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Batuan Piroklastik dan Volkaniklastik


SIKLUS BATUAN SIKLUS BATUAN
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Klasifikasi Klasifikasi Batuan Batuan Beku Beku
Dike
Tuff
Pyroclastic breccia
Massive lava
Lava
Khuluk Tengger
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Batuan piroklastik:
Terbentuk dari letusan gunung api (berasal dari pendinginan dan
pembekuan magma) namun seringkali bersifat klastik.
Volcanic ash plume from Cleveland Volcano, located on Chuginadak Island in the Aleutian Island Chain off
Alaska. NASA image taken by Jeff Williams, Flight Engineer, from the International Space Station.
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Satellite image of an ash plume from Chaitn Volcano in
southern Chile on May 3, 2008. This plume begins in
Chile, crosses Argentina and extends hundreds of miles
out over the Atlantic Ocean. NASA image
PIROKLASTIK PIROKLASTIK dan dan TEFRA TEFRA
EJECTA EJECTA : : material ( material (solid) yang ) yang terlontarkan terlontarkan
( (ejected ejected) ) saat saat erupsi erupsi gunungapi gunungapi
Batuan Batuan PIROKLASTIK PIROKLASTIK (TEFRA) (TEFRA) : : batuan batuan yang yang
terbentuk terbentuk dari dari akumulasi akumulasi material material ejecta ejecta
Ukuran Ukuran material material piroklastik piroklastik : :
bomb : d > 64 mm bomb : d > 64 mm
lapili : d = 2 lapili : d = 2 - - 64 mm 64 mm
abu abu ( (ash ash) : d < 2 ) : d < 2
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Volcanic bomb (Krakatau)
PANDANGAN GEOLOGI GUNUNG API: PANDANGAN GEOLOGI GUNUNG API:
Ada Ada kesinambungan kesinambungan proses proses magmatisme magmatisme, , volkanisme volkanisme dan dan sedimentasi sedimentasi
A
B
A: Problem Magmatisme Volkanisme
B: Problem Volkanisme-Sedimentasi
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Erupsi Mayon Volcano, Filipina
Jatuhan piroklastika
(Hujan abu)
Aliran
piroklastika
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Pengendapan Pengendapan material PIROKLASTIK material PIROKLASTIK
1) Pyroclastic fall 1) Pyroclastic fall
tersebar tersebar merata merata di di daerah daerah sekitar sekitar gunung gunung
api api, , tidak tidak dipengaruhi dipengaruhi bentuk bentuk topografi topografi
( (membentuk membentuk bidang bidang waktu waktu untuk untuk korelasi korelasi) )
distribusi distribusi material material dipengaruhi dipengaruhi oleh oleh
ukuran ukuran material/ material/fragmen fragmen, , kekuatan kekuatan dan dan
arah arah angin angin
seringkali seringkali memperlihatkan memperlihatkan hasil hasil
pemilahan pemilahan ( (sorting) material ) material
Endapan jatuhan piroklastika di dinding kawah G. Tangkubanparahu
Aliran lava
Endapan hidroklastika/freatik/hidrotermal
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Pengendapan Pengendapan material PIROKLASTIK material PIROKLASTIK
2) Pyroclastic flow 2) Pyroclastic flow
ada ada bagian bagian yg yg disebut disebut sbg sbg nu nu e e ardante ardante atau atau
wedhus wedhus gembel gembel
temperature: ~700 temperature: ~700 1000 1000
0 0
C C
kecepatan kecepatan bisa bisa mencapai mencapai ~150 km/h ~150 km/h
salah salah batuan batuan yg yg terbentuk terbentuk ignimbrite ignimbrite
Pyroclastic flow
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Rekaman korban pyroclastic-flow (Pompeii 79 AD)
Tuff
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Tuff
(Welded) Tuff
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An ignimbrite in the field,
Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Yellow notebook with cm
gradations for scale.
Light microscope image
of a welded ignimbrite
A) Section on the Santo Tomas River
bridge north of San Narciso, Zambales;
32 km west-southwest of vent. Layer A is
8 mm of sand-sized ash; layer B is 4 mm
of mostly fine ash. Note weak normal
grading of layer C and scattered coarse
clasts on surface of deposit.
