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Study of HR Practices & Process of
Performance Appraisal

With special reference to


R.M.C Division
Head Office - MUMBAI


Table of Contents


1 Executive Summary

2 Company Profile

3 Organizational Chart

4 Introduction

5 About the project

Performance Appraisal
Training & Development
Talent Management
Job Analysis
Organisation Structure
Human Resource Information System
Company Philosophy
Exit Interview
6 Learnings

7 Observations & Findings

8 Recommendations

9 Nomenclatures and Abbreviations

10 Limitations & Bibliography

Executive Summary-

The importance of personnel management is being increasingly realized in industrial and

non-industrial organization both in India and abroad. The realization has come about
because of increasing complexity of the task of managers and administrators. In most
organizations the problems of getting the competent and relevant people, retaining them,
keeping up their motivation and morale, and helping them to both continuously grow and
contribute their best to the organizations, are now viewed as the most critical problems.

So with this reference the project titled Study of Study of HR practices & process of
Performance Appraisal has been conducted, based on the primary research in Ultratech
Cement Limited, RMC Division has been prepared to get a better insight into the
management practices adopted by UTCL with reference to HR Policies prepared by the HR
department in organization. It emphasizes on the importance of a clear cut organization
structure and culture to avoid any confusion in order to achieve maximum result with
minimum resources.

The project is aimed to cover maximum knowledge of the HR practices followed in the
organization and how the performance is evaluated of employees, what primary factors are
considered , how data is maintained and finally the evaluation done. Here the HR practices
of the company have been explained to understand how the company follows these
practices and the performance appraisal process adopted. The practical knowledge has been
gained mainly by observing all the activities taking place in the H.R. department. This is a
brief study done to have understanding of the subject H.R., how it is practically
implemented, why it is necessary, its implications & the benefits.
With reference to the HR Practices brief knowledge has been gained how the Recruitment
cycle functions, Selection done, Training Calendar prepared, what does compensation &
cost to company means and the steps of performance appraisal.

Company Profile
Aditya Birla Group is India's first truly multinational corporation. The group has an annual
turnover of US$ 24 billion and has over 1,00,000 employees belonging to over 25 different
nationalities on its rolls.

Aditya Birla Group has its presence in 20 countries –

India, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Philippines, Egypt, Canada, Australia, China, USA, UK,
Germany, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Malaysia and Korea.

Globally the Aditya Birla Group is:

• A metals powerhouse, among the world’s most cost-efficient aluminium and copper
producers. Hindalco, from its fold, is a Fortune 500 Company. It is also the largest
aluminium rolling company and one of the 3 biggest producers of primary aluminium in

In India:

• A premier branded garments player.

• The 2nd largest player in viscose filament yarn.

• The 2nd largest in the Chlor-alkali sector.

• Among the top 5 mobile telephony companies.


It has established been in 1958, Hindalco deals in Aluminium and Copper and is an industry
leader in both. Hindalco is the world's largest aluminium rolling company and one of the
biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia. Its copper smelter is today the world's
largest custom smelter at a single location. In 2007, Hindalco acquired Novelis and in the
process became the world's largest aluminium rolling company and one of the biggest
producers of primary aluminium in Asia, as well as India's leading copper producer.

Aditya Birla Nuvo: Aditya Birla Nuvo is a diversified business conglomerate with interests
in viscose filament yarn (VFY), carbon black, branded garments, fertilizers, textiles and
insulators. Aditya Birla Nuvo, through its subsidiaries and joint ventures has made forays
into life insurance, telecom, business process outsourcing (BPO), IT services, asset
management and other financial services.

Ultra Tech Cement: The Groups cement business is under both Grasim and UltraTech
cement. Together the two companies under the group account for a substantial share of the
cement market in India.

UltraTech cement comprises the erstwhile cement business of L&T which was acquired by
the group.Ultra Tech Cement manufactures and markets Ordinary Portland Cement,
Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement and Portland Pozzolana Cement. It is the country's
largest exporter of cement clinker. Its export market includes countries around the Indian
Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Middle East.

GRASIM INDUSTRIES LIMITED is the flagship company of Aditya Birla Group.

Grasim itself is a multi-product company with cement being the major area of focus. Now a
day the cement division of the Grasim industries Limited works under the banner of the
Ultratech Cement limited (UTCL). In August 1998, Grasim acquired the well-known
Dharani Cements Ltd situated at Reddipalayam, Perambalur District. Soon after the

acquisition, Grasim embarked on a most prestigious project of one million top capacity
cement plant at the existing locations.


Concrete is a hardened building material created by combining a binder i.e. cement

(commonly Portland cement), aggregate (generally gravel and sand), water and admixtures.
Although people commonly use the word cement as a synonym for concrete, it is only one
of several components in modern concrete. As concrete dries, it acquires a stone-like
consistency that makes it ideal for constructing roads, bridges, water supply and sewage
systems, factories, airports, railroads, waterways, mass transit systems.

Concrete is used more than any other man made material on the planet. It was in 1824,
when Joseph Aspdin and Isaac Charles Johnson refined synthetic cement that Portland
cement came into existence. However, it was not widely used until World War II, when
several large docks and bridges were constructed.

Today, different types of concrete are categorized according to their method of installation.
Ready or pre-mixed concrete is batched and mixed at a central plant before it is delivered to
a site. This type of concrete is sometimes transported in an agitator truck and is also known
as transit-mixed concrete. Shrink-mixed concrete is partially mixed at the central plant and
its mixing is then completed en route to the site.

The secret of good concrete lies in the degree of

quality control and technical parameters of the mix.
UltraTech, the Aditya Birla Group Company, which
makes good concrete better, maintains a high level
of precision in its quality assurance procedures and

produces world-class concrete that comes in a package of highly reliable durability, strength
and performance.

The making of concrete is a science as well as an art. Science because the right proportions
of all the ingredients as per the standard Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) code assures the
desired strength and durability. And an art because it is not just the accurate proportioning
which determines the quality of concrete, but the way it is mixed, placed, compacted, cured
and protected also play a great role.

