Anda di halaman 1dari 24

MOS FET Model

sypeng@mail.ntust.edu.tw
2014/10/03
Class Hours Friday 1:30pm~2:45pm~break~2:55pm~4:10pm

Office HoursFriday 4:30pm ~ 6:30pm
Office: EE209
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 2
Outline
Review of MIS
Three-Terminal MOS Structure
Total charges
Charges in inversion
Threshold voltages
I-V in Four-Terminal MOS
General analysis
Simplified charge control model
Forward/Reverse currents
Weak inversion (diffusion currents)
Strong inversion (drift currents)
EKV Model for All Operation Regimes
Reference:
1. Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, by Tsividis/McAndrew
2. Enz, C. C.; Krummenacher, F.; Vittoz, E.A. (1995), "An Analytical MOS Transistor Model Valid in All Regions of
Operation and Dedicated to Low-Voltage and Low-Current Applications", Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal
Processing Journal on Low-Voltage and Low-Power Design 8: 83114, July 1995.
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 3
V
GB
- V
FB
Q
C
Inversion
Depletion Accumulation
+
B
2+
B
V
GB
- V
FB
+
S
Inversion Depletion
Accumulation
+
S
+
sa
slope=k
Flatband Voltage:
Accumulation:
Depletion:
Weak Inversion:
Strong Inversion:
Review of MIS
ox
MS FB
C
Q
V
0
=|
Gate
Metal
Oxide
Insulator
p-type
Semiconductor
Metal
Contact
body
(substrate, bulk)
V
GB
V
FB
=|
MS
-
Q
o
C
ox
Metal Insulator Semiconductor
E
F
E
V
E
i
E
C
q+
B
(q|
F
)
E
FM
|
MS
-
Q
o
C
ox
FB GB
V V < 0 >
C
Q 0 <
S

FB GB
V V > 0 < ~
B C
Q Q 0 >
S

FB GB
V V > 0 < ~
B C
Q Q
B S B
2 < <
FB GB
V V > 0 < ~
I C
Q Q
B S
2 >
Metal Insulator Semiconductor
E
F
E
V
E
i
E
C
q+
B
(q|
F
)
E
F
q+
s
V<0
q+
s
<0
Accumulation Region
Metal Insulator Semiconductor
E
F
E
V
E
i
E
C
q+
B
(q|
F
)
E
F
q+
s
V>0
0<q+
s
<q+
B
Depletion
Metal Insulator Semiconductor
E
F
E
V
E
i
E
C
q+
B
(q|
F
)
E
F
q+
s
V>0 q+
B
<q+
s
<2 q+
B
Weak Inversion
Metal Insulator Semiconductor
E
F
E
V
E
i
E
C
q+
B
(q|
F
)
E
F
q+
s
V>0
q+
s
>>2 q+
B
Strong Inversion
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 4
V
GB
- V
FB
Q
C
Inversion
Depletion Accumulation
+
B
2+
B
V
GB
- V
FB
+
S
Inversion Depletion
Accumulation
+
S
+
sa
slope=k
Review of MIS in Inversion
V
GB
and :
s

( )
s
U
T S FB
OX
S C
S FB GB
T
B s
e U V
C
Q
V V


+ + + = + =
2
) (
B B FB B GB TH
V V V 2 2 ) 2 ( + + ~ =
7 . 0
n
1

C C
C
dep ox
ox
~ =
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

GB
sa
V

k
Threshold voltage:
Sub-threshold slope:
,
2
1 n
sa

+ =
OX
A s
C
N qc

2
=
V
GB
Q
G
Q
C
C
ox
C
dep
C
gb
V
GB
V
GB
C
ox
V
GB
C
b
C
i
+
B 2+
B
+
S
C
i
C
C
dep
C
b
Strong
Inversion
Weak
Inversion Depletion
V
GB
C
gb
V
TH
V
FB
C
ox
C
b
Slow
Fast
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 5
3-Terminal MIS
Flatband & V
CB
=0
The barrier along the interface is |
bi
.
V
GB
=V
GB1
>V
FB
&V
CB
=0
The barrier along the interface is |
bi
-
1
.
V
GB
=V
GB1
>V
FB
&V
CB
>0
The barrier along the interface becomes larger than |
bi
-
1
.
The inversion electron becomes less
V
GB
=V
GB2
>V
GB1
&V
CB
>0
The barrier along the interface can be restored to |
bi
-
1
.




