"t i
pad<shiruar
Pr fat t "e$ shum "an prdorur termin :PB ,rea"sione t
padshirueshme nga barnat. si sinonim t &PPB ,ng!ar!e e
padshirueshme $ lidhet me prdorimin e barit. e cila m!ergullon n!
dallim t rndsishm%
:>
aderse eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e t padshirueshme $
ndi"o!n n
m!e"im,
rre0i"(
!atog!en(
incident(
dmtim
2
ng'ar'e e )ad/(hirue(hme; n0< <mtim i pa.<llimsh<m, shkaktuar m< tep<r n"a
menaxhimi m0ek<sor sesa n0< proces patolo"0ik(
::,=G
ng'ar'e e (iguri(/ (/ t/ (/murit3 non0< n"0ar0e e pa.<llimshme ose e papritur .<
mun t< ket<, ose t< Bo0< re0t rre-i.e+e p<r n0< ose m< tep<r persona .< marrin
sh<rbim sh<net<sor t< rimbursuar(@ 4"0ar0e e si"uris< s< t< s<murit@ <sht< n0< term
mbulues i cili p<roret p<r t< p<rshkruar n0< n"0ar0e t< +etme, ose n0< +ar" n"0ar0esh .<
shfa.en me kalimin e koh<s(
:H

&! ng!ar!e e padshirueshme $ re0ulton n n! dmtim padash!e t t
smurit pr sh"a" t n! eprimi t "ryer apo t mos"ryer( m tepr se
sesa smund!a apo g!end!a e t smurit%#
;
4< Mbret<rine e 2ashkuar termat Lincient n< lih0e me si"urin< e t<
s<murit8 he Lincient n< si"urin< e t< s<murit 6i panaluesh<m98
parap<l.ehen t< p<roren 6n"a t< s<mur<t he publiku9 n< +en t<
terma+e Lefekt <mprur<s8, L"abim klinik8, he Lshman"ie8( Terma t< tilla si i
pa<shiruesh<m, +eprim i "abuar ose "abim su"0ero0n< shkak<si he
fa0<sim ini+iual( %abim m0ek<sor 6+eprim i "abuar m0ek<sor9 n< +eBanti
su"0eron se shkaku kr#esor <sht< profesioni m0ek<sor 6Terminolo"0i e
A"0encis< 3omb<tare t< &i"uris< s< t< &<murit ! A3&& 9
=
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
aderse eent trigger( mar"er
Albanian; tre"ues t< n"0ar0e+e t<
pa<shirueshme .<
niko0n< n<
m0ekim
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme(
ng!ar!e e padshirurshme $ lidhet
me
prdorimin e barnae
2 2
tregue( t/ ng'ar'e*e t/ )ad/(hirue(hme3 t< h<na klinike lihur me ku0esin
sh<net<sor na0 t< s<murit .< ka n0< mun<si t< m0aftueshme .< n0< n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme t< ket< nohur ose t< 0et< uke nohur( &h<mbull i n0< tre"uesi t<
h<nash p<r n0< n"0ar0e t< pa<shirueshme t< barna+e <sht< urh<ri i m0ekut p<r
h<nien e n0e antioti, nalimin e m0ekimit, ose -+o"<limin e o-es(
7
tregue( t/ ng'ar'e*e t/ )ad/(hirue(hme +/ ndi-o'n/ n/ m'e-im4 n0< m0ekim, n0< e
h<n< laboratorike, ose tre"ues t0et<r .< nxit sh.#rtimin e m<te0sh<m t< ku0esit p<r t<
s<murin me .<llim .< t< -bulohen n"0ar0et e pa<shirueshme t< barna+e, .< n< rast t<
kun<rt mun t< mos -bulohen ose t< mos raportohen( &h<mbu0 t< tre"ues+e,
p<rfshi0n< ifenhiramin<n, naloksonin, aPTT m< t< mahe se >00 sekona, ni+elin e
"luko-<s n< serum m< pak se =0, rr<-imet, ek-antemat he +ek0en(
:
cause
Albanian; shkak
shih "0ithashtu ;
anali0 e sh"a$ee thelbsore
2
(h-a-3 n0< faktor paraprir<s .< nihmon p<r n0< n"0ar0e, efekt ose re-ultat( 40< shkak
mun t< 0et< paraprir<s i re0tp<rre0t< kur ai paraprin men0<her< re-ultatin, t< till< si
n0< +eprim( 40< shkak, "0ithashtu, mun t< 0et< +eprues n< lar"<si, si n0< faktor
strukturor i n<nhesh<m .< nikon +eprimin, n< k<t< m<n#r< kontribuon n< re-ultat(
$e-ultatet asn0<her< nuk kan< shka.e t< +etme(
=7
causation
Albanian; shkak<sor
shih "0ithashtu ;
anali0 e sh"a$ee thelbsore
2
(h-a-/(or3 +eprimi n<p<rm0et t< cilit shfa.et n0< efekt, marr<h<niet shkak<sore miis
+eprimit he efektit(
&inonim; shkak<si
4< epiemiolo"0i, oktrina e shkak<sis< p<roret p<r lih0en e isa
faktor<+e 6preispo-ues, aft<sues, p<rshpe0tues he p<rforcues9 n<
-h+illimin e s<mun0es( 1oktrina e shkak<sis< , "0ithashtu, <sht< e
r<n<sishme n< fush<n e paku0esis< he le"0islacionit penal(
2:

computer prescribing(
computer physician order
entry ,CP<E.
Albanian; p<rshkrim i
informati-uar
2 2
)/r(h-rim i informati0uar3 sisteme klinike .< p<rorin t< h<na n"a farmacia,
laboratori, raiolo"0ia he sistemet e monitorimit t< t< s<murit p<r t< formuar planet
ia"nostike he terapeutike t< m0ekut ose t< infermierit profesionist he t<
parala0m<ro0< p<r Bo aler"0i ose kun<rinikim n< m<n#r< .< t< s<murit t8i nalet
m0ekimi he t8i fillohet n0< skem< elektronike t0et<r m0ekimi(
7