UltraTech Concrete makes good concrete better because the company takes extra care to
make sure it is perfect both ways — proportion wise and handling wise. To ensure quality,
each and every sample of concrete passes through stringent tests in fresh and hardened state
to ensure strength, durability and performance.

How does UltraTech Concrete make good concrete better?

Right from selecting the raw materials to batching and mixing, transportation, placing of
concrete till testing of concrete — UltraTech ensures flawless operation in every stage.
Clearly, it's all about putting together the right ingredients for that perfect recipe.

Fresh cement, protected from weathering conditions and influence of external environment
such as air, moisture etc., is an important ingredient of concrete. UltraTech Concrete plant
uses fresh cement directly procured from the cement plants through cement bulkers, which
in turn pump it directly into the concrete silos thus protecting it from the external

Coarse aggregates
Coarse aggregates — free from clay, weeds and other organic materials, cubical or rounded
with a combination of different sizes and not elongated or flaky — ensure proper strength of
the concrete and make it non-porous. These coarse aggregates are a vital ingredient of good

concrete. UltraTech Concrete directly sources the aggregates from selected and approved
suppliers, tested as per BIS for size, shape, gradation, impact value and crushing value etc.

Fine aggregate
Sand, the fine aggregate used in concrete must be free from silt, clay, salts and organic
materials to prevent shrinkage cracks, which affect the concrete quality and durability.

UltraTech Concrete directly purchases sand from selected and approved suppliers tested for
moisture content. To maintain the correct water-cement ratio, UltraTech Concrete plants use
moisture sensors and an automatic water correction procedure.

Potable water, free from impurities such as oil, alkalies, acids, salts, sugar, organic materials
is ideal for concrete. UltraTech Concrete uses water tested at frequent intervals and uses
water purifiers whenever necessary.

Admixtures used in concrete during mixing ensures its workability (the ease of placing of
concrete in moulds) and the setting time is carefully chosen from reputed companies. The
workability is measured for every batch through the slump cone and is controlled using a
scientific method of dosing. UltraTech Concrete is equipped with computerized batching
and mixing plants to strictly monitor the quality of the concrete. It uses a computerized
recipe for the raw mix design (cement : sand : coarse aggregate : water : admixture) and
quantities of raw materials are weighed automatically as per the design mix. The water-
cement ratio, very important to satisfy the strength and durability criteria of concrete, is pre-
designed through a scientific mix design as per the BIS standards and kept constant
throughout to maintain the consistency in quality for a particular mix. Mixing is generally
done through high efficiency pan mixers (machine mixers / turbo mixer) to ensure uniform
and consistent quality concrete.


The transport of concrete from its place of mixing to the delivery point is very critical, as
there is possibility of the concrete drying out and losing its workability and plasticity.

UltraTech Concrete transports concrete from its ready mix concrete plants to the site
through transit mixers. Further, the concrete is pumped to the actual point of concreting
using high efficiency concrete pumps, thus maintaining the homogeneity of the concrete
throughout the transit till the final deposition. Placing the concrete is expedited
scientifically by specialized delivery trucks. Qualified and experienced engineers monitor
the entire operation.

It is anchored by an extraordinary force of 100,000 employees, belonging to 25 different

nationalities. In India, the Group has been adjudged “The Best Employer in India and
among the top 20 in Asia” by the Hewitt-Economic Times and Wall Street Journal Study
2007. Over 50 per cent of its revenues flow from its overseas operations.

Beyond business — the Aditya Birla Group is:

Working in 3,700 villages

Reaching out to seven million people annually through the Aditya Birla Centre for
Community Initiatives and Rural Development, spearheaded by Mrs. Rajashree Birla

Focusing on: health care, education, sustainable livelihood, infrastructure and espousing
social cause.

About Ultratech Cement Ltd

Ultratech Cement Ltd is having its own vision, mission and values.

Vision of the company:

To be a premium global conglomerate with a clear focus on each business.

Mission of the company:

To deliver superior value to the customers, shareholders, employees and society at large.

Values of the company:

People contribute when they relate to an organization and they relate, when they understand
the organization. People understand an organization through its values by experiencing the
culture that values create and by using the systems and processes that values define. In large
organizations, such shared understanding cannot be created through leadership of
individuals alone; it requires leadership of principles, of beliefs, of conviction. Integrity,
Commitment, Passion, Seamlessness, Speed. These together constitute what they call
their “Value”.

Organizational Chart

RMC Central

The success of any business depends as much on appropriate, effective, well-
communicated, HR and business practices as it depends on meeting the requirements of
mandated laws and regulations. In fact, good planning and the development of effective
practices make regulatory compliance much easier.
HR practices helps in increasing the productivity and quality, and to gain the competitive
advantage of a workforce strategically aligned with the organization’s goals and objectives.


Some of the key performance indicators for Human Resources include but are not limited
to the following.

• Employees’ clarity on HR policies

• Employees’ clarity on roles, responsibilities and expectations
• Development of qualitative staff
• Number of HR issues arising for which there are no clear policies and guidelines
• Competitiveness of compensation structure relative to industry benchmark
• Usefulness and accuracy of compensation survey
• Lead time to respond to staff welfare issues
• Employees’ assessment of promotion criteria and process (clarity, fairness)
• Measurement of HR policy violation
• Average time required to fill vacancies
• Proportion of training programs resulting in productivity improvement
• Staff attrition rate
• Understanding / Clarity of the Organizational philosophy
• Outline Internal capabilities and identify gaps on skills-competencies-behavioral aspects
• Prepare HR strategic Objectives and bring in clarity as to how the HR strategy supports
the organizational strategy
• Develop KPI's for each of the strategic objectives.
• Track and measure performance

Human Resources Best Practices

The best practices in the management of human resources are the ones which optimize a
workforce so that it can not only get work done, but also ensure a greater level of efficiency,
timeliness and quality as it accomplishes increases productivity overall.

Hence the job of the best practices human resources firm is to make sure that these benefits
and pay scales meet the company’s budget while remaining attractive and competitive
enough to pull in the very best talent possible. We should know that these figures put the
company in a good light while also presenting themselves as engaging and competitive for
company’s recruitment efforts.