Metal
Contact
B
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
GB
=V
FB
p
|
bi
G
C
V
CB
=0
|
bi
x
E
C
Metal
Contact
B
V
GB
=V
GB1
>V
FB
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
CB
=0
p
|
bi
G
C

1
|
bi
x
E
C

s
=
1
Metal
Contact
B
V
GB
=V
GB1
>V
FB
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
CB
>0
|
bi
+V
CB
G
C
|
bi
x
E
C

s
=
1
V
CB
Metal
Contact
B
V
GB
=V
GB2
>V
GB1
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
CB
>0
|
bi
+V
CB
G
C
p

1
+V
CB
|
bi
x
E
C

s
=
1
V
CB
V
CB
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 6
3-Terminal MIS
Charge density in y direction:
T
CB B s
T
CB B s
T
B CB s
T
CB s
U
V
A
U
V
U
V
i
U
V
e N n
e p e n n
e n n
)] 2 ( [
surface
)] 2 ( [
0
) (
surface
) (
0 surface
+
+

~
= =
=

T
CB s Fp Fn surface i i
surface i i i Fp Fp Fn i Fn
U
V
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
E E
i
kT
E E
i
e n e e n n
e e e n e n n
) (
0
) ( ) (
0 surface
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
surface
,
, surface ,


= =
= =

kT
E E
i
i Fp
e n n
) (
0

=
y
E
Fp
E
V
E
i
E
C
+
s
E
Fn
+
B
E
i,surface
V
CB
T
T
CB
U
y
U
V y
e p y p
e n y n
) (
0
] ) ( [
0
) (
) (

=
=
Electron density is affected by V
CB
:
Hole density is unaffected:
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 7
Charges in 3-Terminal MIS
Poisson equation:
( )
s
c

= V = V V
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c

1 1
] ) ( [
0
) (
0 2
2
T
CB
T
U
V y
p
U
y
p
s
e n e p
q
y

c

( )
s p p
U U
V
T p
U
T p s s C
n p e e U n e U p q Q
T
s
T
CB
T
s
c

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

0 0 0 0
1 1 2 ) sgn(
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
s T
U
T
U
V
s T
U
T A s s C
U e U e U e U N q Q
T
s
T
CB B
T
s
c
) 2 (
2 ) sgn(
hole
contribution
(Accumulation)
electron
contribution
(Strong Inversion)
space-charge
contribution
(Depletion &
Weak Inversion)
V
GB
needs to fight against 2
B
+ V
CB
to generate
inversion electrons in 3-terminal MIS.
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 8
Charges in Inversion
T
CB B s
U
V
T s S FB
OX
S C
S FB GB
e U V
C
Q
V V
) 2 (
) (
+
+ + + = + =

T
CB B s
U
V
T s A s I B C
e U N q Q Q Q
) 2 (
2
+
+ = + =

c
Charge and :
s

s ox s A s B
C N q Q c = = 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
s
U
V
T s A s I
T
CB B s
e U N q Q c
) 2 (
2
V
GB
and : s

Strong Inversion:
CB B ox B
V C Q + = 2
( ) ( )
TH GC ox TB GB ox I
V V C V V C Q = =
Weak Inversion:
s ox B
C Q =
T
CB
T
T GB
T
CB
T
B GB sa
T
CB B GB sa
U
V
U
V V
T
sa
ox I
U
V
U
V
T
GB sa
A s U
V V
T
GB sa
A s
I
e e U C Q
e e U
V
N q
e U
V
N q
Q