&inonim i parap<l.#er; prsh"rim ele"troni"
recet ele"troni"e
Constraint
Albanian; kufi-im
shih "0ithashtu ;
"ufi0ime t s!ell!es
2 2
-ufi0im3 n0< kufi-im i alternati+a+e .< s0ell0a e t< s<murit t< 0et< n< n0< -on< t<
?si"urt<@(
:>
'
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
continuous safety
improement of the
medication use system
Albanian ; p<rmir<simi i
+a-huesh<m i
si"uris< s< sistemit t<
m0ekimit
me barna
)/rmir/(imi i *a0hdue(h<m i (iguri(/ (/ (i(temit t/ m'e-imit me barna3 -batimi i
n0< +ar"u masash me .<llim ; t< paranalo0< he t< n<rpres< "abimet n< m0ekimin me
barna, t< ket< n<n kontroll situatat e rre-ikshme, t< -bus< shfa.0en e n"0ar0e+e t<
pa<shirueshme, si he t< mbro0< t< s<murin n"a "abimet .< nohin(
22
contributing factor
Albanian; faktor kontribues
shih "0ithashtu ;
anali0 e sh"a$ee thelbsore
2
fa-tor -ontribue( #i -/mb5e(h/m me fa-torin ndihmue(&3 n0< faktor .< i paraprin
n0< n"0ar0e0e, efekti, re-ultati ose p<rfunimi, t< n"0ash<m me n0e shkak( 40< faktor
kontribues mun t< p<rfa.<so0< n0< <shtim konkret ose n0< shkak t< shfa.0es s<
<shtimit konkret, t< tilla si n0< faktor rrethanor ose n0< "0en0e e fsheht< .< luan rol
n< "0ene-<n e p<rfunimit(
=7

criticality
Albanian; tre"ues i p<rpar<sis< s<
riskut
shih "0ithashtu ;
anali0 e formae dhe e efe"tee
t
dshtimit
2
tregue( i ),r)ar,(i(, (e ri(-ut #TPR&3 p<rcakton tre"uesin e p<rpar<sis< s< riskut t<
n0< m<n#re <shtimi he nihmon n< p<rcaktimin n<se risku i <shtimit uhet pranuar
6nuk b<n as"0< p<rsa i p<rket mun<sis< s< <shtimit9, t< frenimit 6 n<rmerr +eprime
p<r t< rritur fu.in< e -bulimit ose -+o"<limit t< riskut t< mun<sis< s< <shtimit9, ose
t< m<n0animit 6paranalimit t< mun<sis< s< <shtimit9( 4umri i p<rpar<sis< s< riskut
luan rol n< m<n#r<n e <shtimit he n< procesin e anali-<s s< efekte+e(
:
culture of safety
AlbanianC eukat< e pun<s
shih "0ithashtu ;
"ultur e prg!eg!sis
2
edu-at/ e )un/(3 form< unike e s0ell0es s< ini+iit apo "rupit, e ba-uar n< besimet
he +lerat profesionale, .< +a-himisht s#non t< minimi-o0< <met .< mun t8i
shkaktohen t< s<murit "0at< ku0esit sh<net<sor(
7
&u" e"0iston n!< p<r"ufi0im uniersal i pranuar p6r termin edu"at< e
pun<s n< "u!desin sh<ndet<sor( por n< thelb <sht< n!< "ultur6 ,edu"at<.
"u stafi <sht< i et<di!sh<m n< m<nyr< t< a0hdueshme dhe a"tie p<r
g!<rat $< mund t< mos sh"o!n< si2 duhet% G!ithashtu( <sht< n!< edu"at<
,"ultur<. $< <sht< e hapur dhe e ndershme dhe $< in"ura!on n!er<0it p<r t<
shprehur hapur mendimet e tyre pr gabimet% =nstitucionet me n!er<0 me
edu"at< pune !an< n< g!end!e t< dallo!n< se 2fare nu" ec<n mir< dhe m<
pas t>i ndre$in gabimet#
:H
dispensing error
Albanian; "abime .< lihen me
shp<rnar0en e
barna+e
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabime $ lidhen me barin
2
gabime +/ lidhen me (h)/rndar'en e barna*e3 n0< shman"ie n"a n0< interpretim i
n0e recete t< shkruar, ose porosie m0ekimi, .< p<rfshim p<rnr#shime me shkrim t<
porosis< s< b<r< n"a farmacisti n< kontakt me m0ekun ose n< pa0tim me politik<n e
farmacis<( Mfar<o shman"ie n"a kompetencat profesionale ose rre"ulluese, ose
uh<-uesit .< kan< t< b<0n< me proceurat e shp<rnar0es s< barna+e, "0ithashtu
konsierohen si n0< "abim n< shp<rnar0en e barna+e(
>2

Mfar<o llo0 "abimi n< p<rorimin e barna+e, i b<r0es apo i mosb<r0es .<
noh n< fa-<n e shp<rnar0es s< barna+e n< farmaci, si he n<
shp<rnar0en e t#re n< n0<sit< e m0ekimit, ose tek t< s<mur<t n< m0eise
ambulatore( 40< "abim .< noh "0at< pun<s me sistemin e p<rorimit t<
barna+e; p<rkufi-imi he llo0i uhet t< p<rcaktohen m< n< holl<si n<
taksonomin< e "abime+e t< m0ekimit6
Me.< ato mun t< -bulohen n<p<rm0et k<sa0 rru"e, "abimet .< lihen me
shp<rnar0en e barna+e, "0ithashtu p<rkufi-ohen si shman"ie pre0 recet<s(
:
7
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
drug'related problem
Albanian; probleme .< lihen me
barnat
)robleme +/ lidhen me barnat3 n0< n"0ar0e ose rrethan< n< lih0e me m0ekimin me
barna .< nikon faktikisht ose mun t< niko0< me p<rfitimet sh<net<sore t<
<shiruara(
AA
3# p<rkufi-im <sht< hartuar p<r "u!desin farmaceuti", .< o t< thot<
0batim i p<rg!eg!sh<m i m!e"imit me barna p<r t< arritur re0ultate t< $arta
$< p<rmir<so!n< cil<sin< e !ets s t smurit#,
2=
n< fakt optimi-imin e
raportit p<rfitimDrisk p<r Bo t< s<mur< t< +eBant<(
Ehe n< rastin kur ia"no-a e PN2 6probleme .< lihen me barnat9
mbi+enoset me -bulimin e "abime+e n< m0ekim .< k<rc<no0n< t<
s<murin, k<to p<rkufi-ime nuk 0an< t< -batueshme n< si"urin< e p<rorimit
t< barna+e, t< fokusuar n< n0< meto< sistematike6 P<r t< paranaluar
non0< rre-ik Boroit0e0e, rekomanimi i propo-uar <sht< .< t< m<n0anohet
rrept<sisht p<rorimi i termit ?probleme .< lihen me m0ekimin ose me
barnat@ kur b<het f0al< p<r si"urin< e p<rorimit t< barna+e(
error
Albanian; "abim
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim g!y"imi(
sh"ar!e go!e(
lapsus
2 2
gabim3 n0< term "0enerik .< p<rfshin t< "0itha ato raste n< t< cilat n0< +ar" i planifikuar
+eprimtarish< menore ose fi-ike nuk arrin re-ultatin e pritsh<m, he kur k0o
mosarrit0e nuk mun t8i et#rohet non0< n<rh#r<si t< 0asht<m.
78
mosarrit0e e
.<llime+e t< <shiruara n"a +eprimet e planifikuara! pa n<rh#r0en e non0< n"0ar0e t<
paparashikueshme(
AH
?<shtimi i n!< eprimi t< planifi"uar $< t< sh"o!< deri n< fund si2 ishte
parashi"uar ,p%sh% gabime n< 0batim. ose p<rdorimi i n!< plani t< gabuar
p<r t< arritur n!< $<llim ,p%sh% n!< gabim n< planifi"im.#,
2=, 'G
g!ithashtu dhe
d<shtimi i n!< eprimi t< 7paplanifi"uar( i cili duhet t< ishte p<rfunduar#%
7

