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Name:

Period:
AP Psychology

Learning Practice
Classical & Operant Conditioning
#
1.
2.
3.
4.

Term
Stimuli
Neutral stimuli
Conditioned

Definition/Example/Information
Anything in the environment that influence behavior.
Does not produce response.
Learning

Classical Conditioning
5. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
6.
Unconditioned Response
(UCR)
7.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
8.

Conditioned Response (CR)


Acquisition

10.
11.
12.

Elicits
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery

13.

Generalization
Discrimination

Page

UCS: Food
CS: Bell

Learned behavior to a previously neutral stimulus


Salvia (conditioned by bell to salivate)
Acquisition refers to the first stages of learning when a
response is established. In classical conditioning, it refers to
the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke
the conditioned response.

9.

14.

A process of behavior modification by which a subject


(dog) comes to associate a desired behavior (salivating for
food) with a previously unrelated stimulus (bell).
Association of 2 things together
We learn through association (hear a bell, go to next class)
A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a
response. Food
An unlearned, naturally/automatic occurring response(action)
to a stimulus
Salvia (naturally do this)
Originally neutral stimulus
Bell, it has been learned for the dogs to mean something

To bring or draw out/causes


No longer occurs, breaking of the connection
The reappearance of the conditioned response after a
rest period or period of lessened response.
The tendency for similar stimuli to elicit the same response.
--Pavlov Instead of bell horn, siren, etc.
Ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and
other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned
stimulus. (not the right bell, only to a specific sound/tone)

UCR: Salivation
CR: Salivation

AP Psychology

1. When your golden retriever was just a puppy you would spank him with a
newspaper after he did something naughty. He then would lie down and
whimper. He is perfectly behaved now, but each time he sees you holding a
newspaper, he lies down and whimpers.
UCS
CS

Spanking
Newspaper

UCR

CR

Lie down & whimper


Lie down & whimper

2. Joan, an animal trainer, has been afraid of monkeys since an attack


happened in her childhood. However, because of the high pay she has
taken a job at the zoo. Just walking near the animal cages makes her
tense, sweaty and nausesous.

UCS Attack/Monkey
CS Zoo/Animal cages

UCR Tense, sweaty & nauseous


CR Tense, sweaty & nauseous

3. One night, Rob, when out with his buddies for double-cheeseburgers at Sonic Drive-In
restaurant. He then became violentely ill afterwards. Now just drving past Sonics
makes his stomach tremble.
UCS
CS

Bad food
Sonic

Ill/sick
Ill/sick

UCR

CR

What could be a level of generalization: McDonalds; BK, Dog n Suds


4. Julie worked in a childrens clothing store that gave balloons to all of the younger
customers. One day she gave a balloon to a little boy and he immediately popped it. The
next time, he did the same. After a few visits, Julie flinched as soon as she handed him a
ballon in the anticipation of him popping it.

Page

UCS
CS

Balloon popping
Giving it to the boy

UCR Flinching

CR

Flinching

5. Mary is receiving chemotherapy. Every time she leaves the hospital the
nausea gets the best of her and she has to stop on her way out to throw-up.

AP Psychology

Last week she went to visit a sick friend in a different hospital and on her way out she
had to stop to throw-up even through she hadnt received chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy
Hospital

UCS
CS

UCR

CR

Nauseas
Nauseas

6. Jose has five dogs at home; he has always been an animal lover. When
Joses friend James asked him to come over to help train his new pit-bull,
Beast, he galdy did. When Jose reached out to pet Beast, the dog lunged
forward and bit his hand. Jose was very sore and needed six stitches. Jose
still loves caring for other dogs, but just seeing Beast in the window
makes his hand throb.
UCS
CS

Getting bitten
Seeing Beast in a window

UCR

CR

Hurt/pain
Hurt/pain

What could be a level of discrimination? Handed throbs only when he sees beast and not
other dogs
7. An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small
examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several
trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.
UCS
CS

Drug
Small room

UCR
CR

Accelerate heart rate


Accelerate heart rate

8. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike
for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.
UCS Flu
UCR Get sick/vomit/nausea
Food/smell
Get sick/vomit/nausea
CS
CR

Page

9. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a
white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the
white rat.
UCS Loud Noise
UCR Startled
White Rate
Startled
CS
CR

VIDEO Examples
1.) Classical Conditioning a BGSU

AP Psychology

UCS: Air gun


CS: Sound effect easy

UCR: Flinch in pain


CR: Flinch in pain

2.) The Office Office Conditioning

UCS: Offering an altoid


CS: sound of computer

UCR: wanting fresh breath


CR: wanting fresh breath

UCS:
CS:

UCR:
CR:

UCS:
CS:

UCR:
CR:

3.) Other:

4.) Other:

Page

Positive Reinforcement &


Negative Reinforcement
#

Examples

Positive Negative
Rein.
Rein.