The main objective of HR Practices is to differentiate the organization from its competitors
by effective and efficient HR Practices. By following this, the organization does its whole
work process. The objective of HR Practices is to increase productivity and quality, and to
gain the competitive advantage of a workforce strategically aligned with the organization’s
goals and objectives.

As The Transparent HR practices can reduce attrition, Because-

Transparent HR practices ensure continuous business growth in every organization.

 It gives the suitable working environment to the employees.

 The success of company motivates the employees of organization to continue relationship
with it. As all the employees Perks chart has been mentioned according to their
designation in the HR practices, it helps the employees to know what their perks charts are.
So it creates a transparency.


As we know the whole function of HR department depends upon the HR Practices of the
organization. The HR management is done according to the HR Practices of the company.
Which things to be done and which things should not be done depend upon this only. It also
helps the organization to achieve the target of the organization.

The HR policies of the organization have been mentioned in the HR Practices. All the rules
& regulations for the employees have been also mentioned in this. All the welfare of the
employees’ processes is also mentioned in this.

So the study of the HR Practices means basically the brief study of all HR functions in the
organization. I believe the HR Practices is a vital part of an organization, which helps the
organization to achieve the goal of the organization.

All companies are having their HR Practices but the company who is having the best, is the
most successful company among its competitors. So the company can get success within its
competitors by applying best, effective HR Practices.

The main objective of the project is

 To understand the HR practices followed & Process of Performance Appraisal.
 To know what are the uses of HR practices for any organization.
 How these HR Practices help any organization to know its stand in the market and to be
competitive by implementing good HR Practices for their employees.
 To understand how the organization would achieve its goals by implementing good HR
 To understand the work culture of the organization.

HR function is very important in every organization. It helps the organization to manage not
only the people of the organization but to manage all the working processes in it also. HR is
management function that helps managers to recruit, select, train and develop members for
an organization. Obviously HR is concerned with the people’s dimensions in organizations.
HR refers to set of programs, functions, and activities designed and carried out.

HR practices of ULTRATECH Cement Ltd (RMC


Effective and Efficient HR practices are very much important for every organization. So,
UTCL has also its HR Practices, which helps it a lot to achieve the targets.

Human Resource Management initiatives in any Organization endeavor to change, redefine,

revisit, renew, reinvent, revitalize & restructure the Organization architecture. This is
effectively done with the help of alignment & integration of HR policies & strategies with
business goal & objectives.

Definition of HRM-

HRM is concerned with the people dimensions in management. Since every organization is
made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to
higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment
to the organization are essential for achieving organizational objectives.
HRM is planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development,
compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end so
that individual, organizational and social objectives are accomplished.

The HR practices of Ultratech Cement Ltd (RMC Division) are as follows:

1. Recruitment and Selection:

It is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing
schedules and to employ the effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate
numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce.
Edwin B. Flippo has defined it as “ the process of searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. “

• To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suti the present and
future organizational strategies,
• To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization,
• To develop an organisational culture that attracts competent people to the company,
• To search for talent globally and not just within the company,
• To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum,
• To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exists yet.

• Finding out the requirement (hiring vs. exit), upcoming vacancies, kind of employees
• Developing suitable techniques to attract suitable candidates.
• Stimulating as many candidates as possible.


Employer’s brand Socio-economic factors
Company’s pay package Supply & Demand factors
Quality of work life Employment Rate
Organisation culture Labour market conditions
Career planning & growth Political, Legal, Governmental factors
Company’s size
Company’s products, services
Role of trade unions
Cost of recruitment
Company’s name & fame.

Present employees Campus Recruitment
Retired employees Private employment consultant
Dependent of present Data Banks
Employee Referrals Casual Applicants
Trade Unions

Head Hunting
Mergers & Acquisitions

It helps in translating Business Strategy into people requirements. A combination of internal

recruitment, campus recruitment, and executive search is leveraged to meet up to the
changing needs of the organization

In today’s rapidly changing business environment, organizations have to respond quickly to

requirements for people. Hence, it is important to have a well-defined recruitment policy in
place, which can be executed effectively to get the best fits for the vacant positions.
Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly
mistakes for the organization.

It is one area where the interference of external factors is minimal. Hence the HR
department can use its discretion in framing its selection policy and using various selection
tools for the best result. Recruitment of staff should be preceded by:

An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to
determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know
what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and
attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage.

Effectively, selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied
by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. For that reason some

firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment
and selection.

Equally some small organizations exist to 'head hunt', i.e. to attract staff with high
reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. However, the 'cost' of poor
selection is such that, even for the mundane day-to-day jobs, those who recruit and select
should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants.
Outsourcing is also done through consultancies by mentioning the requirement, number and

Where the organization does its own printed advertising it is useful if it has some
identifying logo as its trade mark for rapid attraction and it must take care not to offend the
sex, race, etc. antidiscrimination legislation either directly or indirectly. The form on which
the applicant is to apply (personal appearance, letter of application, completion of a form)
will vary according to the posts vacant and numbers to be recruited.

Interviewing can be carried out by individuals (e.g. supervisor or departmental manager), by

panels of interviewers or in the form of sequential interviews by different experts and can
vary from a five minute 'chat' to a process of several days. Ultimately personal skills in
judgment are probably the most important.

Training in interviewing and in appraising candidates is clearly essential to good

recruitment. Largely the former consists of teaching interviewers how to draw out the
interviewee and the latter how to rate the candidates. For consistency (and as an aid to
checking that) rating often consists of scoring candidates for experience, knowledge,
physical/mental capabilities, intellectual levels, motivation, prospective potential, leadership
abilities etc. (according to the needs of the post). Application of the normal curve of
distribution to scoring eliminates freak judgments

The Recruitment Process of UTCL-

The recruitment process of UTCL Cement Ltd starts from the requirement of different
departments as per to the org chart. Then they tell to the HR Department. HR Department
takes the candidates from Data bank of company, Poornata etc, then does the short-listing,
then does the scheduling for the interview. After this the selection and negotiation process
occurs. Then offer letter is been given to the selected candidate. The employee then joins in
the organization. Then the company arranges the Induction Program for the employee. After
this the recruitment process ends with this.