Gabimet mund t< p<rfshi!n< probleme n< pra"ti"<( n< produ"te( n<
procedura dhe n< sisteme%@
A=

error of commission
Albanian; "abim n< -batim
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim(
gabim g!y"imi(
sh"ar!e go!e(
lapsus
2 2
gabim n/ 0batim3 n0< "abim .< shfa.et si re-ultat i kr#er0es s/ n0< +eprimi(
2:

&i sh<mbu0 mun t< p<rmenim rastet kur n0< bar <sht< marr< n< koh<
t< "abuar, n< o-< t< "abuar, ose <sht< p<rorur n0< rru"< e "abuar
marr0e0eC
error of omission
Albanian; "abim n< mos-batim
2 2
gabim n/ mo(0batim3 n0< "abim .< shfa.et si re-ultat i moskr#er0es s< n0< +eprimi(
2:

P<r sh<mbull kur n0< infermiere nuk -baton o-<n e barit .< uhet
marr<C
2:
mos p<rshkrim n< recet< t< n0< bari pre0 t< cilit i s<muri noshta
o t< kishte obi
7
(
eidence'based guidelines
Albanian; uh<-ime p<r t< h<na
t< e+ientuara
udh/0ime )/r t/ dh<na t/ e*identuara ; marr<+esh0e p<r tra0timin perioik t<
probleme+e t< menaxhimit sh<net<sor .< ka p<r .<llim -+o"<limin e praktika+e t<
nr#shueshm<ris< he p<rmir<simin e "0en0es sh<net<sore( P<rmir<simi i
uh<-ime+e t< ba-ohet kr#esisht n< p<rorimin e t< h<na+e t< sakta n"a literatura
ek-istuese, si ba-< p<r materiale k<shilluese, he 0o n< opinionet e specialist<+e t<
+ecant<(
7

H
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
failure mode and effects
analysis
Albanian; anali-< e forma+e he e
efekte+e t<
<shtimit 6A*E19
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim(
gabim g!y"imi(
sh"ar!e g!uhe(
lapsus(
tregues i prioritetit t6 ris"ut
2
anali0/ e forma*e dhe e efe-te*e t/ d/(htimit #AFED&3 n0< meto< e +ler<simit t<
riskut e ba-uar n< anali-<n e n0<koh<shme t< forma+e t< <shtimit, paso0a+e t< t#re, si
he t< faktor<+e t< lihur me to( 30o meto< sistematike p<roret p<r t< ientifikuar
he paranaluar problemet e proukte+e he t< procese+e p<rpara se ato t< nohin(
Ek-isto0n< metoa t< t0era t< +ler<simit t< riskut .< p<rorin meto<n e
<shtimit 6siB 0an<; ? rrug< t< ndryshme $< n!< proces ose n<n proces
mund t< mos !ap< re0ultatet e parashi"uara@
:
9, t< tilla si ;
! anali-a e m<n#r<s s< <shtimit 6AM19 ? .< uke ek-aminuar n0< proukt
ose sistem arrin t< ientifiko0< t< "0itha rru"<t e munshme t< <shtimit@
:
,
! m<n#ra e <shtimit, efekti he anali-a e riskut 6M1EA$9 ? n0< rru"<
sistematike e ek-aminimit t< n0< plani t< arhsh<m p<r rru"<t e munshme
n< t< cilat <shtimi mun t< noh<( A0o supo-on se sao t<
mir<informuar he t< ku0essh<m t< 0en< n0ere-it, "abimet o t< nohin
n< isa situata he ma0e mun t< 0en< t< munsh<m t< nohin(@
2:

forcing function
Albanian; kufi-ime t< s0ell0es
shih "0ithashtu ;
"ufi0im
2 2
-ufi0ime t/ ('ell'e(3 iBka .< paranalon +a-him<sin< e s0ell0es erisa problemi t<
0et< rre"ulluar,
A'
p<rcakton +eBorit< .< e b<0n< t< pamunur kr#er0en e n0< akti specifik
t< "abuar
p(sh( uke p<rorur shirin"a orale, p<r o-a barnash t< l<n"ta, t< cilat
merren n"a "o0a, .< nuk p<rshtaten me "#pin IE, n< t< cilin "0ilp<rat nuk
mun t< lihenC he m<n#ra e fut0es s< t< h<na+e n< kompiuter e cila
mun t< p<roret p<r t< ?et#ruar@ m0ekun t< p<rshkrua0< n< recet<
proukte t< stanari-uara(
:

/arm
AlbanianC <mtim
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme(
ng!ar!e e padshirurshme $ lidhet
me
prdorimin e barnae(
!atrog!en
2
d/mtim3 n0< p<rke.<sim i p<rkohshem ose i p<rhersh<m i funksione+e fi-ike,
emocionale ose psikolo"0ike, ose t< struktur<s s< n0< trupi heDose hemb0e .< +i0n< si
re-ultat i n0< n<rh#r0e t< ne+o0shme(
:7
&inonime; smund!e !atrog!ene( dmtim !atrog!en
high'alert medicines
Albanian; barna me risk t< lart<
2
barna me ri(- t/ lart/3 barna .< shfa.in n0< risk t< shtuar t< shkaktimit t< n0< <mtimi
serio- t< t< s<murit kur ato p<roren "abimisht( 4on<se, "abimet mun apo nuk
mun t< 0en< t< -akonshme me k<to barna, paso0at e n0< "abimi me k<to barna 0an<
rr<nuese p<r t< s<murin(
>:
Nista e barna+e me risk t< lart< <sht< e "atshme n< )ebsite!in e
m<posht<m; http;DD)))(ismp(or"DM&AarticlesDhi"halert(htm
human factors
Albanian; faktor n0er<-or
2 2
fa-tor n'er/0or3 stuimi i marr<h<nie+e n<rm0et n0er<-+e, m0ete+e .< ato p<rorin,
m0eisit n< t< cilin ato puno0n< he 0eto0n<, he planifikimit t< procese+e t<
efekteshme t< p<r.enruar n< faktorin n0er<-or p<r t< p<rmir<suar si"urin< he
pa<mshm<rin<(
=>,=7
G
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
=atrogenic
Albanian; 0atro"0en
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme(
rre0i"
2
'atrog'en3 9( non0< "0en0e e pa<shirueshme e n0< t < s<muri .< shfa.et si paso0< e
tra0timit n"a n0< m0ek 6ose punon0<s t0et<r sh<net<sor9( :( Nihur me non0< s<mun0e
ose <mtim .< ka arhur si paso0< e non0< proceure, m0ekimi, ose t< non0< elementi
t0et<r t< ku0esit sh<net<sor(
2:
s<mun0e 0atro"0ene; ? ndon!< s<mund!e $< rr!edh nga n!< procedur<
diagnosti"e pre! ndon!< forme t< m!e"imit%@
='
<mtim 0atro"0en; ? d<mtime me pre!ardh!e ose t< sh"a"tuara nga n!<
m!e" ,,: gre$isht do t6 thot6 m!e"# .( $< p<rfshi!n< d<mtime
padash!e ose t< paneo!shme( ose ua!t!e $< i!n< si re0ultat i mena4himit
t< "u!desit sh<ndet<sor( du"e p<rfshir< edhe problemet $< rr!edhin nga
eprimet e 0batimit ose t< mos0batimit%#
7

