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History of the Constitution

16. How did Greece and Rome influence American government?

A. Greece Democracy Rome is Republican
17. Summarize the importance of the following documents:
a. Magna Carta- established the belief that the powers of government are limited not
b. Mayflower Compact- Showed colonists had plans to govern themselves.
18. What was the Enlightenment?
A. A Sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through
England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during 1700s.
19. Summarize the importance of the following Enlightenment thinkers:
a. Thomas Hobbes- Believed religion and government should be separate
b. John Locke- Government is created to protect the rights of the people including life,
liberty, and property.
Baron de Montesquieu- Believed people should have individual right (similar to
Locke). Also believed that the government should be split into sections and that there
should be checks and balances.
c. Jean-Jacques Rousseau- Believed in majority rule- govt should do whatever the
majority of the people wanted.
20. What was the Declaration of Independence? Who wrote it? What key ideas are in it?
A. It was a document stated that America declared its independence from Great Britain. Thomas
Jefferson wrote the Declaration. The key ideas are that all men are created equally and are
entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
21. What was the Articles of Confederation? Why did it fail?
22. What was Shays rebellion, and how did it influence American government?
A. Shays rebellion was a rebellion of farmers because they were charged tariffs to sell goods
across state lines. It forced the government to help them out.
23. What was the Philadelphia Convention? Why were they supposed to meet, and what did
they do instead?
A. A meeting in Philadelphia intended to improve the existing Articles of Confederation.
Instead of changing the existing document they threw it out and made a new document.
24. Who wrote most of the Constitution?
A. James Madison

(He is sometimes called the Father of the

25. Describe the following:

a. The Virginia Plan- it was written by James Madison. It was considered to be a strong
government. Federalism two government, one state and national, which received their
power, form the people. National government would have the power to make its own
laws and to collect taxes. Government would be divided into three branches.
Legislative would have two houses: Representatives and senate. The number of
representatives would be proportional.
b. The New Jersey Plan- A weak government, one house of congress. Each state would
have equal representation. Congress would have the powers to collect taxes on
product and stamps and levy fines and collect money from states if the refused to pay
their taxes. Congress would have the powers to regulate trade among states and
foreign nations. Three branches of government.
c. The Great Compromise- June 19th, the delegates voted for the plan they like bestVirginia plan won but it sparked a fierce debate over representation. Roger Sherman
is credited for the great compromise, also known as the Connecticut compromise. To
satisfy smaller states, each state would have equal votes in the senate. Large states
had the House of Representatives is by population.
d. The 3/5ths Compromise- how that representation was going to be decided on state
population, who is going to be counted. They counted 3/5th of states slave population
for the purpose of figuring taxes and would count towards representation.
26. Who were the Federalists and Antifederalists?
A. Federalists are advocates or supporter of federalism. Antifederalists are the people against the
adoption of the US Constitution.
27. What were the Federalist Papers?
A. Collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John
Jay promoting the ratification of the United States constitution.
28. Briefly summarize the content of the following:
a. Federalist No. 10- Addresses the question of how to guard against factions, or groups
of citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole
b. Federalist No. 51- Addresses mean by which appropriate checks and balances can be
created in government and also advocates a separation of powers within the national