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Number Systems

Types
• Non positional
• Positional
• Few symbols are used called digits
• Symbols have different value
• Value can be determined by:
» The digit it self
» Position of the digit
» The base of number system
Decimal Number system
• Base is 10
• It has ten symbols or digit (0 and 9)
• Largest digit is 9
• Eg 43110
Binary number system
• Base is 2
• It has only two symbols or digit (0 and 1)
• Largest digit is 1
• Eg 101012=2110
Octal number system
• Base is 8
• It has only eight symbols or digit (0 to 7)
• Largest digit is 7
• Eg 20578=107110
Hexadecimal number system
• Base is 16
• It has sixteen symbols or digit (0 to
9,A,B,C,D,E,F)
• Largest digit is F=15
• Eg 1AF16=43110
Conversion
Converting to decimal
1. Determine the column (positional) value of
each digit (this depends on the position of the
digit and the base of the number system)
2. Multiply the obtained column values (Step 1)
by the digits in the corresponding column.
3. Sum the products calculated in step 2. The
total is the equivalent value in decimal.
Decimal to another base
(Division Remainder Technique)
1. Divide the decimal number to be converted by the
value of new base.
2. Record the remainder from step 1 as the rightmost
digit (least significant digit) of the new base number.
3. Divide the quotient of the previous divide by the new
base.
4. Record the remainder from step 3 as the next digit (to
the left) of the new base number.
5. Repeat step 3 and step 4 until quotient becomes 0.
Last remainder will be most significant digit.
Converting from a base other than
10 to a base other than 10
1. Convert the original number to decimal.
2. Convert the decimal number obtained in
Step 1 to the new base number.
Examples (Converting to decimal)

• 110012=?10
• 47068=?10
• 1AC16 =?10
• 40527 =?10
• 110014 =?10
• 1AC13 =?10
Examples (Converting From
Decimal)
• 2510 =?2
• 4210 =?2
• 95210 =?8
• 42810 =?16
• 10010 =?5
• 10010 =?4
• 171510 =?12
Examples (Base other than 10 to
other than 10)
• 5456=?4
• 1011102=?8
• 110100112=?16
Shortcut Methods
• Binary to Octal
1. Divide the binary digits into groups of three,
starting from right (LSD)
2. Convert each group of three into decimal.

• Binary to Hexadecimal
1. Divide in group of four starting from LSD
2. Convert each group of four into decimal.