+
~
= =
) (
2 ) ( ) 2 ( ) (
0
2
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
2
k

c
dependent
CB
V
dependent
GB
V
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 9
Threshold Voltage
( )
CB B CB B FB CB B GB TB
V V V V V V + + + + ~ + = 2 2 ) 2 (
Threshold voltage:
( )
CB T TB
CB T CB
B
T
B CB B CB B B FB TB
V V V
V V V V
V V V V
k


1
n
2
1
2 2 2 2
0
0 0
+ ~
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ~
+ + + + + ~
( )
B CB B T TH
CB TH TB
V V V
V V V
2 2
,
0
+ + =
+ =
B B FB T
V V 2 2
0
+ + =
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 10
4-Terminal MOS Transistor
The mobile electron density varies along the channel and depends on V
GB
,
V
SB
, and V
DB
.
If V
DB
>V
SB
, the energy barrier seen by electrons is dominated on the
source side.
Gradual Channel Approximation: E
x
<<E
y
B
V
GB
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
SB
G
S D
V
DB
x=0 x=L
x
x+Ax
n
+
p
|
bi
x
E
C
qV
DS
V
GB
=V
FB
, V
DS
=0
V
GB
>V
FB
, V
DS
=0
V
GB
>V
FB
, V
DS
>0
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 11
4-Terminal MOS Transistor
Drain current is composed of drift current and diffusion current.
) ( ) ( ) ( x I x I x I
diff drift
+ =
x
x Q W x x WQ x I
s
I I drift
c
c
= E =

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
x
x Q
U W
x
x WQ
D x I
I
T
I
n diff
c
c
=
c
c
=
) ( ) (
) (
I
Q
Q
T s s I
L
I
T
s
I
L
I
T
s
I
I
T
s
I
dQ U
L
W
d Q
L
W
I
I L dx
x
x Q
U
x
x Q W dx x I
x
x Q
U
x
x Q W x I
x
x Q
U W
x
x Q W x I
D I
S I
D s
S s
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
,
,
,
,
0 0
} }
} }
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=

Drift Current Diffusion Current


Courtesy of Prof. B. A. Minch
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 12
Transistor Current
Across All Regions
I
Q
Q
T s s I
dQ U
L
W
d Q
L
W
I
D I
S I
D s
S s
) (
,
,
,
,
} }
+ =

( )
( )
( )
s s FB GB ox
s ox s FB GB ox
B s FB GB ox I
V V C
C V V C
Q V V C Q

=
+ =
=


( )
| |
D s
S s
D s
S s
s s T ox
s s s TB GB ox
U C
L
W
V V C
L
W
I
,
,
,
,

3
2
2
1
2 1
2 3 2



+ +
(

=
T
CB B s
U
V
T s S FB GB
e U V V
) 2 ( +
+ + + =


( )
T
SB B S s
U
V
T S s FB GB SB GB S S
e U V V V V
) 2 (
, ,
,
,
+
+ =


( )
T
DB B D s
U
V
T D s FB GB DB GB D S
e U V V V V
) 2 (
, ,
,
,
+
+ =


) , ( ) , (
)] , ( ) , ( [ )] , ( ) , ( [
, , , ,
DB GB R SB GB F
DB GB diff R DB GB drift R SB GB diff F SB GB drift F
V V I V V I
V V I V V I V V I V V I I
=
+ + =
log (I)
V
GB
I
F
I
F,drift
I
F,diff
Weak
Inversion
Strong
Inversion
Moderate
Inversion
Need to use numerical methods to calculate
the exact I-V characteristics across all regions.
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 13
Simplified
Charge-Controlled Model
Linearized Q
B
w.r.t. :
s

