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Title Here in Full

Student Name
Student UIN #
Site (if appropriate)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course
Course #: Course Title
Old Dominion University
Semester, Year
Running head description is flush left and
in all caps. This may be a shortened form
of the title. ODU has opted not to use the
words running head.
Margins are 1 inch all the way around

Header is 1 inch from
top margin or at default
for Word
Center and begin approximately 4
inches from top edge of paper

Center and begin approximately 8
inches from the top edge of the
paper. ODU single spaces this text


Title Here in Full
[Since the introduction is clearly identified by its position in the paper, there is no
heading called introduction even though a section in the grading rubric lists it as part of the
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of APA format. The School of
Nursing at Old Dominion University requires that all written assignments be completed using
current edition of APA format. The information that follows is taken from the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).
Typing Instructions
The typist must double space between all lines and leave uniform margins of at least one
inch on all sides, including top and bottom. Do not justify lines so that the spacing is always
equal on the left and right margins and word. The right margin should look ragged. Achieve
double spacing by using the line spacing setting in your word processing software. To change the
amount of line space between paragraphs in Microsoft Word, 2007, the typist must select the text
in the document and then select the page layout tab and from the paragraph gallery. The typist
should set the "Before" and "After" spacing. In Word 2007, the "After" spacing is set to 10 point
by default. To remove the added spacing, the typist must set both the "Before" and "After"
spacing to 0 point.
Font size should be size 12, and the font face needs to be legible, preferably Times New
Roman, a serif typeface. The running head is typed flush left without the wording running head
and the Arabic page number is to be typed flush right. The running head is an abbreviated title
with a maximum of 50 characters. Never use your name in the running head. The running head
and the page number should be placed in the paper using the Headers and Footers on the insert


toolbar. This always keeps the running head and page number in the correct position in the
paper. The font for both should match the font in the body of the paper.
When writing the paper, indent the first line of every paragraph five to seven spaces (use
the pre-set tab key). Paragraphs should contain more than two sentences, but should not be
longer than one page. Remember when writing your paper that articles and research are
inanimate objects therefore they cannot state or show anything. Spacing twice after the
punctuation at the end of each sentence is recommended. It is recommended that the student use
the spell and grammar checks available on most computers. The instructor can see the red and
green lines that automatically show in word process software. The rule of thumb for numbers is
to use words to express numbers less than 10 and any number that starts a sentence or heading.
Arabic numerals are used for numbers 10 and larger. APA suggests guidelines to reduce
language bias in writing. See Appendix.
Headings outline the importance of each section and allow the writer to organize the
manuscript so that it is easily readable. Students who use headings find that they are less likely to
omit sections in the paper. Use the following 3-level format for titles and headings.
Centered, Boldface, Upper and Lower Case
Flush Left, Boldface, Upper and Lower Case
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period.
In the School of Nursing there are usually only three levels of headings that are used. Please refer
to the APA Manual if additional heading levels are required. It is recommended that the headings
chosen by the student match the headings on the evaluation form/grading rubric for the
Note: only the first letter is capitalized


Referencing Citations in Text
Referencing is utilized for paraphrased ideas that are taken from an author. The use of
page numbers is not required when paraphrasing information. If the name of the author appears
as part of the narrative, use the following format. Martin (2009) notes the correct way to use
APA format. Otherwise, separate the authors name and the year with a comma and place in
parenthesis at the end of the sentence (Wiles, 2009). It is not necessary to reference each
sentence. If all of the information contained in one paragraph comes from the same source, a
reference at the beginning or end of the paragraph is sufficient. Additionally, when using APA
the reference should always be made to the author(s) rather than the source where the
information is found (i.e. journal title).
When there are two authors use both names (surnames only) separated by & and followed
by a comma and the year in all paragraphs where the work is cited (Wiles & Van Orden, 2009).
When there are three to five authors, cite all names and the year the first time. In second and
subsequent references in the same paragraph cite the name of the first author followed by et al.
and the year and in any following paragraphs for the first citation of each paragraph use the
surname of the first author et al. and the year in parenthesis. For six or more authors, cite only
the name of the first author, followed by et al. and the year in parenthesis. Chapter 6 in the 6

edition of the APA manual has a table which demonstrates basic citation rules on page 177.
Using Quotations
Quotations are to be used for any material taken verbatim from an author's work and
must be accurate. Include a quotation of less than 40 words in the text. Surround the verbatim
portion in quotation marks. Include the authors name, year of publication, and page from which


