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Introduction to Information Systems


Essentials for the Internetworked E-Business Enterprise

Chapter
4
Computer
Software
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 2

Chapter Objectives
• Describe several important trends occurring in
computer software.

• Give examples of several major types of


application and system software.

• Explain the purpose of several popular software


packages for end user productivity and
collaborative computing.

• Outline the functions of an operating system.

• Describe the main uses of high-level, fourth-


generation, object-oriented, and Web-oriented
programming languages and tools.
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 3

Categories of Computer Software

Computer
Computer
Software
Software

Application
Application System
System
Software
Software Software
Software

General-
General- Application-
Application- System
System System
System
Purpose
Purpose Specific
Specific Management
Management Development
Development
Programs
Programs Programs
Programs Programs
Programs Programs
Programs
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 4

Database Management Development Tools


Software

Databases
Hardware

Operating System
Graphics User Interface
Special Applications Games
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 5

Apple :
Leopard

????

Microsoft
Office
Microsoft:
Vista
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 6


Apple : Goes to
Intel Chip
Leopard
Yes

Microsoft
Office
Microsoft:
Vista

Operating systems are


processor specific
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 7

Functions of an Operating System

User
Interface

Utilities
Resource Task File
and Other
Management Management Management
Functions
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 8

Trends in Computer Software

First Second Third Fourth Fifth


Generation Generation Generation Generation Generation
Trend: Toward Easy-to-Use Multipurpose Network-Enabled Application
Packages for Productivity and Collaboration

Natural &
Object-Oriented
DBMS Languages
User-Written Packaged Operating
Fourth-Generation Multipurpose
Programs Programs Systems
Languages Graphic- Interface
Machine Symbolic High-Level
Microcomputer Network-Enabled
Languages Languages Languages
Packages Expert-Assisted
Packages

Trend: Toward Visual or Conversational Programming Languages and


Tools
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 9

Categories of Programming Languages

Machine Languages High Level Languages Markup Languages


Use binary coded Use brief statements Use embedded
instructions control codes
1001 1001 Compute X = Y + Z <H1>First heading</H>
1100 1101 <!ELEMENT Product
(#Item | manuf)>
Assembler Languages Fourth Generation Object-Oriented
Use symbolic coded Languages Languages
instructions Use natural statements Define objects that
contain data and actions
LOD Y SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS Document.write
ADD Z (“Hi There”)
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 10

• 10 PRINT “HELLO”
• 20 END
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 11

• 10 PRINT “HELLO”
• 20 GOTO 10
• 30 END
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Programming Language Translation


• Compiler
• Interpreter
• Assembler
IF A := B
THEN Language 1001101
Translator 1110101
Program 0010110

Source
Program

Written in
BASIC,
COBOL, Language
etc. Translation Machine
Process Language
Object
Program

Why do I want the source code?


James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 13

Categories of Programming Languages

Machine Languages High Level Languages Markup Languages


Use binary coded Use brief statements Use embedded
instructions control codes
1001 1001 Compute X = Y + Z <H1>First heading</H>
1100 1101 <!ELEMENT Product
(#Item | manuf)>
Assembler Languages Fourth Generation Object-Oriented
Use symbolic coded Languages Languages
instructions Use natural statements Define objects that
contain data and actions
LOD Y SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS Document.write
ADD Z (“Hi There”)
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 14

• Application software types


– Custom development – programming
• Expensive –
• Consultant dependent
• Hard to get out of
– Within application development
• Written within an existing software environment
• Examples: Spreadsheets, Database applications
– Turn key systems
• Little customization – dependent on the vendor
• “Turn it on and run it”
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Database Management Development Tools


Software

Databases
Hardware

Operating System
Graphics User Interface
Special Applications Games?
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 16

Categories of software: Layering


• The hardware is the center
• The system software – operating system
– Controls the hardware and supports the application
– Supports GUI (graphics user interfaces)
– Controls communications
• Development software – tools for creating applications
– Programming languages
– Database management software
• Applications software – The big area
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 17

Common General- Purpose Applications


• A move toward generic applications that can be
adapted … spreadsheet software and database
software.
• Electronic Mail
• Word Processing
• Presentation Graphics
• Multimedia
• Personal Information Manager
• Groupware
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 18

Web Browsers

Launch
Discussion Surf the Net
Information
Groups Searches

Typical uses of a Web


Browser in Internet,
Intranet, and Extranet
Environments

Multimedia
File E-Mail
Transfer
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 19

Database Management Packages

Database Database
Development Interrogation

Primary Tasks of
Database Management
Packages

Database Application
Maintenance Development
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 20

Multimedia Technologies
Video
VideoCapture
Capture Authoring
Authoring
Card
Card Language
Language

Compact
CompactDiskDisk
Storyboard
Storyboard Interactive
Interactive
Key
Sound
SoundBoard
Board
Technologies Compressed
Compressed
Audio
of Audio
Multimedia
Computer
Computer
MIDI
MIDI Edit
EditSystem
System

Interactive
Interactive Digital
DigitalAudio
Audio
Video
Video Digital
DigitalVideo
Video
Interactive
Interactive
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 21

Business Enterprise Application Software

Accounting and
Financial
Management

Customer Supply
Relationship Business Chain
Management Decision Management
Support

Human Enterprise
Resource Resource
Management Planning
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 22

Summary
• Software is more capable
• Software is more graphic oriented - GUI
• Software takes more computer resources
– Disk storage and RAM
• Databases are more and more dominant
• Fewer standard computer languages
• Software is more object oriented
• Web based applications are increasing
• Database systems
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 23

Chapter Summary
• Computer software consists of two major types
of programs: application software that directs
the performance of a particular end user task,
and system software that controls and
supports the operations of a computer system.
• Application software includes a variety of
programs that can be segregated into general-
purpose and application-specific categories.
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 24

Chapter Summary (cont)


• System software can be subdivided into
system management programs and system
development programs. The former is used to
manage hardware, software, networks, and
data resources. The latter is used by IS
specialists to develop computer programs.
• An operating system is an integrated system of
programs that supervises the operations of the
CPU.
James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems 25

Chapter Summary (cont)


• There are 5 major levels of programming
languages. Language translator programs
convert programming language instructions
into machine language instructions.