AP Psychology

1.
2.

Loud buzz in some cars when ignition key is turned on; driver
must put safety belt on in order to eliminate irritating buzz.
Faking a stomach ache in order to avoid school.

3.

Cleaning your room so that you can use the car for the evening.

4.

Rushing home in the winter to get out of the cold.

5.

7.

Being nice to your little brother so your parents will buy you a
desired present.
Cleaning the house to get rid of the disgusting mess and/or
cleaning the house to get rid of your fathers nagging.
Giving in to an argument or to a child or dogs begging.

8.

Studying for an exam to avoid getting a poor grade.

9.

Waiting in line for 2 hours to see a famous movie star.

6.

YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

10. Taking aspirin to relieve headaches.


11. Buying new clothes so that your friends will think you are
fashionable.
12. Buying new clothes so that your friends will stop making fun of
our fashion sense.
13. Removing a painful splinter from a finger.
14. Removing a stone that has been lodged inside of your shoe
while walking.
15. Building a fire in the fireplace so that you can be warm & cozy.
16. Fanning oneself to escape from the heat.
17. Prisoners try to break out of jail to escape the averseness of
being locked up.
18. Leaving a movie theatre if the movie is bad.

YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

19. Running from the building when the fire alarm sounds.

YES

20. Avoidance or escaping an unpleasant social encounter.

YES

Reinforcement vs. Punishment

Page

Instructions: For each example presented below, identify whether positive reinforcement (PR), negative
reinforcement (NR), or positive punishment (PP) or negative punishment (NP) is illustrated by placing the
appropriate abbreviation in the blank next to the item.

_______1. Police pulling drivers over and giving prizes for buckling up. (Positive Reinforcement)

AP Psychology

_______2. Suspending a basketball player for committing a flagrant foul. (Neg. Punishment)
_______3. A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass. (Pos. Punishment)
_______4. A child snaps her fingers until her teacher calls on her. (Neg. Reinforcer)
_______5. A hospital patient is allowed extra visiting time after eating a complete meal. (Pos. Rein)
_______6. Receiving a city utility discount for participating in a recycling program. (Pos.Rein.)
_______7. Grounding a teenager until his or her homework is finished. (Neg. Reinforcer)
_______8. Scolding a child for playing in the street. (Positive Punishment)
_______9. A prisoner loses his TV privileges for one week for a rule violation. (Neg, Punishment)
_______10. A parent nagging a child to clean up her room. (Neg. Reinforcer)
_______11. A rat presses a lever to terminate a shock or a loud tone. (Neg. Reinforcer)
_______12. A professor gives extra credit to students with perfect attendance. (Pos. reinforcement)
_______13. A dog is sent to his doghouse after soiling the living room carpet. (Neg. Punishment)
_______14. A defendant is harassed and tortured until he confesses. (Neg. Reinforcer)
_______15. A young child receives $5 for earning good grades in school. (Positive reinforcement)
_______16. A mother smiles when her child utters Mama. (Positive reinforcement)
_______17. A child is out into a time out for misbehaving. (Neg. Punishment)

Page

_______18. Employee of the month gets a reserved parking space. (Positive reinforcement)

AP Psychology

Step 1: Identify the behavior


Step 2: Is it a behavior we want to
Increase (reinforcement) or Decrease (punishment)?
Step 3: Was something
Added (positive) or Taken Away (negative)?
#

PR; NR;
PP; NP

1.

PP

2.