The Chart of Recruitment & Selection Process has been given here.


Requisition for
Vacancy to be as
per Org Chart
Data bank
HR Req Agency Short Listing

END Scheduling
the interview

Induction Interview

Offer Letter Selection &

Joining Negotiation

2. Performance Management System

It is a structured method of formally and objectively evaluating employees’ performance
with respect to their objectives. It addresses the issue of an employee’s development by
providing them with structured and in-depth analysis of strengths and areas of
improvement. It provides with input for annual increments, training and development.
For an organization the aim should not be just to have the best people, but also to retain
them and get best out of them.
Employee Performance management includes planning work and setting expectations,
developing the capacity to perform, continuously monitoring performance and evaluating it.

Most organizations focus on an annual evaluation process for employees and call that
Performance Management. However, annual evaluations are often subjective and can lack
specific measurements and supportive data to help the employee truly improve their

Simply putting, a Performance Management System is essential to the success of any

organization because it influences the effort expended by employees, which in turn, drives
bottom-line business results. Furthermore, the Performance Management System helps an
organization identify, recruit, motivate, and retain key employees.

An effective Performance Management System should achieve the following:

 Review the employment cycle of every employee,
 Beginning with the recruiting process,
 Employee development,
 Ending with effective exit interviews.
 Employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities with the organization's human capital needs
and business objectives.

 Provide managers and employees with the tools necessary to focus on short-term and
long-term goals that contribute to both career and organizational success.
 Support the organization in developing and sustaining a culture that recognizes and
rewards individual contributions and team performance.
 Promote a work climate that requires employees to remain flexibly focused. For instance,
employees can manage current tasks and unit goals while keeping pace with, and adapting
to, change in the work environment.
HR Performance Management System can be performed in three steps:
Needs Analysis
Identifying Competencies
Development of effective Performance Management System.

For Administration-
• Document HR decisions with regards to performance & its related issues.
• Determine promotion of employees.
• Determine increment in pay of employees.
• Determine transfer & change in job assignments.
• Determine retention or termination.
• Decide on layoffs.
• Decide need for training
• Decide salary & related issues.

For Development-
• Provide performance feedback to all concerned.
• Identify individual skills, core competencies, strength & weaknesses.
• Assist employees in setting goals.
• Identify training needs.
• Improve communication.

Method employed -
• Rating & Contribution

• Management by Objectives (MBO)-

Advanced by Peter F. Drucker, way back in 1954. During last decade about 50
organisations have adopted MBO in work settings.
MBO is a process whereby superior & subordinate managers of an organization jointly
identify its common goals, define each individual’s major areas of responsibilities in terms
of results expected of him & use these measures of guides for operating the unit & assessing
the contribution of its members.
The MBO focuses attention on participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable
& measurable.
The superior & subordinates jointly determine goals to be considered during appraisal
period & what level of performance is necessary for subordinates to satisfactorily achieve
specific goals.
During performance appraisal period the superior & subordinates update & alter goals as
necessary due to changes in business environment.
If not achieved identify reasons for deviation.

SYSTEM of Performance Appraisal –

a) Establish Performance Standard.
b) Communicate standard & expectation to employees.
c) Measure actual performance, by following instructions.
d) Adjust actual performance due to environment influence.
e) Compare actual performance with set standards & find out deviations.
f) Suggest changes in job analysis & standards if necessary.
g) Follow up.

• Rating biases-
• Halo effect
• Error of central tendency.
• Personal Prejudice.
• Recency effect.

Mainly the performance management of UTCL is done by online system includes the
following basic processes
1. Annual goal setting
2. Mid year review
3. Annual performance review
1.Annual goal setting –

 In the month of April/May every year, after the annual planning and budgeting rounds, all
teams identify their KRA’s and goals for the forthcoming financial year. This process
occurs by offline.
 Then the employees fill their goal setting document in the Poornata system, listing the
KRA’s, Goals, Measurement Criteria, Assigning Weightage and due date for completion of
specific goals as already discussed offline.
 Then they notify the same to their manager/immediate supervisor and await approval.
 The manager recommends any changes if required or else approves the goals set in the
 The approval of the goals set by the managers completes the goal setting process.
 The approved documents will be then available to the employees as well as their
managers for the reference throughout the year. These documents can also be viewed by
manager’s manager (Reviewer) for their indirect subordinates.

2. Mid Year Review:
 Mid year review of goals set at the beginning of the financial year held on the months of
October/November every year.
 The mid year review generally initiated by the manager.
 The main focus of the mid year review is to check if the goals set at the beginning of the
year are relevant or if they need to be revised or updated.
 The mid year review is also an opportunity for the manager and his team members to
identify and discuss about any performance issues and initiate corrective action for the
 The mid year review does not entail any ratings.

3. Annual Performance review:

 The annual performance reviews against goals set and achieved held during the months of
April-May every year.
 The employee completes his self-review /appraisal against goals set, online in the
Poornata system and submits the same to his manager for review.
 The manager then discuss the performance of the employee with him/her off-line, give
him feedback on his performance and capture his own comments and performance ratings
against goals and overall ratings in the manager’s evaluation form.
 The manager also discusses the employee’s performance as well as rating with the
manager’s manager (reviewer) and sends the document to the HR department for further

3. Training and Development

The needs of individual are objectively identified & necessary interventions are planned for
identified groups, which get rolled out in a phased manner through training calendar.

The training and development program is charted out to cover the number of trainees,
existing staff etc. The programs also cover the identification of resource personnel for
conducting development program, frequency of training and development programs and
budget allocation. Training and development programs can also be designed depending
upon job requirement and analysis. Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job analysis.

The company has a strong focus on manpower training according to their requirements. The
internal training department aims at improving the skill sets relevant to the work profile of

• This includes improving communication

• Different skills
• E-mail programming
• Operation systems.

The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective
has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of
training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their
training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

Training Design-
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,
interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.
The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their
profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important
factors that affect training design.

Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive
perception for training program, etc.

