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Y BUS FORMATION FOR

LOAD - FLOW STUDIES

BY :-
Gaurav
Ranjan
Narender
Singh
ABSTRACT
Ø Load flow is an important power system analysis component to ensure the
system upgrades, future upgrades and present distribution equipment
meeting the present and future requirements.

Ø Load flow study in power system is the steady state solution of power system
network.

Ø The information obtained from load flow solution is used for the continuous
monitoring of current state of the system and for analyzing the
effectiveness of future system expansion to meet increased load demand.

Ø The main objective of the load flow is to find the voltage magnitude of each
bus and its angle when the powers generated and loads are specified.

INTRODUCTION
 Load flow studies can be used to obtain the voltage magnitudes and angles at
each bus in the steady state.
 Once the bus voltage magnitudes and their angles are computed using the
load flow, the real and reactive power flow through each line can be
computed.

 This project deals with Ybus formation using different methods for load flow

analysis.

 Formation of Ybus plays a vital role in solving any load flow problem.

available simple methods which are discussed here.

CLASSIFICATION OF BUSES
Load Buses: In these buses no generators are connected and hence the
generated real power PGi and reactive power QGi are taken as zero.
Voltage Controlled Buses: These are the buses where generators are
connected.
slack or swing buses : Usually this bus is numbered 1 for the load flow
studies. This bus sets the angular reference for all the other buses.
GAUSS SEIDEL METHOD
ALGORITHM FOR LOAD-FLOW SOLUTION
With the load profile known at each bus (i.e.
PDi and QDi known), allocate PGi and QGi to all
generating stations
Assembly of bus admittance matrix YBUS
Iterative computation of bus voltages
 Current at the ith bus

 P -jQ / V *= I
i i i i
= ∑nk=1 Yik Vk
= Yi1 V1 + Yi2 V2 + Yi3 V3 +…+ Yin Vn
For (r+1)th iteration, the voltage becomes
 Vi (r) -∑ i-1 B k V (r+1) -∑ n B k V (r)
(r+1) =Ai/Vi k=1 i k k=i+1 i k
 A =P -jQ /Y
i i i ii
 B =Y /Y
ik ik ii
Computation of slack bus power
Si*=Pi-jQi
Computation of line flows

The current fed by bus i into the line can be expressed

as
Iik =Iik1 +Iik0 =(Vi-Vk)Yik +ViYik0

The power fed into the line from bus i is,

Sik =Pik +jQik =Vi I*ik =Vi(V*i-V*k)Y*ik +ViV*iY*ik0

Similarly the power fed into the line from bus k is

Ski =Vk(V*k-V*i)Y*ik +VkV*kY*ki0
NEWTON - RAPHSON ( NR ) METHOD
Consider a set of n non-linear algebraic equations
 fi (x1, x2,……, xn) =0; i=1,2,3, ….., n
 fi (x10 +∆x10, x20 +∆x20,… …….. xn0+∆xn0) = 0;
Taylor series expansion
 fi (x10, x20,………..xn0)+[(∂fi/∂x1)0 ∆x10 +
(∂fi/∂x2)0 ∆x20+……….+(∂fi/∂xn)0 ∆xn0]+ higher order
terms=0
Neglecting higher order terms we can write above
equation in matrix form

Or in vector matrix form
f0+J0∆x0=0
J0 is known as the jacobian matrix

the above Eq can be written as

f0≈ [-j0] ∆x0
Update values of x are then

x1=x0+∆x0
or, in general form of x (r+1) th iteration
x(r+1) =x(r) +∆x(r)
Iterations are continued till Eq is satisfied to any desired accuracy,
i.e,
fi(x(r)) <ε (A specified value);
fip =Pi (specified)-Pi(calculated)=∆Pi
fiQ =Q(specified)-Qi(calculated)=∆Qi

Where ∆P and ∆Q are the real and reactive power mismatch at each bus. j is the
jacobian matrix, j represents the sensitivity measurement of the real and reactive
power with respect to the bus voltage angle and magnitude.
Bus type Number of Qualities Number of Number of δi
buses specified available |Vi| state
equations variables

