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Perfect Square Trinomials

Explanation and Practice

The Square of a Binomial: the expression obtained when a binomial is squared is called a
perfect square trinomial.
EXAMPLE: Square the binomial (2x + 3).
Solution: Squaring, we obtain
(2x + 3)
2
= x
2
+ !x + !x + "
= x
2
+ #2x + "
\$ote that in the per%ect square trinomial obtained in the example, the %irst and last terms are
the squares o% the %irst and last terms o% the binomial
(2x + 3)
2
square square
x
2
+ #2x + "
and that the middle term is twice the product o% the terms o% the binomial.
(2x + 3)
2
product
!x
twice the product
x
2
+ #2x + "
&n general,
Factoring a Perfect Square Trinomial: 'rite a binomial whose terms are the square roots
o% the %irst and last terms o% the trinomial. (he sign in the binomial will be the same as the
sign o% the middle term o% the trinomial.
EXAMPLE: )actor a
2
* a +
Solution: (he %irst and last terms are both per%ect squares, and the middle term is twice the
product o% the square roots o% the %irst and last terms. (hus, the trinomial is a
per%ect square. )actoring, we obtain
a
2
* a +

(a * 2)
2
EXAMPLE: "x
2
+
2
* !x+ + # = (3x+ * #)
2
,er%ect Square (rinomials-.xplanation / ,ractice
#01#2120#-mm3%d
514
,er%ect (a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
Square
(rinomials (a * b)
2
= a
2
* 2ab + b
2

square
root
square
root
same
Practice:
Perfect Square Trinomials.
)actor completel+.
1. x
2
+ x +
4. x
2
+ 2x +#
7. " + !x + x
2
1. #!x
2
+ #!x +
1!. #! + #!a + a
2
". " * #2a + a
2
#. +
2
* 2+ + #
\$. +
2
* + + #
11. "+
2
* #4+ + "
14. # + 20a + #00a
2
!. 2+
2
* #2+ + #4
%. x
2
* 30x + 225
&. "x
2
+ !x + #
1". #!n
2
* 4n + #
1#. "a
2
* 24a +
Perfect Square Trinomials with Two Letters.
)actor completel+.
1%. a
2
* 2ab + b
2
1\$. a
2
* #ab + "b
2
". a
2
* #0ab + 25b
2
"". c
2
* !cd + "d
2
17. x
2
+ 2x+ + +
2
1&. a
2
w
2
+ 2abw + b
2
"1. x
2
+ #0ax + 25a
2
"!. x
2
+ 4x+ + #!+
2
,er%ect Square (rinomials-.xplanation / ,ractice
#01#2120#-mm3%d
514
A
n
'
(
e
r
'
:
(
x

+

2
)
2
(
3

*

2
a
)
2
2
(
+

*

3
)
2
(
x

+

#
)
2
(
+

*

#
)
2
(
x

*

#
5
)
2
(
3

+

x
)
2
(
2
+

*

#
)
2
(
3
x

+

#
)
2

(
2
x

+

#
)
2
"
(
+

*

#
)
2
(

n

*

#
)
2

(
2

+

a
)
2
(
#

+

#
0
a
)
2
(
2
a

*

2
)
2
(
a

*

b
)
2
(
x

+

+
)
2
(
a

*

2
b
)
2
(
a
w

+

b
)
2
(
a

*

5
b
)
2
(
x

+

5
a
)
2
(
c

*

3
d
)
2
(
x

+

+
)
2