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Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or

"moment") on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of
subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity.
When in static equilibrium, the system is either at rest, or its center of mass moves at constant
By Newton's first law, this situation implies that the net force and net torque (also nown as moment
of force) on every part of the system is !ero. "rom this constraint, such quantities
as stress or pressure can be derived. #he net forces equalin$ !ero is nown as the first condition for
equilibrium, and the net torque equalin$ !ero is nown as the second condition for
equilibrium. %ee statically determinate.
Force is the action of one body on another. & force is either a push or a pull. & force tends to move a
body in the direction of its action. #he action of a force is characteri!ed by its ma$nitude, by the
direction of its action, and by its point of application. #hus force is a vector quantity, because its
effect depends on the direction as well as on the ma$nitude of the action.
"orces are classified as either contact or body forces. & contact force is produced by direct physical
contact* an e+ample is the force e+erted on a body by a supportin$ surface. & body force is
$enerated by virtue of the position of a body within a force field such as a $ravitational, electric, or
ma$netic field. &n e+ample of a body force is the wei$ht of a body in the ,arth's $ravitational pull.
-n addition to the tendency to move a body in the direction of its application, a force can also tend to
rotate a body about an a+is. #he a+is may be any line which neither intersects nor is parallel to
the line of action of the force. #his rotational tendency is nown as the moment (M) of the force.
.oment is also referred to as torque.
Moment about a point[edit]
#he ma$nitude of the moment of a force at a point /, is equal to the perpendicular distance from /
to the line of action of ", multiplied by the ma$nitude of the force0 . 1 " 2 d, where
" 1 the force applied
d 1 the perpendicular distance from the a+is to the line of action of the force. #his perpendicular
distance is called the moment arm.
#he direction of the moment is $iven by the ri$ht hand rule, where counter clocwise (33W) is out of
the pa$e, and clocwise (3W) is into the pa$e. #he moment direction may be accounted for by usin$
a stated si$n convention, such as a plus si$n (4) for counterclocwise moments and a minus si$n (5)
for clocwise moments, or vice versa. .oments can be added to$ether as vectors.
-n vector format, the moment can be defined as the cross product between the radius vector, r (the
vector from point / to the line of action), and the force vector, F0