incident
Albanian; incient
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme
2
incident3 n0< n"0ar0e ose rrethan< e cila mun t< ket<, ose t< Bo0e n< n0< <mtim t< pa
menuar heDose t< pa.<llimsh<m na0 n0< personi, heDose pak<na.esi, humb0e ose
<m(
H, =G
4e Mbret<rin< e 2ashkuar 4H& 4ational Patient &afet# A"enc# 6A"0encia
3omb<tare p<r &i"urin< e t< &<murit ! A3&&9 p<rkufi-on shpreh0en ?incient t<
si"uris< s< t< s<murit ? si n0< ? incient t< pa.<llimt< ose t< papritur .< mun t< ket<
Buar ose t< Bo0e n< <mtim t< n0< ose m< shum< t< t< s<mur<+e .< p<rfito0n< n"a
foni i sh<rbimit sh<net<sor t< 4H& 6&istemit 3omb<tar &h/net<sor ! &3&9(
:H
&!< incident $< p<rfshin ndon!< parregullsi n< procesin e p<rdorimit t<
barnae% 1i mund t< p<rfa$<so!< n!< &PPB( mund<si p<r &PPB( gabim n<
dh<nien e m!e"imit( ose asn!<r<n nga "<to' n< thelb ai <sht< n!< term
g!ith<p<rfshir<s# p<r t< em<rtuar di2"a p<rpara se t< !et< "lasifi"uar#
:A

!ust culture
Albanian; kultur< e p<r"0e"0<sis<
shih "0ithashtu ;
edu"at e puns
2
-ultur/ e )/rg'eg'/(i(/3 <sht< n0< element k#B i kultur<s s< si"uris<(
7
40< kultur<
p<r"0e"0/sie bashk/renon p<r"0e"0<sin< profesionale he ne+o0<n p<r t< kri0uar n0<
m0eis t< si"urt< p<r t< raportuar "abimet n< m0ekimC k<rkon t< balanco0< ne+o0<n p<r
t< m<suar n"a "abimet, si he ne+o0at p<r t< marr< masa isiplinore(
:2
Ars#e0a ishte e para .< sa0oi termin ? kultur< e p<r"0e"0<sis<@ e cila si"uron
n0< alternati+< t< re0t< he t< fr#tshme na0 # ska0e+e t< n<shkimit ose
t< fa0/sis< O kultur<s s< lir<(@ ?u"e "ri!uar "ulturn e prg!eg!sis @ a!o
mund t< $uhet edhe besim i p<rg!eg!<sis<' <sht< hapi i par< "riti" n<
pro!e"timin e marr<dh<niee sho$6rore t< edu"at<s s< siguris<%,-.
"ultura e prg!eg!sis p<rb<n fa"torin p<rca"tues endimtar n< n!<
miratim "ole"ti dhe n< "uptimin e $art< te dallimit n<p<rm!et s!ell!es s<
pranuar dhe asa! t< papranuar%@
=0
Marx ka -"0eruar konceptin m< te0 he
si"uron uh<-ime p<r institucionet e ku0esit sh<net<sor(
:2
lapse
Albanian; lapsus
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim(
gabim g!y"imi(
sh"ar!e go!e
2 2
la)(u(3 "abime .< nohin si re-ultat i isa <shtime+e n< -batim heDose n< fa-<n e
memori-imit t< n0< +ar"u +eprimesh, 6P9, .< kan< t< b<0n< me harresa, .< nuk
manifestohen omososhm<risht n< s0ell0en konkrete he p<r t< cilat <sht< i
+et<i0sh<m +et<m personi .< i p<son ato,
A'
n"0ar0e t< brenshme .< -akonisht kan<
t< b<0n< me harresa(
AH
>0
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
latent ,error( conditions.
Albanian; "abime t< fshehta
shih "0ithashtu ;
anali0 e sh"a$ee thelbsore(
fa"tor n!er0or
2 2
gabime t/ f(hehta3 "abime n< planifikim, or"ani-im, tra0nim ose sh<rbim .< Bo0n< n<
"abime t< operuesit( Ato mun t< 0en< n< "0en0e t< paukshme 6t< pakonstatueshme9
n< sistem p<r periuha t< "0ata kohe(
2',=G
Ato p<rfa.<so0n< shka.et themelore t<
n"0ar0e+e t< pa<shirueshme(
-u(hte t/ f(hehta3 +i0n< si paso0< e +enime+e t< pro0ektues+e, n<rtues+e,
p<rpilues+e t< proceura+e he re0tues+e t< ni+ele+e m< t< larta( 3ushtet e fshehta
mun t< mbeten t< f0etura 6pashfa.ura9 brena sistemit p<r shum< +0et, p<rpara se ato
t< kombinohen me <shtime konkrete he me shka.e lokale p<r t< kri0uar mun<sin<
e aksiente+e( 4r#she n"a <shtimet konkrete, kushtet e fshehta mun t< -bulohen
he t< korri"0ohen p<rpara se sa t< noh< n0< n"0ar0e e pa<shirueshme( T< kuptuarit
e k<ti0 fakti b<n t< munur menaxhimin proakti+ n< +en t< ati0 reakti+ t< riskut(
AG
&inonim; d<shtime t< fshehta
%abimet e fshehta 0an< p<rshkruar si ?gabime $< priten t< ng!a!n<#
2G
?*ushtet e fshehta !an< patog!en<t re0ident<# t< pashmangsh<m brenda
sistemit% 1ta lindin nga endimet e marra nga pro!e"tuesit( nd<rtuesit(
p<rpiluesit e procedurae( dhe dre!tuesit e nielee t< larta% Aendime t<
tilla mund t< !en< t< gabuara( paar<sisht se nu" duhet t< !en< t< tilla% T<
g!ith< "<to endime strateg!i"e "a mund<si $< t< fusin patog!en< n<
sistem% *ushtet e fshehta "an< dy llo!e efe"tesh t< pad<shirueshme: ato
mund t< "thehen n< "ushte $ sh"a"to!n gabime brenda endit "on"ret
t< pun<s ,p%sh% mungesa e "oh<s( mungesa e n!er<0e p<r t< "ryer
pun<n( pa!is!e t< pam!aftueshme( lodh!e dhe munges< pro!e. si dhe
mund t< "ri!o!n< boshll$e $< nu" mbushen leht ose dobsi n
stru"turat mbro!tse , alarme t paba0uara dhe tregues t paba0uar(
procedura $ nu" mund t punohen( mangsi n pro!e"tim dhe n 0batim
et!.% *ushtet e fshehta' si2 sug!eron et termi' mund t mbeten t
pashprehura ose t f!etura brenda sistemit pr shum !et( prpara se t
"ombinohen me dshtime eprimesh dhe sh"a$e lo"ale pr t "ri!uar n!
mundsi a"sidenti% &dryshe nga dshtimet e eprimee( format specifi"e
t t cilae shpesh sht shtir t parashi"ohen( "ushtet e fshehta
mund t identii"ohen dhe t "orrig!ohen prpara se t ndodh n! ng!ar!e
e padshirueshme% T "uptuarit e "sa! 2on n mena4himin proa"ti dhe
!orea"ti t ris"ut#
AG

