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# Earthquake Guided Notes page494

Anthony Medeiros

What is stress? What is strain? How to they compare and
contrast? (make a Venn diagram) Stress is the forces per unit area
acting on a material, it exceeds the strength of the rocks involved.
Strain is the deformation of materials in response to stress

What are the 3 different types of faults? Describe each.
Type of
waves
Materials
&
Description
Sketch Movement
Primary Squeeze
and pull
rocks in
the same
direction
along
which the
waves are
traveling.

Particles
move back
and forth
as the P-
wave
passes.
Both
Occur in
nature
Both have
3 different
types
Stress
Force per unit
area that is
acting on the
material
Measured in
units
Strain
Outcome of stress
Measured by how much
the material broke

Earthquake Guided Notes page494
Anthony Medeiros

Secondary Cause
rocks to
move at
right
angles in
relation to
the
direction
of the
waves.

S-wave
causes
rocks to
move at
right
angles to
the
direction
of the
wave
Surface

This wave
moves in
two
directions
as they
pass
through
the rock.

Rock
particles
move both
up and
down and
from side
to side.

How do the focus and the epicenter of earthquakes compare and
contrast? The focus is where the earthquake originates under the
earth and the epicenter is the point on earths surface right above
the epicenter.

The greater the distance between P and S waves on a
seismograph the (longer or shorter) distance away from the
epicenter. The longer the distance is away from the epicenter.

Earthquake Guided Notes page494
Anthony Medeiros

What is the name of the scale used to measure the energy
released during an earthquake? What is the range of the scale?
The scale is called the Richter scale and goes up to nine.

What is the name of the scale used to measure the intensity
(damage done) during an earthquake? What is the range of the
scale? This scale is called the Mercalli scale and uses roman
numerals (I) to (XII)

Describe the damage caused by earthquakes for a level 1, 5, and
10. Level one is when you can just feel the earthquake slightly.
Level 5 is felt by everyone and dishes and windows and some
plasters break. Level 5 results in ordinary structures being
destroyed, rails are bent, and landslide are common.