s ox B
C Q =
Q
B
C
ox

s,0

se

s,L
( )
se s
se
se
ox
B
C
Q

+ ~
2
( )
se s
se
se
ox
B
C
Q

+ ~
2
s
ox
B
C
Q
=
( )
( )
( ) , ) (

se s se se FB GB ox
s ox s FB GB ox
B s FB GB ox I
V V C
C V V C
Q V V C Q
o

~
+ =
=
Linearized Q
I
w.r.t. :
s

o
1
2
1 ~ + =
se
ox
s
I
C
Q
=
c
c
o

I
Q
Q
T I
Q
Q
I
ox
I
Q
Q
T I
I
s
Q
Q
I
dQ U
L
W
dQ Q
C L
W
dQ U
L
W
dQ
Q
Q
L
W
I
D I
S I
D I
S I
D I
S I
D I
S I
1

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
} }
} }
+ =
+
c
c
=

S I T S I
ox
F
Q U
L
W
Q
C L
W
I
,
2
,

2
=
o

D I T D I
ox
R
Q U
L
W
Q
C L
W
I
,
2
,

2
=
o

I
drift
I
diff
I
drift
I
diff
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 14
Transistor Current
Decomposition
Transistor current can be decomposed of a forward
current and a reverse current.
The forward current only depends on V
GB
and V
SB
.
The reverse current only depends on V
GB
and V
DB
.
Each composition consists of drift and diffusion
components.
In subthreshold (weak inversion) region, diffusion
currents dominate.
In above-threshold (strong inversion) region, drift
currents dominate.

S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 15
Weak Inversion
+
B
2+
B
V
GB
+
S
+
S
+
sa
slope=k
V
TH

C C
C
dep ox
ox
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

GB
sa
V

k
All current is caused by diffusion.

,
2
) (
2
,
0
T
SB T GB
U
V V V
T
sa
ox S I T F
e U C
L
W
Q U
L
W
I

= ~
k


( )
T
SB T GB
T
SB
T
B GB sa
U
V V V
T
sa
ox S I
T GB B sa
U
V
U
V
T
GB sa
A s
S I
e U C Q
V V e e U
V
N q
Q


=
= =
) (
,
0
2 ) (
,
0
2
2 with ,
) ( 2
2
k

c
k

o
1
2
1 ~ + =
se
,
1
) (
2
0
T
SB T GB
U
V V V
T ox F
e U C
L
W
I

~
k
k
k

1
1

) (
) (
0
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
~



T
DS
T
DS
T
SB T GB
T
DB
T
SB
T
T GB
U
V
sat
U
V
U
V V V
S
U
V
U
V
U
V V
S
e I
e e I
L
W
e e e I
L
W
I
k
k
2
2
2
1

1
T ox
T ox S
U C
U C I
~

=
k

k
k

B B FB T
V V 2 2
0
+ + =
Normalization Current:
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 16
Weak Inversion

s
B
V
GB
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
SB
G
S D V
DB
n
+
p
x
E
C
I
R,diff
I
F,diff
E
C
Ohmic Region
E
V
E
V
E
F
E
F
x
E
C
I
R,diff
=0 I
F,diff
E
C
Saturation Region
E
V
E
V
E
F
E
F
T
D T G
T
S T G
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I

=
) ( ) (
0 0
k k
I
F
I
R
Current is exponential to voltages.
V
DSsat
is about 5U
T
.

5U
T
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 17
Strong Inversion
All current is caused by drift.

( )
|
.
|

\
|
~ =
k
SB
T GB ox TB GB ox S I
V
V V C V V C Q
0 ,
( ) | | ,
2

2
2
0
2
,
SB T GB
ox
S I
ox
F
V V V
C
L
W
Q
C L
W
I

=
~
k
k

( ) | | ( ) | | ( )
( ) | |
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

=
+ =
2 2
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
1 - 1 1 - 1
2
1 - 1
2
-
2
DSsat
DS
sat
DSsat
DS
DSsat
ox
sB T GB
DS
SB T GB
ox
DB SB SB T GB SB T GB
ox
V
V
I
V
V
V
C
L
W
I
V V V
V
V V V
C
L
W
I
V V V V V V V V
C
L
W
I
k

k
k
k

k k
k

( )
SB T GB DSsat
V V V V =
0
k
2
2
DSsat
ox
sat
V
C
L
W
I

=
k

( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) -
2
2
0
2
0 DB T GB SB T GB
ox
V V V V V V
C
L
W
I

= k k
k

The expression is not valid


when V
DS
>V
DSsat
. Why??
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 18
Strong Inversion
Current is quadratic to voltages.
V
DSsat
is .