mandatory reporting
Albanian; raportim i et#ruar
2
ra)ortim i det5ruar3 ato sisteme raportimesh t< si"uris< s< t< s<murit t< cil<t n< ba-< t<
le"0islacionit heDose rre"ullore+e n< fu.i k<rko0n< raportimin e n"0ar0e+e specifike t<
pa<shirueshme(
7

medication error
Albanian; "abime .< lihen me
barin
2
gabime +/ lidhen me barin3 non0< shman"ie n"a stanaret e -akonshme t<
ku0esit t< p<rshtatsh<m p<r koh<n e m0ekimit me barna t< t< s<murit( 40< "abim i till<
nuk <sht< i .<llimsh<m, ose <shtim akti+iteti .< lihet me sistemin e m0ekimit t<
p<rorur, i cili mun t< 0et< shkaku i n0< risku, ose i n0< n"0ar0e0e t< pa<shirueshme .<
prek t< s<murin( 4isur n"a p<rkufi-imi, n0< "abim i till< <sht< i paranaluesh<m, p<r
ars#e se ek-isto0n< t< h<na se Bfar< i <sht< b<r< he Bfar< nuk i <sht< b<r< t<
s<murit "0at< m0ekimit( 40< "abim n< barna mun t< prek< n0< ose isa stae t<
sistemit t< p<rorur t< barna+e, t< tilla si; p<r-"0eh0en e barit, porosin<, shp<rnar0en,
proceur<n e miratuar, p<r"atit0en, rua0t0en, h<nien, p<rorimin, monitorimin e
m0ekimit he informacionin, por he ato me t< cilat ai lihet, t< tilla si; komunikimin he
transkriptimin(
22

gabime +/ lidhen me barin3 ? ndon! ng!ar!e e pashmangshme $ mund
t sh"a"tohet ose t 2o! n prdorim !o t prshtatshm t barit( ose
dmtim t t smurit "ur bari sht nn "ontrollin e punon!se t
"u!desit shndetsor( t smurit ose t prdoruesit% &g!ar!e t tilla mund
t "en lidh!e me pra"ti"at profesionale( produ"tet e "u!desit shndetsor(
procedura dhe metoda organi0imi ( $ prfshi!n prsh"rimin
,receten.(urdhrin e transmetimit ,porosin.( eti"etimin e produ"tit(
pa"etimin( dhe nomen"laturn( lndt prberse( prgatit!en(
shprndar!en( dhnien( edu"imin( monitorimin dhe prdorimin#
:7
; Mesa du"et( problemet e pashmangshme $ lidhen me barnat ,PBB.
nu" !an t prfshira#
2>
medication safety
Albanian; si"uri e p<rorimit t<
barna+e
shih "0ithashtu ;
siguri e t smurit(
farma"oig!ilenc6
2
(iguri e )/rdorimit t/ barna*e3 mosshfa.0a e <mtime+e aksientale "0at< p<rorimit
t< barna+eC +eprimtari p<r t< mos le0uar, paranaluar, ose korri"0uar n"0ar0et e
pa<shirueshme t< barna+e, t< cilat mun t< shkaktohen n"a p<rorimi i t#re(
:
>>
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
medication use system
Albanian; sistem i p<rorimit t<
barna+e
shih "0ithashtu ;
proces(
sistem
2
(i(tem i )/rdorimit t/ barna*e3 n0< kombinim procesesh t< n<r+arura .< na0n<
.<llimin e p<rbashk<t t< n0< m0ekimi t< si"urt< me barna, t< obishme, t<
p<rshtatshme he t< efektshme( Proceurat kr#esore n< sistemin e p<rorimit t<
barna+e 0an<; -"0eh0a he prokurimi, rua0t0a, formulimi i receta+e, transkribimi he
+erifikimiDkontrolli, p<r"atit0a, shp<rnar0a he monitorimi(
:,>:,2:,A2
?Prdorimi i barnae brenda n! institucioni t "u!desit shndetsor mund
t "onsiderohet si n! sistem me disa prbrs dhe procese( t dhna n
hyr!e ,informacion pr t smurin dhe m!e"imin me barna( dhe t dhna
n dal!e ,i efe"tshm dhe tra!tim i sigurt.% ?hnia e barnae t t
smuree paarsisht nga m!edisi aret nga n! arg procesesh%%%%@
:=
?2do proces madhor n sistemin e prdorimit t barnae @ procedura(
prsh"rimi( dhnia dhe prdorimi "a mundsi t e2anta pr gabime%@
:>
P<r kartelat .< p<rshkrua0n< sistemin e p<rorimit t< barna+e, shih k<to
referenca(
:, >:, 2:, A2
mista"e
Albanian; "abim "0#kimi
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim(
sh"ar!e go!e(
lapsus
2 2
gabim g'5-imi3 man"<si ose "abim n< proceset eukti+e he t< "0#kimit .< lihet
me p<r-"0eh0en e n0< ob0ekti+i, ose n< specifikimin e m0ete+e per ta arritur at<,
pa+ar<sisht n"a fakti .< +eprimet .< urh<ron a0o skem< +enimmarr0e0e ecin apo nuk
ecin sipas planitC
A'
"abime t< +et<i0shme .< p<rfshi0n< gabime $< lidhen me rregullat,
.< nohin "0at< -"0ih0es s< probleme+e kur p<r-"0ihet n0< rre"ull i "abuar, he
gabime t lidhura me n!ohurit .< nohin p<r shkak t< mun"es<s s< n0ohuri+e ose t<
ke.interpretimit t< problemit(
2H
?Aeprimi mund t prputhet "re!tsisht me planin( por plani sht i
pam!aftueshm pr t arritur re0ultatet e parashi"uara%@
AH

monitoring error
Albanian; "abime n< monitorim
2
gabime n/ monitorim3 "abim n< kontrollin e n0< re"0imi t< imponuar p<r -bulimin e
probleme+e, ose pamun<si n< p<rorimin e re0t< t< t< h<na+e klinike, ose
laboratorike p<r +ler<simin me kompetenc< t< rea"imit t< t< s<murit na0 m0ekimit t<
h<n<(
:>