Slack 1 δi , |Vi| 0 0
i=1

Voltage Ng Pi, |Vi| Ng-1 Ng-1

controlled
(i=2,3,
….Ng+1)
Load (Ng+2, N-Ng-1 Pi, Qi 2(N-Ng) 2(N-Ng)
…..N)

Total N 2N 2N-Ng 2N-Ng

DECOUPLED LOAD FLOW METHOD
 The decoupled power flow method is an
approximate version of Newton-Raphson
procedure.
 The approximation of the Newton-Raphson
procedure only affects the iteration approach it
does not reduce the accuracy of the final
solution.
 The principle underlying the decoupled
approach is based on two observations:
 Change in the voltage angle delta at a bus primarily
affects the flow of real power P in the transmission
lines and leaves the flow of reactive power Q relatively
unchanged.
 Change in the voltage magnitude at a bus
primarily affects the flow of reactive power Q in the
transmission lines and leaves the flow of real power
relatively unchanged.
A well designed an properly operated power transmission

system:
 The angular differences between typical buses of the
system are usually so small that

The line susceptances are many times larger than the
line conductance
so that

The reactive power Qi injected into any bus i of the system

during normal operation is much less than the reactive power
which would flow if all lines from that bus were short-circuited
to reference.
That is

 After simplifying:

THE SOLUTION STRATEGY
Calculate the initial mismatch P
Solve for
Update the angles and use them to calculate
mismatch
Solve for and update the magnitude ,and
Repeat the iteration until all mismatches are within
specified tolerances.
PRIMITIVE NETWORK
Primitive network is defined as representation of
network in the form of impedance or admittance.

V+E=[Z]I

irs +jrs =yrs vrs (or)

I+J=[Y]V
Y BY
I O N O F bus
FOR M A T H O D
C T M E T
DI R E
vDiagonal values is
brought up by
branches
connected to
point (or) node
v
vOthers are brought
by taking
negative of the
value between
b e o b t a i n e d
c a n a l s o
Y Bus s
t h e r m e t h o d

by o

Bus admittance and Bus impedance matrix.

•Branch admittance and Branch impedance matrix.

•Loop admittance and Loop impedance matrix.
A N D B US
M IT TA N C E
B U S A D I X
N C E M AT R
IM P ED A
i+j=[Y]V
ATi+ATj=AT[Y]V as,(IBus =ATj , ATi=0 )
0+IBus =AT[Y]V
(J*)TV= (IBus *)TEBus
(J*)TAEBus =(j*)TV
V=AEBus
YBus =AT[Y]A
The bus impedance matrix can be obtained as
 ZBus =Y-1 Bus = [AT[Y]A]-1
 NOTE:-SAME IS THE CAES WITH THE ‘BRANCH ADMITTANCE AND
BRANCH IMPEDANCE MATRIX’ THE ONLY DIFFERENCE IS ‘B’
MULTIPLIED WITH PRIMITIVE NETWORK PARAMETERS.
A ND LO O P
M IT TA NC E
LOO P A D
C E M AT R I X
IM P EDA N
v+e= [Z]i
CTv+CTe=CT[Z]I as,(CTv=0, ELoop =CTe )
(ILoop *)TELoop = (i*)Te
(ILoop *)TCT= (i*)T
i=CILoop
ELoop =CT[Z]CILoop
ZLoop =CT[Z] C
Loop admittance matrix can be obtained from
 YLoop =ZLoop -1 = [CT[Z]C]-1

COMPARISION BETWEEN THE THREE METHODS
GAUSS SEIDEL NEWTON RAPHSON FAST DECOUPUED NEWTON
RAPHSON
ATTRIBUTES
HOW THE PROGRAM IS Easy Quite complex Less complex when
compared to NR