the quotation was taken. For example: "The emergency department can be a stressful
environment for patients, families, and care providers" (Wiles, 2009, p. 1).
Quotations of greater than 40 words are cited differently. The material is placed in a free-
standing block and the quotation marks are omitted. Begin the quotation on a new line and start
in the same position as beginning a new paragraph. All lines within the quote are to begin in the
same position and be double-paced. At the end of the quote the author(s), year, and page number
are cited. An example follows.
The emergency department can be a stressful environment for patients, families, and care
providers. It is often difficult for new graduates to adjust to emergency nursing unless
they have had previous experience in the setting. To ensure a smooth transition, a
preceptor experience is recommended for newly graduated nurses (Wiles, 2001, p.1).
Often electronic sources do not have page numbers available. In this case, the reader should be
directed to the location and paragraph number of the material that has been quoted, for example,
(Wiles, Analysis of Method, 1). The paragraph symbol can be found by clicking on the symbols
section under insert on the toolbar.
Title Page
The ODU SON has adopted a title page based on APA format. The title page should
include four components. The running head in the upper left hand corner (1 from the top of the
page) and the page number in the upper right hand corner. The running head is an abbreviated
version of the title. The name of the manuscript should be centered horizontally in the page with
the authors name, student ID number and site centered below the title. Centered approximately
eight inches from the top of the paper, describe the course for which the paper is being
submitted. Please refer to the title page of this manuscript.


Reference List
The reference list must contain all sources cited in the body of the paper. Likewise, all
sources cited on the reference list should be addressed within the paper. Center the typed word
References at the top of a new page. Use the insert, page break function in the word processing
software. Double space all entries. Alphabetize names on the reference page by the surname of
the first author. APA utilizes a hanging indent format. The first line of the entry should be
flush left and all subsequent lines should be indented 5 spaces. For article and book names, only
capitalize the first word of the title and the first word after a punctuation mark, unless there is a
proper noun. Capitalize the first letter of all words except prepositions in the name of the journal.
References are documented differently, based on the type of source. For journals use the
following format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume,
page. doi: alphanumeric string
The above reference is for journals which continue the page numbers from the preceding
issue of the volume. If each journal issue begins with page one then the issue number is needed
in parenthesis next to the volume number. The volume is italicized, but the issue number is not.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume,
(issue), page. doi: alphanumeric string
For books use the following format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.
For electronic references, provide the name and doi of the source. If there is no doi, then provide
the URL for the home page of the journal or the URL that leads directly to the source. Because
of the length of the doi alphanumeric string, it is best to copy and paste it into your reference


page. The following example gives the reference for a journal article. The proper format for
citing web pages and other types of web based references can be found in the APA manual in
Chapters 6 and 7 as well as on the official APA manual web site at
Author, A. A. (date). Title of article. Name of Periodical , vol., pages. Doi or Retrieved from
Please refer to the APA Manual for a more comprehensive list. Chapters 6 and 7 give a detailed
explanations of all parts of the reference followed by examples. Please see the accompanying
reference page for an example of the format for creating a reference page.
The use of an appendix is sometimes necessary. Do not include an appendix unless you
refer to it in your paper. If your paper has only one appendix, then it should be labeled simply as
Appendix. If you have more than one, then label them as Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. in
order as mentioned in the text. Be sure each appendix has its own title.
If you have an appendix, it should appear after the reference page on a separate page.
Simply type the title (i.e., Appendix A) centered at the top of the page. Note that the entire word
is not capitalized. Then double space, type the title of the appendix centered in upper and lower
case letters. No cover sheet is necessary for appendixes.
Honor Code Statement
The School of Nursing requires an Honor Code statement with each assignment. This
statement should be part of your paper, but typed on a separate sheet. It is best done by typing it
after your reference page and appendices (if done) are completed. If you are turning in a hard
copy, be sure to sign it. If you are turning in an electronic copy, then be sure your name is


included. Do not turn in a blank, unsigned honor code statement. Some instructors will not
accept papers without honor code statements!
It is the writer's intention that this reference supplement the APA Manual, not take the
place of it. Bear in mind that plagiarism is a violation of the Honor Code at ODU and that
ignorance is not an excuse! The conclusion would include a summary of your paper.


Greene, E. D. (2002). Excellent research techniques. Trends in Nursing Research, 8, 573-585.
Retrieved from
Smith, J., & Jones, A. (2008). How to write a paper. Journal of Nursing, 90(2), 30-35. doi: 10.
Yaris, K., & Scheurich, B. (2010). The joy of nursing research (2
ed.). Philadelphia, PA:

For a periodical (journal) title, see Chapters 6 and 7 for tips and examples:
o Note that the title of the journal is in uppercase and lowercase letters, but the title
of the article is not.
o The journals title AND volume number should be in italics, but if there is an
issue number (within parentheses) the issue number is not in italics. See example
below. The "93" is the volume number and is in italics; the "3" is the issue
number and is not in italics, but is within ( ).
o Do not use pp for page numbers.
o No retrieval date is needed

One example of a reference to a booknote
that the book title is typed in lower case letters

One example of a reference to an online
journal that has a doi.
One example of a reference to an online
journal that has a URL.


Guidelines to Reduce Bias
Chapter 3 of the APA Manual 6
edition contains a list of gender biases to be avoided in
professional writing. This list includes, but is not limited to the following topics: sexual
orientation; race and ethnic identity; disabilities; age; and gender. Refer to pages 71-76 to learn
how to avoid using bias in your writing.