NP
NP
NP
NR
PP
NP
NR
PP
PP
NR
NR

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Scenario
Braden didnt clean his room as asked. Therefore, his dad made him spend the rest of the
weekend doing other chores like cleaning out the garage, mowing the lawn and weeding
the garden, in addition to cleaning his room.
Tom gets in a fight with his sister over who gets to play with a new toy, the mother simply
takes the toy away.
A teenage girl stays out for an hour past her curfew, so her parents ground her for a week.
A third-grade boy yells at another student during class, so his teacher takes away "good
behavior" tokens that can be redeemed for prizes.
Scratching an insect bite that itches.
Your cell phone rings in the middle of a class lecture, and you are scolded by your teacher
for not turning your phone off prior to class.
Billy "talks back" to his mother and he loses his privilege of playing Mario Bros for a week.
To keep your roommate happy, you decide to clean up your mess in the kitchen in
order to avoid getting in a fight.
You drive over the speed limit through a school zone one morning. As a result, you get
pulled over by a police officer and receive a ticket.
You pet your cat's fur in a manner that the cat finds unpleasant; the cat may attempt to
bite you.
Watching the worst movie ever, Joe Versus the Volcano you leave the movie theater.
On Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and
being late for class.

Operant

Conditioning
Reinforcement and Punishments

Page

Directions: For each clip identify the type of reinforcement (+/-) or punishment (+/-) that was observed.
Provide detailed evidence from the clip to justify your answer.

AP Psychology
Clip

Type of

Evidence from the clip

Reinforcement or Punishment

to justify your answer

Negative Reinforcement

Raymond agrees to cancel the fruit


of the month club subscription to
remove the aversive stimulus of his
parents complaining/nagging him
about it.

Negative Punishment

The Soup Nazi takes away Georges


soup to punish him for complaining
about lack of bread.

The coach tries to change his player


poor efforts on the field by applying
a punishment of yelling at her

Sheldon gives Penny a chocolate


every time she changes her behavior
to be less annoying (quieter/lower
pitched/leave room/etc.)

Positive Punishment

Positive Reinforcement

Reflection: Reflect on the four clips just presented in class. Based on


your knowledge and understanding of operant conditioning, identify
the interaction which seemed to be the least effective in changing
behavior. Generate an alternative method the characters could
have implemented in order to more effectively change behavior.

Page

Schedules of Reinforcement
*Directions: For each of the following scenarios, please determine which reinforcement schedule is being used.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule: Set # of correct responses must be given before you are rewarded ( Buy 2, get 1 free,
ratio/no time)- Causes fast responding as people realize how often they are going to be reinforced
Fixed-Interval Schedule: The 1st correct response after a set amount of time is rewarded (paid every 2 weeks,
bus schedules, TIME associated)

AP Psychology
Variable Ratio Schedule: The # of correct responses required for a reward is random , highly resistant to
extinction (Gambling, lottery)
Variable-Interval Schedule: Rewarded after a random time period (pop quizzes/if you study, checking
voicemailwill get reward, waiting for a thunder storm)
1. ________________________
paid $10 for every 20 puzzles solved. (Fixed Ratio)

2. ________________________

studying for a class that has surprise schedules. (Variable Interval)

3. ________________________

slot machines are based on this schedule. (Variable Ratio)

4. ________________________

fishing (casting a line) in a lake over the summer. (Variable Ratio)

5. ________________________

speed traps on the highway every 50 miles. (Fixed Ratio)

6. ________________________

selling a product door to door. (Variable Ratio)

7. ________________________

getting clothes out of the dryer once it buzzes. (Fixed Interval)

8. ________________________

going up any staircase and reaching a landing with a nice view. (Variable Rat)

9. ________________________

doing 20 pushups to help stay fit. (Fixed Ratio)

10. _______________________

playing BINGO. (Variable Ratio)

11. _______________________

getting a paycheck at the end of two weeks. (Fixed Interval)

12. _______________________

random drug testing. (Variable Interval)

13. _______________________

a strike in bowling. (Variable Ratio)

14. _______________________

calling your mechanic to see if your car is fixed yet. (Variable ratio)

15. _______________________
flown (Fixed Ratio)

frequent flyer program; get a free flight after a specific number of miles

16. _______________________
works (Variable Ratio)

child screams and cries in the store to get what he wantsevery so often it

17. _______________________
(Fixed Interval)

child who likes to hear the theme music from Jeopardy every night at 7p.m.