( )
SB T GB
V V V
0
k
( ) | | ( ) | |
2
-
2
2
0
2
0 D T G
ox
S T G
ox
V V V
C
L
W
V V V
C
L
W
I

= k
k

k
k

I
F
I
R
x
E
C
I
F,drift
E
C
Ohmic Region
E
V
E
V
B
V
GB
Gate Metal
Oxide
n
+
V
SB
G
S D V
DB
n
+
p
x
E
C
I
F,drift
E
C Saturation Region
E
V
E
V
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 19
I-V Characteristics
Courtesy of Prof. B. A. Minch
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 20
EKV Model
Subthreshold:
T
S T G
T
S T G
U
V V V
T ox
U
V V V
S subVT F
e U C
L
W
e I
L
W
I

= =
) (
2
) (
,
0 0
1
k k
k
k

( ) | |
2
0 ,
2
S T G
ox
abvVT F
V V V
C
L
W
I

= k
k

Above-threshold:
S T ox S
I U C I 4
2
2
0
= =
k

To find the interpolation between subthreshold


and above-threshold expressions, we need to
use a specific current, I
s0
, for subthreshold
expression.
The new specific current is 4 times larger than
the normalization current, which implies the
surface potential to calculate k is higher than 2
B
.
T
S T G
U
V V V
S subVT F
e I
L
W
I

=
) (
0 ,
0
k
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 21
EKV Model
Interpolation Function: ( )
2
2
1 ln
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
v
e v F
( ) ( )
( ) 0 for 1 ln
0 for
2
ln 1 ln
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
<< =
|
.
|

\
|
~
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
>> =
(

|
.
|

\
|
~
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
v e e e v F
v
v
e e v F
v
v v
v v
2
2
) (
0
2
2
) (
0
0 0
1 ln 1 ln
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

T
D T G
T
S T G
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I
k k
EKV Model:
k

2
2
0
=
T ox S
U C I
I
F
I
R
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 22
EKV Model
In subthreshold region,
T
D T G
T
S T G
T
D T G
T
S T G
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I


~
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
) (
0
) (
0
2
2
) (
0
2
2
) (
0
0 0
0 0
1 ln 1 ln
k k
k k
k
S
T G
V
V V + <
0
In above-threshold region,
k
S
T G
V
V V + >
0
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
0
2
0
2
0 2
0
2
0 2
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
2
) (
0
2
2
) (
0
) (
2
) (
2

) (
4
) (
4

2
) (
2
) (
1 ln 1 ln
0 0
D T G
ox
S T G
ox
D T G
T
S
S T G
T
S
T
D T G
S
T
S T G
S
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
V V V
C
L
W
V V V
C
L
W
V V V
U
I
L
W
V V V
U
I
L
W
U
V V V
I
L
W
U
V V V
I
L
W
I
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I
T
D T G
T
S T G

=
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
~
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

k
k

k
k

k k
k k
k k
k

2
2
0
=
T ox S
U C I
V
G
V
S
V
B
V
DS
I
D
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 23
PMOS Transistor
In PMOS transistor, replace V
GB
, V
SB
, V
DB
with V
WG
,
V
WS
, V
WD
respectively:

2
2
) ( ) (
0
2
2
) ( ) (
0
2
2
) (
0
2
2
) (
0
0 0
0 0
1 ln 1 ln
1 ln 1 ln
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


T
D dd T G dd
T
S dd T G dd
T
WD T WG
T
WS T WG
U
V V V V V
S
U
V V V V V
S
U
V V V
S
U
V V V
S
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I
e I
L
W
e I
L
W
I
k k
k k
V
G
V
S
V
W
V
SD
I
D
S.-Y. Peng, 2014/10/03 24
Transistor Symbols