Raphson

SYSTEM SIZE Time Increases Size hardly matters convergence is sure

linearly in 5 to 6 iterations

TYPE OF SYSTEM System may or may not Sure to converge No convergence

converge problem
Ybus FORMATION 14 BUS
%
 | From | To | R | X | B/2 |
%
 | Bus | Bus | pu | pu | pu |
linedata= [1
 2 0.01938 0.05917 0.0264
 1 5 0.05403 0.22304 0.0246
 2 3 0.04699 0.19797 0.0219
 2 4 0.05811 0.17632 0.0170
 2 5 0.05695 0.17388 0.0173
 3 4 0.06701 0.17103 0.0064
 4 5 0.01335 0.04211 0.0
 4 7 0.0 0.20912 0.0
 4 9 0.0 0.55618 0.0
 5 6 0.0 0.25202 0.0
 6 11 0.09498 0.19890 0.0
 6 12 0.12291 0.25581 0.0
 6 13 0.06615 0.13027 0.0
fb = linedata(:,1); % From bus number...
tb = linedata(:,2); % To bus number...
r = linedata(:,3); % Resistance, R...
x = linedata(:,4); % Reactance, X...
b = linedata(:,5); % Ground Admittance, B/2...
z = r + i*x; % Z matrix...
y = 1./z; % To get inverse of each element...
nbus = max(max(fb),max(tb)); % no. of buses...
nbranch= length(fb); % no. of branches...
ybus = zeros(nbus,nbus); % Initialise YBus...
% Formation of Off Diagonal Elements...
for k=1:nbranch
ybus(fb(k),tb(k)) = -y(k);
ybus(tb(k),fb(k)) = ybus(fb(k),tb(k));
end
% Formation of Diagonal Elements....
for m=1:nbus
for n=1:nbranch
if fb(n) == m | tb(n) == m
ybus(m,m) = ybus(m,m) + y(n) + b(n);
end
end
end
ybus
OUTPUT
ybus =


 Columns 1 through 6

 6.0760 -19.4981i -4.9991 +15.2631i 0 0 -1.0259 + 4.2350i 0

 -4.9991 +15.2631i 9.6039 -30.3547i -1.1350 + 4.7819i -1.6860 + 5.1158i -1.7011 + 5.1939i 0
 0 -1.1350 + 4.7819i 3.1493 - 9.8507i -1.9860 + 5.0688i 0 0
 0 -1.6860 + 5.1158i -1.9860 + 5.0688i 10.5364 -38.3431i -6.8410 +21.5786i 0
 -1.0259 + 4.2350i -1.7011 + 5.1939i 0 -6.8410 +21.5786i 9.6099 -34.9754i 0+
3.9679i
 0 0 0 0 0 + 3.9679i 6.5799 -17.3407i
 0 0 0 0 + 4.7819i 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 + 1.7980i 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0 -1.9550 + 4.0941i
 0 0 0 0 0 -1.5260 + 3.1760i
 0 0 0 0 0 -3.0989 + 6.1028i
 0 0 0 0 0 0

Columns 7 through 12

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 + 4.7819i 0 0 + 1.7980i 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -1.9550 + 4.0941i -1.5260 + 3.1760i
0 -19.5490i 0 + 5.6770i 0 + 9.0901i 0 0 0
0 + 5.6770i 0 - 5.6770i 0 0 0 0
0 + 9.0901i 0 5.3261 -24.2825i -3.9020 +10.3654i 0 0

0 0 0 -1.8809 + 4.4029i 3.8359 - 8.4970i 0

0 0 0 0 0 4.0150 - 5.4279i
0 0 0 0 0 -2.4890 + 2.2520i
0 0 -1.4240 + 3.0291i 0 0 0

Columns 13 through 14

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
-3.0989 + 6.1028i 0
0 0
0 0
0 -1.4240 + 3.0291i
0 0
0 0
-2.4890 + 2.2520i 0
6.7249 -10.6697i -1.1370 + 2.3150i
-1.1370 + 2.3150i 2.5610 - 5.3440i
Y BUS formation using singular transformation

ydata=[1 1 2 1/(0.05+j*0.15) 0 0
 2 1 3 1/(0.1+j*0.3) 0 0
 3 2 3 1/(0.15+j*0.45) 0 0
 4 2 4 1/(0.10+j*0.30) 0 0
 5 3 4 1/(0.05+j*0.15) 0 0];
 elements=max(ydata(:,1))
 yprimitive=zeros(elements,elements)
 for i=1:elements,yprimitive(i,i)=ydata(i,4)
 if(ydata(i,5)~=0)
 j=ydata(i,5)
 ymutual=ydata(i,6)
 yprimitive(i,j) =ymutual
 end
 end
 buses=max(max(ydata(2,:)),max(ydata(3,:)))
 A=zeros(elements,buses);
 for i=1:elements,
 if(ydata(i,2)~=0)
 A(i,ydata(i,2))=1
 end
 if ydata(i,3)~=0
 A(i,ydata(i,3))=-1
 end
 end
OUTPUT
elements = 5
  yprimitive =