B) Tephra-fall deposits on unimproved
road along the Marella River 10.5 km
southwest of vent. Layer A, about 4 cm
thick, consists of coarse ash and fine
lapilli; layer B consists of several thin
layers of ash; layer C is 33 cm thick and
is the thickest section of the climactic
pumice-fall deposit yet found. Note
normal grading overall, but 2-cm pumice
lapillus in upper left. Layer D consists of
two 3- to 4-cm-thick beds of fine ash
separated by a bed of water-reworked
pumiceous ash.
C) Tephra deposits on unimproved road
about 9 km southeast of vent, north side
of Gumain River. Layer B is 23 cm thick
and consists of numerous graded ash
beds; layer C is 31 cm thick and has two
zones in lower part with minor fine ash
coatings.
D) Section at mouth of Pasig River
canyon about 15 km east of vent. Layer B
is 10 cm thick and layer C is about 18 cm
thick; note ash-rich zones that stand out
owing to increased cohesiveness. USGS
Images by W.E. Scott and J.J. Major.
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Paleosol/paleosoil
(tanah purba)
Hydrotermal mud/
phreatic deposit
Phreatomagmatic
deposit
Classification of the pyroclastic rocks. a) Based on type of material. After Pettijohn (1975)
Sedimentary Rocks, Harper & Row, and Schmid (1981) Geology, 9, 40-43. b) Based on the size
of the material. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Rev., 1, 287-298.
Klasifikasi
Klasifikasi
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SCORIA SCORIA : :
dark brownish black or red vesicular ejecta of dark brownish black or red vesicular ejecta of basaltic and basaltic and
andesitic magmas andesitic magmas (mafic version of pumice) (mafic version of pumice)
forming from dissolved gases rich magma rich forming from dissolved gases rich magma rich
composed of volcanic glass fragments and few mineral composed of volcanic glass fragments and few mineral
crystals crystals
its specific gravity ranges from 0.8 to 2.1 its specific gravity ranges from 0.8 to 2.1
PUMICE PUMICE : :
vesicular ejecta of intermediate to vesicular ejecta of intermediate to siliceous magmas siliceous magmas
(including rhyolite, trachyte and phonolite) (including rhyolite, trachyte and phonolite)
usually light in colour ranging from white, yellowish, gray, usually light in colour ranging from white, yellowish, gray,
gray brown, and a dull red, gray brown, and a dull red, average porosity of 90% average porosity of 90%
SKORIA SKORIA ( (SCORIA SCORIA) )
Komposisi Komposisi BASA BASA
BATUAPUNG BATUAPUNG (PUMICE) (PUMICE)
Komposisi Komposisi ASAM ASAM
BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA
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OBSIDIAN : OBSIDIAN :
produced when a produced when a felsic lava cools rapidly felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient and freezes without sufficient
time for crystal growth, composed of glass time for crystal growth, composed of glass
because of the lack of crystal structure, obsidian blade edges c because of the lack of crystal structure, obsidian blade edges can reach an reach
almost molecular thinness (use as arrowheads and surgical scalpe almost molecular thinness (use as arrowheads and surgical scalpel blades) l blades)
BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA
BREKSI VOLKANIK BREKSI VOLKANIK
( (VOLCANIC BRECCIA VOLCANIC BRECCIA) )
BOM VOLKANIK BOM VOLKANIK
( (VOLCANIC BOMB VOLCANIC BOMB) )
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BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA
TUFA TUFA
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Batuan Volkaniklastik
(lahar, landslide deposit, mudflow)
Aliran Lahar
aliran lumpur,
campuran air dengan
material hasil letusan
gunung api yang
tertumpuk di badan
gunung dan kemudian
mengalir ke arah kaki
gunung sebagai
banjir bandang
Lahar Panas/Erupsi
(terjadi bersamaan dengan
letusan pada gunung api yang
mempunyai danau kawah)
dan
Lahar Dingin/Hujan
(longsor dari gunung saat hujan
lebat)
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LETUSAN ST. HELENS (1980)
BENDUNG TERTIMBUN BENDUNG TERTIMBUN
RUMAH RUMAH
TERTIMBUN TERTIMBUN
LAHAR = LARUTAN PEKAT
BERUPA PIROKLASTIKA / DEBU VOLKANIK YANG TERBAWA OLEH AIR
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GUNUNG RINJANI & SEGARA ANAKAN, LOMBOK