Trainees’ learning style – The learning style, age, experience, educational background of
trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.

Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates
it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about
what must be included, what could be included.

Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be
delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics and ad modules. These topics and
modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:

• From simple to complex
• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
• From known to unknown
• From specific to general
• Dependent relationship

Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes
clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or
techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:
• Trainees’ background
• Time allocated
• Style preference of trainer
• Level of competence of trainer
• Availability of facilities and resources, etc

Improve performance

“Training & Development is any attempt to improve current or future employee

performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by
changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.”


The need for Training and Development is determined by the employee’s performance
deficiency, computed as follows.
Training & Development Need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance

Training: Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An employee

undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. No training program is
complete without an element of education. Hence we can say that Training is offered to

Development: Development means those learning opportunities designed to help

employees to grow. Development is not primarily skills oriented. Instead it provides the
general knowledge and attitudes, which will be helpful to employers in higher positions.
Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development
activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally
voluntary in nature. Development provides knowledge about business environment,
management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the
like is useful for better management of a company.

The Training Inputs are

• Skills
• Education
• Development
• Ethics
• Problem Solving Skills
• Decision Making
• Attitudinal Changes
Importance of Training & Development
• Helps remove performance deficiencies in employees
• Greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization
• Accidents, scraps and damages to machinery can be avoided
• Serves as effective source of recruitment
• It is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future
• Reduces dissatisfaction, absenteeism, complaints and turnover of employees

Needs of Training
Individual level
• Diagnosis of present problems and future challenges
• Improve individual performance or fix up performance deficiency
• Improve skills or knowledge or any other problem
• To anticipate future skill-needs and prepare employee to handle more challenging tasks
• To prepare for possible job transfers

Training given on
• Safety aspects
• Behavorial aspects
• Technical aspects
• Communication skills

Identification of Training Needs (Methods)

Individual Training Needs Identification
1. Performance Appraisals
2. Interviews

3. Questionnaires
4. Attitude Surveys
5. Training Progress Feedback
6. Work Sampling
7. Rating Scales
Group Level Training Needs Identification
1. Organizational Goals and Objectives
2. Personnel / Skills Inventories
3. Organizational Climate Indices
4. Efficiency Indices
5. Exit Interviews
6. MBO / Work Planning Systems
7. Quality Circles
8. Customer Satisfaction Survey
9. Analysis of Current and Anticipated Changes

Benefits of Training Needs Identification

1. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance
2. Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors
3. Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants
4. Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done.

5. Talent Management

It is a holistic and systematic process, across the group. It is built on the work done so far on
people processes, and has a Talent Identification and Talent Development Strategy for all
the 3 levels of management i.e. Senior, Middle & Junior Management. This is facilitated by
Development Assessment Center followed by Individual Development Plan, enabling
planned succession and career management.

The talent management process includes HR process for

• Recruitment,
• Performance,
• Compensation,
• Succession planning,
• Learning and other capabilities around self-service,
• Analytics
• Reporting.

With businesses going global and competition becoming intense, there is mounting pressure
on organizations to deliver more and better than before. Organizations therefore need to be
able to develop and deploy people who can articulate the passion and vision of the
organization and make teams with the energy to perform at much higher levels.

Talent management is a key business process and like any business process takes inputs and
generates output.

Talent management is a professional term that gained popularity in the late 1990s. It refers
to the process of developing and fostering new workers through onboarding, developing and
keeping current workers and attracting highly skilled workers to work for your company.
Talent management in this context does not refer to the management of entertainers.

Companies that are engaged in talent management (human capital management) are
strategic and deliberate in how they source, attract, select, train, develop, promote, and
move employees through the organization. This term also incorporates how companies
drive performance at the individual level (performance management).

The term talent management means different things to different people.

• To some it is about the management of high-worth individuals or “the talented”.

To others it is about how talent is managed generally - i.e. on the assumption that all people
have talent which should be identified and liberated.

5. Job Analysis & Evaluation

It is broadly categorized in two parts. Job Analysis is a process to understand the job,
identify and disaggregate the activities, competencies and accountabilities associated with
the job. It defines and clusters the task required to perform the job. It also clarifies
boundaries between jobs. The output of Job Analysis exercise is referred to as job



 (Process of Collecting Information)

“Job Analysis is a process of studying and collecting information relating to operations and
responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are ‘Job
Description’ and ‘Job Specifications’.”

 (Systematic Exploration of Activities)

“Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of activities within a job. It is a basic technical

procedure that is used to define duties and responsibilities and accountabilities of the job.”

 (Identifying Job Requirements)

“Job is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the
production of some product or service, provided by the organization. Each job has certain
ability requirements (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. Job Analysis is a process
used to identify these requirements.”

Each job is a unique description of a role that a person can hold in an organization or
required to be performed for the business benefit of that organization. When jobs are
created, their tasks and requirements are taken into consideration.
Jobs are used in the following components:
• Job and Position Description

• Shift Planning

• Personnel Cost Planning

• Career and Succession Planning

Job descriptions should be as general as possible and as detailed as necessary.



Jobs are general Examples :

classifications of  Head of Department
tasks performed
 Buyer
by employees
 Secretary

Secretary Buyer

Head of Department


 Positions are specific to
Positions are the your enterprise
concrete representation
of jobs. They are held  More than one position can
by individuals at your be based on the same job
 Each position typically
represents one employee,
but may be partially filled
by more than one
Head of

Position: HO D : HR
HO D : Purchasing
HO D : Sales

 Once you have created a job, define the number of positions required the enterprise.
 Jobs are not staffed by employees. That is the role of positions. If more than one person
must perform jobs, more than one position must be created to meet this requirement.
A position inherits the job’s tasks, and can also be assigned its own additional tasks.
 Positions can be 100% staffed, partially staffed, or vacant.
 When we define a position as vacant, the system prompts us to define the period for which
the position will be vacant There will be a central authority that will be designated to
declare vacancies and make them available for Recruitment (both internal and external).
Positions can fall vacant due to reassignment or Separation as well. Such positions
become unoccupied and not vacant. Vacancy is thus a declared feature for a position.
A chief position is a position designated as the leader of a particular organizational unit.