 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 0 0
yprimitive =



 2.0000 - 6.0000i 0 0 0
0
 0 0 0 0
0
 0 0 0 0
0

yprimitive =

2.0000 - 6.0000i 0 0 0
0
0 1.0000 - 3.0000i 0 0
0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

yprimitive =

2.0000 - 6.0000i 0 0 0
0
0 1.0000 - 3.0000i 0 0
0
yprimitive =


 2.0000 - 6.0000i 0 0 0
0
 0 1.0000 - 3.0000i 0 0
0
 0 0 0.6667 - 2.0000i 0
0
 0 0 0 1.0000 - 3.0000i
0
 0 0 0 0 0




yprimitive =



 2.0000 - 6.0000i 0 0 0
0
buses =
 1.0000 - 3.0000i




A =

 1
 0
 0
 0
 0


A =

 1 -1
 0 0
 0 0
 0 0
 0 0

A=
 1 -1
 1 0
 0 0
 0 0
 0 0


A =

 1 -1 0
 1 0 -1
 0 0 0
 0 0 0
 0 0 0

A=
 1 -1 0
 1 0 -1
 0 1 0
 0 0 0
 0 0 0


A =

 1 -1 0
 1 0 -1
 0 1 -1
 0 0 0
 0 0 0

A=
 1 -1 0
 1 0 -1
 0 1 -1
 0 1 0
 0 0 0


A =

 1 -1 0 0
 1 0 -1 0
 0 1 -1 0
 0 1 0 -1
 0 0 0 0

A=
 1 -1 0 0
 1 0 -1 0
 0 1 -1 0
 0 1 0 -1
 0 0 1 0


A =

 1 -1 0 0
 1 0 -1 0
 0 1 -1 0
 0 1 0 -1
 0 0 1 -1

 YBUS =


 -2.0000 + 6.0000i 3.6667 -11.0000i -0.6667 + 2.0000i

-1.0000 + 3.0000i
 -1.0000 + 3.0000i -0.6667 + 2.0000i 3.6667 -11.0000i
-2.0000 + 6.0000i
 0 -1.0000 + 3.0000i -2.0000 + 6.0000i 3.0000 -
9.0000i


CONCLUSION
Load flow study comprises the magnitude and phase angle of
load bus voltages, reactive power at generator buses, the real
and reactive power flow on transmission lines, and other
variable being specified.

The Ybus matrix forms the network models for load flow
studies.

Because of sparsity the minimal storage is required.

The alternative approach is of great theoretical and practical
significance particularly in the case of mutual coupling and
phase shifting transformers.
REFERENCES
 BOOKS:
 Stagg,G.W and A.H.El-Abiad, Computer Method in Power System analysis
 Nargrath, I.J.and D.P.Kothari, Power System Engineering
 Weedy,B.M. and B.J.Cory, Electrical power Systems, 4th Ed., John Wiley, NEW
YORK,1998
 Nargrath, I.J.and D.P.Kothari, Modern Power System Analysis, Third Edition Tata
McGraw-Hill, New Delhi
 Power system analysis by Hadi Saadat –TMH Edition
 MATLAB ® and its Tool Boxes user’s manual and –Mathworks, USA

 PAPERS:
 Tinney,W.F., and C.E.Hart, ‘Power flow Solution By Newton’s Method’, IEEE Trans.,
November 1967,No.11, PAS-86:1449
 Stott, B.,’ Decoupled Newton Load Flow’, IEEE Trans., 1972, PAS-91,1955
 Stott, B., ‘ Review of Load Flow Calculation Method’, Proc. IEEE, July1974, PAS-93

THANKS YOU
BY :-
Gaurav Ranjan
Narender Singh
N Moses Binny