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eee Std \$51-2006 CHAPTER 3 3.5 Per-unit and ohmic manipulations? Short-circuit calculations are made to solve the equation J = £/Z. Obtaining values of the impedance Z is a time consuming effort when conducting a short-circuit analysis. The impedance Z, given on the equipment nameplate or furnished by the equipment manufacturer, may be identified either in per-unit or in ohmic values, but one or the other must be used consistently in any calculation. The same study results will ultimately be obtained for either ohmic or per-unit representation. Many engineers find the per-unit system easier to use because impedance changes due to transformer ratios are automatically taken into account. The per-unit system is a shorthand calculating technique where all equipment and circuit impedances are converted to a common base. In using the ohmic system, all impedances must be referred to the appropriate voltage level by the square of the transformer tums ratio. With several levels of voltages, this can become an added bookkeeping task. In the per-unit system, changing of impedance values. because of transformer ratios is unnecessary. For example, using the same voltage base as the transformer primary and secondary voltages results in the transformer pet-unit, impedance being the same on both sides of the transformer. Equipment manufacturers usually state the impedance of electrical equipment in perunit on the KVA and voltage base of the equipment. The per-unit impedances of machines (using the machine ratings as bases) of the same type (induction motor, synchronous motor, synchronous generator, etc.) are approximately. the same for a broad range of machine sizes, while the ohmic values vary with the size of the machine, Knowing that the per-unit impedances fall within a fairly narrow band is advantageous when machine data must be estimated. Typical per-unit values are often used in preliminary designs or for small motors where individual test reports are not available. In the per-unit system, there are many base quantities, including base apparent power (KVA or MVA), base volts (volts or kV), base impedance (ohms), and base current (amperes). Choosing any two automatically determines the other bases. The relationship between base, per-unit, and actual quantities is as shown in Equation (3.8). per quantity unit = 4tval quantity 3.8) base quantity or rewritten actual quantity = (per unit quantity)(base quantity) 69) Normally, the base MVA is selected first and the most commonly used MVA bases are 10 MVA and 100 MVA, although any MVA or kVA base value may be used. Many utilities express impedance as “percent” impedance on a 100 MVA base, where percent impedance equals per-unit impedance times 100. The voltage at one level is chosen as the *Sce Beeman (BI), Stevenson [B10], Weedy [B11]. 50 Copyright © 2006 IEEE. All rights reserved.