40< "abim "0at< pun<s me sistemin e p<rorimit t< barna+e; p<rkufi-imi
he llo0i uhet t< p<rcaktohen m< n< holl<si n< taksonomin< e "abime+e
t< m0ekimit(
negligence
Albanian; ne"li-henc<
Q
negli0henc/3 kur ku0esi sh<net<sor nuk arrin stanaret, t< cilat n< m<n#r< t<
ars#eshme, priten n"a n0< m0ek me kualifikim mesatar, p<r t< s<murin n< f0al<(
:
nosocomial
Albanian; no-okomial
Q
no0o-omial3 .< lihem me, ose me pre0arh0e n"a n0< .en<r e ku0esit sh<net<sor(
H &inonim; ku0es sh<net<sor i fituar
obseration method
Albanian; meto< +ro0timi
Q
metod/ *ro'timi3 n0< meto< akti+e p<r sur+e0imin e "abime+e n< t< cil<n n0< person i
tra0nuar +ro0ton h<nien e barna+e "0at< pikut t< n"arkes<s s< pun<s he krahason
re-ultatet e +ro0time+e me t< h<nat ori"0inale t< p<rshkruara n< kartel<n e t< s<murit
me .<llim .< t< -bulo0< "abimet n< m0ekimin me barna he t< informo0< p<rse ato
nohin
>,2:

opportunity for error
Albanian; mun<si p<r "abim
Q
mund/(i )/r gabim ; non0< o-< e h<n< shtes<, non0< o-< e porositur, por e
he.ur( Rsht< n0<sia themelore e "rumbullimit t< t< h<na+e n< stuimet p<r "abimet
n< m0ekimin me barna .< paranalon mas<n e "abimit t< te0kalo0< >00S(
>,G
>2
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
patient safety
Albanian; si"uri e t< s<murit
shih "0ithashtu ;
siguri e prdorimit t barnae
Q
(iguri e t, (,murit3 mosshfa.0a e <mtime+e aksientale "0at< p<rorimit t< barna+eC
+eprimtari p<r t< mos le0uar, paranaluar, ose korri"0uar re-ultatet e pa<shirueshme
t< cilat mun t< shkaktohen n"a h<nia e ku0esit sh<net<sor(
:,2'(=0
(iguri e t, (,murit3 ientifikimi, anali-a he menaxhimi i ris.e+e he inciente+e .<
lihen me t/ s/murin, me .<llim .< ku0esi p<r t/ s/murin t< 0et< sa m< i mah he t<
-+o"l/ohen <met na0 t/ s/mur/+e(
7,:H

? Siguria( fusha e par< e cil<sis<( "a lidh!e me m6n!animin e plot< nga
d<mtimet a"sidentale%# *y p<r"ufi0im <sht< shpallur nga perspe"tiat e t6
s6murit%# 63ohn, 20009
pharmacoigilance
Albanian; farmako+i"0ilenc<
shih "0ithashtu ;
efe"t i pad6shiruesh6m i barit
2
farma-o*ig'ilenc/3 shkenca he +eprimtarit< ./ lihen me -bulimin, +ler<simin,
kuptimin he paranalimin e efekte+e t< pa<shirueshme t< barna+e(6JH5, 20029
potential aderse drug eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme e
munshme ./ lihet me
barnat
shih "0ithashtu ;
sh6rim
2
ng'ar'e e )ad/(hirue(hme e mund(hme +, lidhet me barnat3 n0< "abim serio-
"0at/ m0ekimit me barna .< ka mun<si t< shkakto0< n0< n"0ar0e t< pa<shirueshme,
por .< nuk arrin ta shkakto0e at<, ose p<r fat ose p<r ars#e se i paraprihet he
korri"0ohet( Ek-aminimi i n"0ar0e+e t< pa<shirueshme t< munshme ./ lihen me
barnat nihmon p/r t/ -buluar, si n< rastet kur sistemi "abon, ashtu he n< rastet kur
ai funksionon 6paraprir0a9(
:>,:A

&inonimet; godit!e e sa"t< pa $<llim( shp<tim p<r n!< $ime(
=G

incident sigurie i shmangsh6m i t6 s6murit
shp<tim p<r n0< .ime; ?n! ng!ar!e ose rrethan $ mund t 2o! n n!
ng!ar!e t padshirueshme( por $ nu" ndodh( ose pre! fatit ,shansit. ose
nga ndrhyr!et n "oh%@
7
"oit0e e sakt< pa .<llim; ?n! a"t i "ryer!es ose i mos"ryer!es $ mund t
dmtonte t6 s6murin( por $ nu" ndodh( pra si re0ultat i fatit ,shansit.
,p%sh% C s6muri merr n! bar t "und6rindi"uar( por nu" pson n! rea"sion
t padshirueshm t6 shmangsh6m ,p%sh% ishte prsh"ruar n! te!"alim
do0e de"!eprurse( por n! infermiere e 0buloi eprimin e gabuar para
dhnies s m!e"imit.( ose lehtsimi p%sh% n! te!"alim do0e de"!eprurse
u muar nga C s6muri( por u 0bulua shpe!t dhe u "undreprua me n!
antidot.% ?
7

potential error
Albanian; "abim i munsh<m
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim i fsheht6
2 2
gabim i mund(h/m3 rrethana ose n"0ar0e .< kan< mun<si t< shkakto0n< "abim
preparation error
Albanian; "abim n< p<r"atit0e
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabime $ lidhen me barin
2
gabim n/ )/rgatit'e3 Bfar<o llo0i "abimi ./ lihet me m0ekimin me barna, i b/r0es ose
i mosb/r0es, .< shfa.et ne fa-<n e p<r"atit0es kur bari uhet t< p<r"atitet n"a n0<
farmacist, n0< infermier, ose +et< i s/muri, apo n0< ku0estar(
&inonim; gabim n6 p6rftim
40< "abim "0at< pun<s me sistemin e p<rorimit t< barna+e; p<rkufi-imi
he llo0i uhet t< p<rcaktohen m< n< holl<si n< taksonomin< e "abime+e t<
m0ekimit(
P<r sh<mbull n0< "abim n< p<r"atit0e IE <sht< ? n! shmangie n procesin
real t prgatit!es nga prsh"rimi i hollsishm n recet i emrtimit =A
specifi" t t6 s6murit( ose politi"at spitalore dhe procedurat pr prgatit!en
=A%#
8