18. _______________________
trying to find a parking spot in downtown Chicago. (Variable Ratio) looking
at every spot that is therefinally find one empty
19. _______________________
a wife is watching an Ultimate Fighting Championship match with her
husbandshe receives a kiss at the end of every three minute round. (Fixed Interval)
20. _______________________

waiting for a sunny day to go to the beach. (Variable Interval)

21. _______________________

surfer waiting for the perfect wave to ride into shore. (Variable Interval)

22. _______________________

looking under rocks for worms. (Variable Ratio)

Page

Extra Practice -- Classical Conditioning -- Extra Practice


1. Roxanne loved the Smashing Pumpkins, but one time when she listened to the song Tonight, it
was so loud that she popped an eardrum. Thankfully, she made a complete recovery, but now when
she hears any music by the Smashing Pumpkins, her ears start to hurt.

AP Psychology

UCS
CS

Loud volume
Smashing Pumpkins Music

UCR

CR

Ear Pain
Ear Pain

What was the neutral stimulus? Tonight Smashing Pumpkins music


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination
2. One time when Greg was wrestling, he accidentally tripped Mr. Miskowicz. Mr. Miskowicz was so
angry that he yelled at Greg until he was blue in the face. Now, whenever Greg sees Mr.
Miskowicz, he gets nervous because he thinks he is going to get yelled at.

UCS
CS

Yell/anger
Mr. Miskowicz

UCR

CR

Nervous/fearful
Nervous/fearful

What was the neutral stimulus? Mr. Miskowicz


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

3. Bill couldnt ever remember being so sick and nauseous. He would never go to that restaurant again,
and he would never eat chicken again either. All he could think about was the good dinner his mother
would prepare for his homecoming. As he entered the kitchen, he became flushed and felt nauseous
when he saw the golden turkey on the table.

UCS
CS

Bad chicken
Sight of meat

UCR

CR

Nauseous
Nauseous

What was the neutral stimulus? Sight of meat


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

4. Jason went to Disneyworld to see Mickey Mouse. He had a wonderful time on all of the rides except
for Space Mountain. After he got off the ride, he felt so ill that he got sick, now just looking at a roller
coaster makes his stomach queasy.

UCS
CS

Space mountain ride


Sight of roller coaster

UCR

CR

Nauseous/sick
Nauseous/sick

What was the neutral stimulus? Sight of roller coaster


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

5. Opportunity to meet Phil Zimbardo. She fell madly in love with him and could think of nothing else.
Now, if she sees a picture of him and anyone who resembles him, her heart begins to race.

UCS
CS

Phil Zimbardo
picture/similar looking person

UCR

CR

Racing heart
Racing heart

What was the neutral stimulus? picture/similar looking person


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

Page

10

6. Fred has a fluffy down pillow with some of the down sticking out of the fabric. When he first tries out
the pillow, a piece of down tickles his nose and he sneezes. This happens every time he goes to bed.
Soon he sneezes every time he lays down on any kind of pillow.

UCS
CS

Feathers
Pillow

UCR

CR

Sneeze
Sneeze

AP Psychology

What was the neutral stimulus? pillow


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

7. Every time you take a shower, someone in the house flushes the toilet causing the water to
turn cold and you to become cold. Now every time you hear a toilet flush, you get cold.

UCS
CS

Cold Water
Flush toilet

UCR

CR

Feel cold
Feel cold

What was the neutral stimulus? Flush toilet


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

8. It is springtime and the pollen from the flowers causes you to sneeze. Soon you are sneezing every
time you see a flower.

UCS
CS

Springtime/pollen
Flower

UCR

CR

Sneeze
Sneeze

What was the neutral stimulus? flower


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

9. In order to treat bedwetting, a pad that is sensitive to dampness is placed under the sheets. When this
pad becomes wet, it sounds an alarm and you wakeup. Eventually you don't need the alarm to wake
up and your full bladder will wake you up.

UCS
CS

Alarm
Full bladder

UCR

CR

Wake-up
Wake-up

What was the neutral stimulus? Full bladder


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

10. People receiving chemotherapy often vomit during or shortly after the procedure. After
several chemotherapy sessions, people begin feeling sick at the sight of the treatment room.

UCS
CS

Chemotherapy
Treatment room

UCR

CR

Nauseas/sick
Nauseas/sick

What was the neutral stimulus? Treament room


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

11. Oftentimes physicians will give treatments that make people feel uncomfortable (a shot for
example). After this happens several times, people will begin feeling uncomfortable at the sight of
anyone in a white lab coat.