 By matching the requirements of a position and the qualifications of the employees, we
will be able to do career planning for employees and succession planning for positions.
 A profile matching reports can also be run to review the results of how an existing
employee or an applicant fares against the requirements of a position.

6. Organizational Structure

Using the basic object types – constructs of relationships is built

to mirror the business edifices and processes. By assigning
object characteristics, validations, requirements etc, we can
capture complex organizational realities with relative ease.

Process Flow:

• Before creating all of the other necessary objects and relationships, the user must first
create a root organizational unit. Once one organizational unit has been created, it is
recommended to create the appropriate organizational units below it.
• Jobs may be created after an organizational unit exists in the model.
• You can assign cost centers to organizational units and Positions.

Organization chart
• Root org unit
• Additional Org units
• Jobs if Required
• Positions
• Details to where the positions need to be mapped.
• Position Details like Position Type, Position Sub Type, Department, and Sub department.

Every organization has its organizational structure. According to this every employee has
some specific work. The work also depends upon their levels. As per their levels in different
departments they will have to do their work.

In RMC business, there are different departments so as to organize the work efficiently and
effectively. These are:
• HR
• Marketing
• Technical
• Commercial and Accounts
• IT
• Key Accounts
• Quality

As for different departments different works has been specified for the different levels of
people. It helps them to perform their work, which has been specified to him. For similar
jobs also the work of the employees’ has been structured properly, to avoid the repetition of
the work with the other employees. It helps in decrease the overlapping of the work.

To manage the different levels of work the employees have been separated in to different
designations and different depts. According to their area of specialization. The designations
which have been given to the employees are based on the skills they have, grades,
knowledge, varying experiences. These designations have been specified as per the standard
HR Practices of the organizations, so as to make the organization different from other

In this way the organization stands in a better position than its competitors in the
competitive business.

The different designations given to the employees in UTCL (RMC Division) are given in
the following table.

Designation (s)
Jt. President /Jt. Exc. President
Sr. Vice President
Vice President
Asst. Vice President
Sr. General Manager / General Manager
Dy. General Manager
Sr. Manager
Dy. Manager
Asst. Manager
Sr. Engr. /Sr. Officer
Engineer / Officer
Asst. Engr. / Asst. Officer
Jr. Engr. /Jr. Officer
Sr. Supervisor
Support Staff

7. Human Resource Information System

POORNATA, an ERP (People soft) implementation of Human Resource practices has been
introduced in UTCL to elevate HR processes to world class levels and standardize them
across Units and Businesses. This has resulted in single integrated HR-ERP for all
management cadre employees of the group. These automated HR Processes will also aid in
faster, efficient, timely and accurate data availability to Management for decision-making.
UTCL’s People Soft Enterprise Performance Management (EPM) enables it to achieve
world-class performance by aligning the right information and resources to strategic
objectives. People Soft EPM offers performance management solutions for every budget
and every phase of the management cycle, helping its managers to formulate strategies for
profitable growth, align strategies with operational plans, and actively monitor day-to-day

Poornata helps a lot in the different works of the organization. It helps in the following

• It helps in entry of all the database of all the employees.

• It reduces time to note all the databases of the employees.
• It reduces different mistakes or errors while maintaining the databases
• It helps in doing performance appraisal of the employees.
• It also helps in doing the data updation of the employees.
• It helps in recruitment and selection of the employees
• It reduces the time of the work
• It also reduces the no of employees for maintaining the database.
• It helps in maintaining the job description of employees.
• It records the compensation details for the employee.

Poornata also helps the employees in this way,

Once the data of an employee entered in to Poornata (ERP), the employee gets a Poornata
ID, which helps the employees to know about the different policies of Organization.

 They can know these policies directly from the ERP system.
 As it done only through Online, there is no delay in getting different infomations.
 It also helps them to do the reporting to the concerned person.
 They can also fill their problems which they face during their work and send to their

In this way Poornata helps not only the managers but the employees also.

Poornata (ERP) helps UTCL in the following ways

Poornata helps in performing day to day roles.

Introduction – Poornata helps in creating and updating of the positions of the employees.

Each position will correspond to specific vacancy in the organization, have a specific
headcount defined for it and is also tied to the following specific attributes:

• Business unit
• Department
• Company
• Job code
• Location
• Regulatory Region
• Job Function
• Reporting to position (The position to which this particular position reports to)
• Career stages

Every time one or more of the above attributes change, the same have to be updated for the
position, or a new position may need to be created corresponding to the new combination of
the attributes.
Any individual who occupies a position will inherit the above-mentioned attributes of the

A position is thus specific and particular opening in the organization, as opposed to job
codes, which are more generic in nature. Job codes reflect the job points of the jobs across
the organization, whereas a position number reflects a specific job description in the

• Poornata helps and gives hints and warns the user the important information he must
know about the Poornata system.
• It provides the additional information to assist the user & provide key information.
• It also tells the frequently asked questions with respect to hiring employees.
• It also shows the common error and warning messages that the user may get at the time of

It needs the information about regarding these:

Employee ID, Position Number, Job code (the job points of the employee), Company (The
legal entity to which an employee /department is attached.), The Business unit to which the
employee belongs to, Location (i.e. where the employee works), Department etc.

Following are the steps that will be used to maintain positions and department budgets

• Creating new positions

• Updating the information for existing positions as and when required

1. Creating a new position

A position corresponds to a specific vacancy in the organization. Hence a position should be

created in Poornata, only when a new vacancy has arisen in the organization, and the
approval for the same has been obtained offline.
Only after the offline approval has been obtained, should the position be created in the
system, i.e. only pre-approved positions should be entered in to the system.

2. Updating The information for existing positions

From time to time the user should update the information for an existing position.

Typical situations are when:

• The position attributes or the approved max headcount for the position has changed.
• The position no longer exists.
• Organizational Restructuring.

Direct Hire Process:

It helps in doing the directly hiring an employee by Poornata system.

Introduction: The direct hiring process involves an employee being directly added to the
Poornata system that is the situation where his information doesn’t exits as applicant in the
Poornata system.