>:
>A
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
prescribing error
Albanian; "abim n< recet<
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabime $ lidhen me barin
2 2
gabim n/ recet/: n0< "abim m0ekimi me barna .< shfa.et "0at< formulimit t< recet<s
p<r n0< bar, .< +ler<sohet n"a non0< shman"ie e pa.<llimshme n"a kompetencat
stanare, t< tilla, si; n0ohurit< shkencore aktuale, praktikat e p<rshtatshme t< n0ohura
-akonisht, raportet p/rmblehes t/ karakteristika+e t/ prouktit farmaceutik, ose
referenca t< ba-uara n< uh/-ues( 40< "abim n< recet< mun t< ket< lih0e me;
-"0eh0en e barit 6 n< pa0tim me inikimet, kun<rinikimet, n0oh0en e aler"0i+e he
karakteristikat e t/ s/murit, bashk<+eprimet e Bfar<o nat#re me terapin< ek-istuese,
he faktor< t< t0er<9 o-<n, p<r.enrimin, re"0imin e barit, form<n farmaceutike, rru"<n
e marr0es, koh<-"0at0en e m0ekimit, he uh<-imet e p<rorimitC por "0ithashtu
mosp<rfshir0a n< recet< e non0< bari .< ne+o0itet p<r m0ekimin e n0< patolo"0ie
paraprakisht t< ia"nostikuar! ose .< uhet shman"ur O ose p<r t< paranaluar efektet
e pa<shirueshme t< barna+e t< t0era(
22
40< "abim "0at< pun<s me sistemin e p<rorimit t< barna+e; p<rkufi-imi
he llo0i uhet t< p<rcaktohen m< n< holl<si n< taksonomin< e "abime+e
t< m0ekimit(
&! gabim n prsh"rimin e barnae ,recet. me "uptim "lini" ndodh si
re0ultat i n! recete t dhn ose g!at procesit t lshimit t recets(
ndodh n mnyr t pa$llimt ,D. n! ul!e e rendsishme e mund6sis6 $
m!e"imi t !et i efe"tsh6m dhe n "ohn e duhur ose ,8. n! rrit!e e ris"ut
t dmit "ur "rahasohet me pra"ti"n e pranuar n prg!ithsi%?
>H
preentable aderse eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme e
shman"shme
shih "0ithashtu ;
ng!ar!e e padshirureshme $
lidhet me
prdorimin e barnae(
ng!ar!e e padshirureshme e
pashmangshme $ lidhet me
prdorimin e barnae
2 2
e (hmang(hme: .< mun t< shman"et n< rrethana t< p<rshtatshme(
H
ng'ar'e e )ad/(h<rue(hme e (hmang(hme: n"0ar0e e pa<shTrueshme .< nuk o t<
shfa.e0 n<se T s/muri o t< kishte pasur stanaret e -akonshme normale t< ku0esit
n< koh<n e stuimit,
::
e shkaktuar n"a n0< "abim ose n0< efekt i n0< llo0i t0et<r i
sistemit ose pa0is0e+e
=G
preentable aderse drug
eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme n"a barnat
he e shman"shme
shih "0ithashtu;
ng!ar!e e padshirureshme $
lidhet me
prdorimin e barnae(
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme nga
barnat dhe e
pashmangshme
2
ng'ar'e e )ad/(h<rue(hme nga barnat dhe e (hmang(hme3 non0< n"0ar0e e
pa<shTrueshme pre0 bana+e .< nuk o t< nohte n<se T s/muri o t< kish pasur
stanaret e -akonshme normale t< ku0esit p<r koh<n kur k0o n"0ar0e nohi, k<shtu
.< <sht< e lihur me n0< "abim n/ m0ekim(
22
ng'ar'e e )ad/(hirue(hme nga barnat dhe e (hmang(hme3 n0< n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme n"a barnat e lihur me n0< "abim m0ekimi
=2

ndon! ng!ar!e e padshCrueshme nga barnat pr"atse nda! n! gabimi(
ose e shmangshme nga ndon! m!et $6 a"tualisht 6sht6 i
disponueshm#
DE
>A
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
preentability
Albanian; paranalueshm<ri
Q Q
)arandalue(hm/ri; p<rfshin metoat e n0ohura .< p<roren p<r m/n0animin e n0<
<mtimi t< h<n<, he .< n0< n"0ar0e e pa<shirueshme re-ulton n"a paaft<sia p<r t8i
-batuar ato n0ohuri(
27
)arandalim3 p/rnr#shim i sistemit ose p<rorimi i ti0 me .<llim .< t< -+o"<lohet
mun/sia e n0< n"0ar0e t< pa<shirueshme he p<r tu rikth#er n< n0< ni+el risku t<
pranuesh<mC Bo m0et .< ka p<r .<llim -+o"<limin e shpesht<sis< he t< r/nes/s s<
ris.e+e(
22

? ?isa ng!ar!e t padshCrueshme !an t pashmangshme: T6 s6mur6t dhe
"u!destart e tyre disa her !an t detyruar $ n mnyr t
ndrg!eg!shme t prano!n paso!at dytsore pr t arritur n! $llim m t
rndsishm tra!timi parsor% *oncepti i parandalueshmris i e2on
gabimet n dor0im pre! paso!ae t n!ohura( por t pashmangshme t
tra!timit # 6Aspen, 200A, >G=9
Process
Albanian; proces
shih "0ithashtu ;
sistem i prdorimit t barnae(
sistem
2
)roce(3 n0< +ar" +eprimesh .< n<rmerren p<r t< arritur n0< p<rfunim t< .art<( 2ari i
p/rshkruar n< recet< ose bari .< p/roret n"a i s/muri p/rb/0n/ procese(
:>


rec"lessness
Albanian; shku0es0e
shih "0ithashtu ;
"ultur e prg!eg!sis(
sh"el!e
2
(h-u'de('e3 >9 Personi e i se ka n0e risk, <sht< i "atsh<m p<r ta marr< mbi +ete at<
risk, he e merr me paramenim( 29 Personi kr#en n0< +eprim .< shkakton n0< risk t<
uksh<m, he kur e kr#en at< +eprim, nuk ka menuar ehe p<r mun<sin< e n0< risku
t< till<, he pasi ka kuptuar se n0< risk i till< ek-iston, e merr mbi +ete at<(
:H