UCS
CS

Physicians/shot
White lab coat

UCR

CR

Uncomfortable
Uncomfortable

What was the neutral stimulus? White lab coat


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination
12. Your significant other often yells at you and makes you feel bad. Pretty soon you can't stand the
look of the person and end the relationship. You meet another person who looks like your ex.
Although they seem nice, you find yourself feeling bad every time you are around them.

Page

11

UCS
CS

Yell from significant other


Look alike

UCR

CR

What was the neutral stimulus? Yell from significant other

Feel bad
Feel bad

AP Psychology

Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

13. The sight of food makes you hungry. Soon every time you go into the kitchen, you feel hungry.

UCS
CS

Food
Kitchen

UCR

CR

Hungry
Hungry

What was the neutral stimulus? Kitchen


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

14. One of your friends drinks several martinis while eating pepperoni pizza. After becoming sick, she
refuses to eat pepperoni pizza.

UCS
CS

Alcohol
Pepperoni Pizza

UCR

CR

Nauseas/sick
Nauseas/sick

What was the neutral stimulus? Peppeoni Pizza


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

15. You meet a new person who is an excellent cook. After a few superb meals you find yourself liking that
person very much.

UCS
CS

Food
New Person

UCR

CR

Happy/enjoyment
Happy/enjoyment

What was the neutral stimulus? New person


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

16. Whenever you see a scary movie, you always eat a box of thin mints. Now you find that just
seeing thin mints makes you feel scared.

UCS
CS

Scary movies
Thin mints

UCR

CR

Scared
Scared

What was the neutral stimulus? Thin mints


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

17. Whenever you go to bed you fall asleep very quickly. One week you have a lot of stress and instead of
falling asleep you lie awake several nights in a row. Now, even though the stress is gone, you
have difficulty sleeping in your bed.

UCS
CS

Stress
Bed

UCR

CR

No sleep
No sleep

What was the neutral stimulus? bed


Circle if there is evidence shown of either: Generalization or Discrimination

Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning Review


Page

12

Directions:
For each of the examples below, decide if the behavior in question was acquired through operant or classical
conditioning. If you decide the behavior is operant, identify which type of consequence was responsible for the behavior
change (i.e., positive or negative reinforcement; positive or negative punishment).

AP Psychology
1. Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person
to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water
temperature changes.
Classical Conditioning
UCS: The hot water UCR: The jumping back
CS: The toilet flush is the CR: The jumping back to the flush alone
2. Your father gives you a credit card at the end of your first year in college because you did so well. As a result, your
grades continue to get better in your second year
Operant conditioning because school performance is a voluntary behavior.
The credit card is a positive reinforcement because it is given and it increases the behavior.
3. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel
nauseated whenever you smell it.
Classical Conditioning
UCS: flu/sickness UCR: nausea
CS: new food CR: nausea
4. An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic.
The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an
increased heart rate.
Classical Conditioning
UCS: drug UCR: accelerated heart rate
CS: small room CR: accelerated heart rate
5. A lion in a circus learns to stand up on a chair and jump through a hoop to receive a food treat.
Operant conditioning because standing on a chair and jumping through a hoop are voluntary behaviors.
The food treat is a positive reinforcement because it is given and it increases the behavior.
6. A professor has a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they maintain perfect attendance during the
quarter. His students attendance increases dramatically.
Operant conditioning because attendance is a voluntary behavior.
The exemption from the final exam is a negative reinforcement because something is taken away that
increases the behavior (attendance).
7. You check the coin return slot on a pay telephone and find a quarter. You find yourself checking other telephones
over the next few days.
Operant conditioning because checking the coin return slot is a voluntary behavior.
The quarter would be a positive reinforcement because it was given and led to an increase in the behavior.
8. Your hands are cold so you put your gloves on. In the future, you are more likely to put gloves on when its cold.
Operant conditioning because putting gloves on is a voluntary behavior.
The consequence is a negative reinforcement because the coldness is taken away and the behavior of
putting on gloves increases.

Page

13

9. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling
noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat.
Classical Conditioning
UCS: loud noise UCR: crying/startled
CS: white rat CR: crying/startled