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EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURE

General Start-up Procedures


1.

Water is filled into the sump tank of the Hydraulic Bench until approximately 80% full.

2.

The outlet flow control valve is fully opened at the apparatus and the water flow is

directed to through the test section by switching the valves.


3.

The bench flow control valve is fully closed.

4.

The flow control valve for inlet flow is gradually opened and the piping is allowed to fill

with water until all air has been expelled from the system.
5. The pump is switched on

Fluid Friction in Pipes


Test Section
1.

6mm Smooth Bore Pipe

2.

10mm Smooth Bore Pipe

3.

17mm Smooth Bore Pipe

Procedures
1.

The apparatus is start-up according to general procedures.

2. The appropriate valves are opened and closed to obtain flow of water through the
required test pipe.
3. Flow rates are measured using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control
valve.
4.

For small flow rates, the measuring cylinder is used to in conjunction with flow control.

5.

Head loss between the tapping is measured using the pressurized water measurement.

6.

The testing with different flowrate is repeated and reading on test section is obtained.

7.

Data is recorded in Table .

Head Loss through Fittings


Test Section
1.

A 90 bend

2.

A 90 elbow

3.

A 45 elbow

4.

A 45 Y

5.

A 90 T

6.

A sudden enlargement

7.

A sudden contraction

Procedures
1.

The apparatus is start-up according to general procedures.

2.

The appropriate valves are opened and closed to obtain flow of water through the

required test fittings.


3.

Flow rates are measured using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control

valve.
4.

Differential head between tapping on each fitting is measured with pressurized water

manometer.
5.

Differential head between tapping on test valves is measured using pressurized water

manometer.
6.

The testing with different flow rate is repeated and the readings on test section is

obtained.
7.

Data is recorded in Table .

General Shut-down Procedures


1.

The water supply pump is switched off.

2.

All valves is fully opened to drain off water from piping.

3.

Then, the inlet water supply valve on hydraulics bench is fully closed.

4.

The main power supply is switched off.

5.

The water in sump tank is retained for the next study session.