An employee on joining the group would fill up the joining check list and the related forms
as per the unit policy. The HR administrator would then hire him into the system by
capturing his relevant information with respect to his personal job compensation,
qualifications and dependents’ information.

The hire action will be used to capture the event of the employee’s joining the organization.
There can be either of two reasons for hire:

• Joining the ABG: This will reflect the situation where an employee joins a unit of the
ABG group directly.

• Joining the acquired company: This will reflect the situation where an employee had
joined an organization, which was subsequently acquired by ABG.

Going forward the action of joining the acquired company will be used to enter the data of
those employees from the non-management cadre moving into the management cadre who
had originally joined a company that was acquired by ABG.

The following information would be captured at the time of hiring the employee.

• Personal information – Name, address, NIN, DOB, gender marital status, religion / caste.
• Job related information related to hiring, his position a related details.
• Compensation information with respect to the break of his CTC

Recording personal actions for an employee

Introduction: Post hiring as the employee moves through the organization, there would be
various kinds of updation in the employee data. Broadly the processes that an employee
could move through in the course of his life cycle in the organization comprise:

• Probation, followed by confirmation.

• Promotion
• Pay rate change
• Transfer
• Resignation
• Termination
• Separation /Retirement

8. Compensation Philosophy of the company-

It is an outcome of what the Organization would like to pay for, which is determined by
external and internal factors. All the processes are aligned to reinforce the philosophy. The
company views compensation not only as something that reflects on the pay slip or in the
CTC (Cost To Company) but also they are concerned about overall employee well being
though they may not put any monetary value on items like Scholarships, Club membership,
Retirement benefit, Health and Accident coverage.

The Group’s approach towards various aspects of compensation focuses on:

• Pay for performance (Variable Pay)

 Rewards stretch performance which is linked to business, team and individual results

• Compensation increase

 Pay for the job

 Internal equity based on contribution to the organization

• External benchmarking

 Relevant industry segment and people market

 Parameters beyond compensation: head count/ level/ reporting
 Individual profile and performance
 To be market aware, not blindly follow market practices

• Compensation structure

 Tax efficient but compliant

 Common perk structure but varying amount

Three major terms used in the company’s compensation:

1. Fixed Cost: It is the fixed component of the salary that is committed to an employee and
is paid on monthly / annual basis. This includes base salary, all perks and reimbursements
and retrials such as PF, Gratuity and Superannuation.

2. Variable Pay: This is the variable component, payout of which is contingent on

Business, Unit/Zone and Individual performance. Targets for the year will be fixed and
communicated at the beginning of every performance year

3. Cost to Company: This is a sum of Fixed Cost and Variable Pay.

CTC is decided based on designation, qualification and experience. Basic is around 42% of
fixed cost without housing. Perks and allowances are fixed as per the designations. Variable
pay based on job band is payable at 18%, 15% and 12% of fixed cost without housing.
Balance amount is paid as special allowance.


An exit interview is simply a conversation between a departing employee (who is leaving

the company either voluntarily or involuntarily) and a representative from the organization.
The interview can follow a structured format or be conducted on an informal basis; written
questionnaires can even be used in place of a face-to-face meeting. Whichever format is
used, exit interviews are generally documented.

Traditionally, exit interviews are conducted with employees leaving an organization. The
purpose of the interview is to provide feedback on why employees are leaving, what they
liked or didn’t like about their employment and what areas of the organization they feel
need improvement. Exit interviews are one of the most widely used methods of gathering
employee feedback, along with employee satisfaction surveys.

Benefits of Exit Interview

Exit interviews can be a win-win situation for both the organization and the leaver. The
organization gets to retain a portion of the leaver’s knowledge and make it available to
others, while the leaver gets to articulate their unique contributions to the organization and
to ‘leave their mark’.

Exit interviews offer a fleeting opportunity to find out information that otherwise might be
more difficult or impossible to obtain. The exit interview is an important learning tool for
employers. When properly conducted, the interview provides the employer with the
opportunity to:

• Discuss and clarify the reasons for the termination

• Clarify pay and benefits issues (e.g., receipt of the last paycheck, the amount of unused
vacation, conversion or continuation of benefits, terms of a severance package,
unemployment insurance, etc.)
• Explain company policies relating to departing employees (e.g., trade secret
confidentiality, restrictive covenants or non-compete agreements, the possibility of future
re-employment, freelance or contract work, the provision of references to prospective
employers, etc.)
• Ensure the return of keys, security cards, and company property
• Obtain information about improper or questionable management practices connected with
the employee's termination
• Obtain information about a supervisor's management skills
• Obtain information about how effectively a department operates
• Obtain feedback about employees' opinions and attitudes about the company
• Resolve or defuse any remaining disputes with the exiting employee
• Protect itself against subsequent charges that the employee was forced to resign (i.e.,
constructive discharge)
UTCL is doing this interview. Because it knows “Learn of potential changes in policies and
practices that may make the company more competitive (e.g., compensation and benefits
packages, flexible work arrangements).


• Approval of loans.
• Expense related issues.
• Clearance certificates.
• Local conveyance.
• Exit interview form.
• Application form.
• Joining formalities.
• Making joining letters.
• Maintaining personal files with updated details.
• Verifying Mediclaims.

Comparison of HR Practices With the MASLOW’S theory-

I Actualization


Belongingness & Love

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs



According to Maslow “Human beings have wants & desires which can influence their
behavior. Only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs do not act as
motivators. Since needs are many, they are arranged in the order of their importance, or
hierarchy from the basic to complex.”

Physiological Needs -

The most basic, powerful & obvious of all human needs is the need for physical survival.
Included in this group are the needs for food, drink, sleep, protection from extreme
temperature etc. That means the basic needs.

In UTCL physiological needs are represented by

 Employees’ concern for salary
 Basic working conditions.
 E.g.-In workers level it is providing the basic needs (e.g. through wages), which are
required for them.
 It gives all hygienic factors to the workers (better working environment). It’s also
providing uniforms & shoes, so that they will get satisfied at their working place and get
motivated to work efficiently.
 It’s not only providing the physiological needs at working level but at employees’ level

Safety Needs-
Once physiological needs are met, another set of motives, called safety or security needs,
become motivators. The primary motivating force here is to ensure a reasonable degree of
continuity, order, structure, & predictability in one’s environment.