# Pema e Aendimee pr =ncidentet 6PEI9 e A3&&, <sht< ba-uar n< n0<
moel t< -h+illuar n"a Profesor U( $eason p<r inustrin< e a+iacionit,
<sht< n0< m0et n/+eprues ba-uar n< )eb p<r menaxher<t e &istemit
3omb/tar &h/net/sor he or"ani-atat .< merren me stafin .< <sht<
p<rfshir< n< n0< incient( A0o nihmon p<r t< ientifikuar n<se +eprimet e
ini+ie+e kan< .<n< p<r shkak t< <shtimit t< sisteme+e ose n<se kan<
.<n< me ash0e, e pasi"urt<( ose a"t "riminal% M0eti m<n0anon p#et0et; ?
3ush <sht< fa0tori8 he ?P<rse ini+ii +eproi n< k<t< m<n#r<V@
:H
recoery
Albanian; sh<rim
shih "0ithashtu ;
shp<tim p<r n!< $ime,
godit!e e sa"t< pa $<llim(
ng!ar!e e padshirueshme e
mundshme $6 lidhet me barnat
2 2
(h/rim3 n0< bashk<si faktor<sh n0er<-or< 0o-#rtar/ .< n0< situate risku t< -bulohet,
kuptohet he nre.et n< koh<, uke kufi-uar k<shtu +ar"un e n"0ar0e+e n< n0< re-ultat
?pran< "abimit@, uke mos e le0uar at< t< -h+illohet m< te0 n< n0< n"0ar0e t<
pa<shirueshme t< munshme(
7
fa-tor/ leht/(ue(3 isa faktor<, +eprues apo 0o+eprues si shansi ose fati, mun t<
leht<so0n< ose minimi-o0n< n0< p<rfunim t< ke.(
:H
&inonim; fa"tort lehtsues
>=
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
ris" assessment
Albanian; +ler<sim i riskut
Q
*ler/(im i ri(-ut; procesi .< nihmon institucionet p<r t< kuptuar iapa-onin ose
ris.et me t< cilat ato p<rballen, .oft< me rru"< t< brenshme, .oft< me rru"< t<
0ashtme, ni+eli he aft<sia p<r t< kontrolluar k<to ris.e, mun<sia e noh0es he
nikimi i t#re i munsh<m( P<rfshin n0< p<r-ier0e ris.esh t< matshme he "0#kimesh
p<r +ler<simin e t#re, +ler<simin he krahasimin e ris.e+e me p<rfitimet, si he
+ler<simin e t#re n< lih0e me koston(
:H
ris" management
Albanian; menaxhim i riskut
Q
mena=him i ri(-ut3 +eprimtari klinike he aministrati+e t< n<rmarra p<r t<
ientifikuar, +ler<suar, he -+o"<luar riskun e <mtimit t< t/ s/mur/+e, stafit, +i-itor<+e
he riskun e humb0e+e t< +et< institucionit(
2:
mena=him i ri(-ut3 ientifikimi, +ler<simi, anali-imi, kuptimi he interpretimi i
probleme+e t< riskut me .<llim .< t< arrihet n0< baraspesh/ optimale e riskut,
p<rfitime+e he kostos(
:H
root cause analysis
Albanian; anali-< e shka.e+e
thelb<sore
shih "0ithashtu;
sh"a"(
gabime t fshehta
Q Q
anali0/ e (h-a+e*e thelb/(ore3 n0< teknik< sistematike k/rkimi .< sheh p<rte0
ini+i<+e t< interesuar he k<rkon t< kuptohen shka.et themelore he konteksti
m0eisor n< t< cilin nohi incienti(
:H
( Anali-a p<r.enrohet n< ientifikimin e kushte+e
t< fshehta .< shkakto0n< nr#shimet n< ek-ekutimin he n< -h+illimin e
rekomanime+e p<r t< p<rmir<suar -+o"<limin e mun<sise s< n0< rishfa.0e0e(
>=,=7
4< m<n#r< tipike, anali-a p<r.enrohet kr#esisht n< sistemet he
proceset, he 0o n< performanc<n ini+iuale(
7

sentinel eent
Albanian; n"0ar0e sentinel
2 2
ng'ar'e (entinel3 n0< n"0ar0e e paparashikuar .< p<fshin +ek0en ose <mtime serio-e
fi-ike ose psikolo"0ike, ose riskun e t#re( 1<mtimi serio- p<rfshin humb0en e
"0#mt#r<+e, ose funksionin e t#re( &hpreh0a Lose riskun e t#re@ p<rfshin non0<
nr#shim procesi, rishfa.0a e t< cilit mun t< shkakto0< n0< re-ultat t< pa<shiruesh<m
serio-( 3eto n"0ar0e 0an< .ua0tur ?sentinel@ p<r ars#e se ato sin0ali-o0n< ne+o0<n p<r
hetime t< men0<hershme he kun<r+eprim(
2:

Slip
Albanian; shkar0e "o0e
shih "0ithashtu ;
gabim(
gabim g!y"imi(
lapsus
2
(h-ar'e go'e3 "abim .< +0en si re-ultat i non0< /shtimi n/ kr#er0en heDose mos
rua0t0en e n0< +ar"u +eprimesh, 6P9 .< mun t< konsierohen si +eprime t<
paplanifikuara 6shkar0e t< "0uh<s, shkar0e t< pen<s, shkar0e t< +eprimit9(
A'
&hkar0et e
lihura me +eprime t< allueshme -akonisht 0an< t< sho.<ruara me mun"es< t<
+<m<n0es ose t< perceptimit(
AH

+an gabime n e"0e"utim $ du"en "ur "a ndrprer!e n rreg!imin e
ca"tuar t puns "u pr"u!des!a dei!ohet#
8F
System
Albanian; sistem
shih "0ithashtu ;
sistem i prdorimit t barnae(
proces
2
(i(tem3 n0< bashk<si elementesh t< n<r+arura .< bashk<+epro0n< p<r t< arritur n0<
.<llim t< p<rbashk<t( 3<to elemente mun t< 0en< n0er<-ore he 0o n0er<-ore 6pa0is0e,
teknolo"0i, et0(9
2',=G
>'
Termat
Dhe )/r-thimet
A R P $
P/r-ufi0imet
dhe referencat
1omentet
dhe (inonimet
unpreentable aderse drug
eent
AlbanianC n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme n"a barnat
he e pashman"shme
shih "0ithashtu ;
parandalueshmri
2
ng'ar'e e )ad/(hirue(hme e )a(hmang(hme3 n0< n"0ar0e e pa<shirueshme .<
re-ulton n"a n0< n/rlikim .< nuk mun t< shman"et me "0en0en e n0ohuri+e t<
sotme(
A=
ng'ar'e e )ade(hirue(hme nga barnat dhe e )a(hmang(hme3 n0< n"0ar0e e
pa<shirueshme n"a barnat .< nuk re-ulton pre0 non0< "abimi, por reflekton riskun e
+et<+eti0sh<m t< barit he nuk mun t< shman"et me "0en0en e n0ohuri+e t< sotme(
A>


?&g!ar!et e padshCrueshme e t pashmangshme nga barnat ,&PPB.
!an $ua!tur rea"sione t padshirueshme t barnae ,:PB.?
:D
Aiolation
Albanian; shkel0e
2
(h-el'e3 n0< shman"ie e +et<i0shme, por 0o omososhm<risht e .ortueshme!n"a
praktikat .< konsierohen t< ne+o0shme 6n"a pro0ektuesit, re0tuesit he a"0encit< e
stanari-imit9 p<r rua0t0en e +eprimtaris< s< si"uruar t< n0< sistemi me risk t<
munsh<m,
A'
.< ini+ii e +ler<son se k<rkohet n"a rre"ullat, ose .< e konsieron si t<
ne+o0sh<m apo t< k<shilluesh<m p<r arrit0en e ob0ekti+it t< uhur, uke respektuar
si"urin< e mir<mba0t0es he pun<n n< +a-him<si t< n0< pa0is0e apo sistemi(
=:
oluntary reporting
Albanian; raportim +ullnetar
2 2
ra)ortim *ullnetar3 ato sisteme raportimi n< t< cilat raportimi i n"0ar0e+e p<r si"urin< e
t/ s/murit <sht< +ullnetar 6nuk <sht< i et#ruesh<m9( P/r"0ith/sisht pranohen raportime
p<r t< "0itha llo0et e n"0ar0e+e(
7
Li(ta e Referenca*e
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2
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Am U Health!&#st Pharm >GGHC ==; >''( *i"ure >
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