In UTCL security needs means the factors like

 Job security,
 Salary increments,
 Safe working conditions etc.
It also satisfy the safety needs of employees include
 Group insurance,
 Provident fund, gratuity,
 Safe working conditions,
 Grievance procedure,
 System of seniority to govern lay-off etc.
It’s definitely provides job securities to its employees because once employee get in to the
organization, the chances of retrenchment is very less till the employee has not done any

thing misconduct. Because of these reasons employees can satisfy their safety needs. That is
the reason for low attrition in the organization.

Belonging & Love Needs -

The belonging & Love needs constitute the third level in the hierarchy of needs. These
needs arise when physiological & safety needs are satisfied.

In UTCL the work groups are very co-operative.

 There present the peer acceptance,
 Professional friendship &
 Friendly supervision in the organization.
 Here the managers also encourage informal group.

So there is completely a friendly working environment.

That’s why employees are very friendly.

Self-Esteem Needs-
Next in Maslow’s hierarchy is esteem or egoistic needs.

In the work place of UTCL, self-esteem needs are;

 Job title, merit pay,
 Peer/supervisory recognition,
 Challenging works,
 Responsibility etc.
The Group fulfils these needs by giving
 Challenging work assignments,
 Performance appraisals,
 Performance recognition,
 Involving employees in goal setting & decision making.
In this way UTCL satisfies the self-esteem needs of employees.

Self-Actualization Needs-
Finally if all the above four levels’ needs are satisfied, the needs for self-actualization
comes. The employees who are in the highest position in UTCL are comes under these
needs like:
1. V.P.,
2. President,
3. GM etc.
4. All top level employees.
They are getting all types of facilities like mobile, medical, education, conveyance
allowances etc.So they are in the position that they are satisfied with all the needs. Now
they are helping their juniors for the betterment of the organization. All the five needs of
Maslow’s hierarchy are fulfilled by UTCL. So the employees are getting motivated and
performing efficiently in the organization, which impacts directly on the success of UTCL
group. That’s why the attrition rate is less in the organization, which is one of the reason for
the success of the companies.


• Firstly it was a very good experience to work and learn with a world class for two months
as it was my first step into the corporate world.
• When I saw my senior people doing each & every kind of work I came to know how
much important is each & every work. Maintaining files in systematic manner with each &
every detail is very important, if not done it hinders the work whenever these are required
for reference in medical claim formalities, appraisal etc.
• As I worked with the employees of HR department in the organization during the project
they shared their experience and learnings with me, which was a very good opportunity I
got during my project.
• I learned different HR Policies of the organization which were unknown to me before
entering to the corporate world.
• I also learned how much the values and culture of the organization impacts the employees
productivity. Like here the Seniors were approachable in nature, I felt an open culture.
• Many a times I felt people are not open to new ideas and they are resistant to change.
• I have gained some learning from every individual working here; it might be in terms of
knowledge, skills, behavior or personal traits etc.
• I have learned many small, minute things by observations, being in the HR department for
2 months, which could not be learnt simply by reading books theoretically. The practical
experience was totally different.
• I have also learnt that a HR person should be very polite, soft spoken & good in handling
people. Co-ordination with all departments is very necessary especially with Finance


 During the study of the project I observed different functions of the HR

Department. I got the knowledge about the different types of HR Policies
functioning in the organization. I also got knowledge about how the organization
is following their values in a very sincere way.
 I learnt how and what types of facilities are being provided to the employees .
 I also observed how they are doing the Performance Appraisal on basis of the
achievement of the targets by the employees in the time given to them through
 I got the knowledge about different departments in a manufacturing company and
idea about the challenges what the employees are facing while performing their
 As I worked on the ERP system of the organization, I came to know that how they
are maintaining the database of the employees for all departments region-wise &
its importance.
 They emphasis on providing proper working environment to their employees, so
that the employees can work efficiently & smoothly .


• The company should give the compensation as per to the skills, so that the
employees could do the efficient work.

• Organizations must enhance work force motivation to improve productivity.

Workers must be encouraged and motivated to develop a customer satisfaction mind set.

• Organizations need to empower their workers by allowing them greater autonomy

and control and to design jobs that are more stimulating. This will enhance the personal

• Interdependency of different departments should be well studied, co-ordinated for

effective output.
• Training schedule is worked out well here with proper planning schedule.
Recruitment proper planned, structured according to openings in plant, new

• Goal Setting programs undertaken with schedule to find potential prospective

employees for higher posts, giving training, discussing the on job responsibilities.
• The employee goals are well studied and structured. The Key Related Areas are
properly designed & clearly mentioned to employees.


1. UTCL: - Ultratech Cement Ltd.

2. VSF: - Viscose Staple Fibre.
3. KPI: - Key Performance Indicator.
4. VFY: - Viscose Filament Yarn.
5. RMC: - Ready Mix Concrete.
6. OYOCS: - Own Your Own Car Scheme.
7. CRM: - Cement Research Management.
8. EPM: - Enterprise Performance Management.
9. ERP: - Enterprise Resource Planning.
10. HRA: - House Rent Allowance.
11. LTA: - Leave Travel Assistance


During the project there were various constraints, which were faced.

 The review is done in retrospect and is an average of six months old, so

recollection of events is poor.
 The opinions of staff and manager are often in opposition, causing de-motivation.
 The process is usually Manager driven and the staff member is expected to be
compliant in the interview.
 The process usually involves the Manager giving their opinion and the staff
member having to defend the position, rather than a positive discussion.
 The process is usually done in a rushed manner to meet a budget development
process and therefore loses its relevance to performance.
 Results of merit rating are not accurate unless factors in the assessment are
 Sometimes, proper weightage may not be given to different qualities to be rated.

 Actual rating of subjective factors like initiative & personality of employees may
not be on scientific lines.
 Superior may be biased.
 Method of Appraisal unreliable.