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World Cultures 11

Unit II: Russia

Name _______________________________
Date _______
Block ___________

Read the article entitled The Collapse of the Soviet Union and complete the questions below.
Indentify/define each of the following: [remember to answer fully]
a. Politburo ruling committee of the communist party
b. Soviet hard-liners c. coup over throw of the current government
d. CIS group of the former Soviet republics that came together due to still needing
each other
e. shock therapy - plan to abruptly shift the economy to be free market from command

1. Identify and define two early changes that Gorbachev made? How were these changes
different from previous Soviet leaders?
Allowed churches to practice again and allowed the publishing of previously banned authors.
Leader before discourage the flow of ideas and individuality
2. Why would it be ineffective for the central government to decide what should be produced
all over the country?
It gave no motivation of people to be more productive
3. Explain Gorbachevs third reform and how it would help to move the country toward
democracy.
Allowed people to election people of their choose for offices
4. What was the INF Treaty? Why did Gorbachev agree to sign it? What effect do you think
this Treaty had on the Cold War?
Arms control treaty limiting long range nuclear missiles. They couldnt afford it. The treaty
made relations better and further away from conflict
5. What effect did Gorbachevs reforms have on Russian ethnic minorities?
Made them want freedom
6. Which satellite nation was first to defy Gorbachev? How did Gorbachev respond?
Lithuania economic blockade and shooting civilians at the capital

7. What was Boris Yeltsins position in Soviet government? Why did he oppose Gorbachev?
President the reforms were coming to slow and he didnt like the crackdown in Lithuania
8. What name was given to the older communist members in parliament? What opinion did they
have regarding both Gorbachev and Yeltsin? Explain your answer.
Hardliners. They didnt not like the reforms taking place because they feared losing their
privileges and power
9. What was the August Coup? Who orchestrated it?
Hardliners detained Gorbachav and demanded he resign the next day they sent the military to
Moscow but they refused to fire and soon left
10. What were the most important reasons for the failure of the Coup?
The people were no longer afraid and willing to defend their freedoms
11. How did the 15 soviet Republics respond to the failed Coup?
They declared independence and formed the CIS
12. When Gorbachev stepped down as president, who became the next president?
Boris Yeltsin
13. What was the new name of the Soviet Union after this coup?
Common wealth independence States
14. What was Yeltsin attempting to do by forming the CIS? What effect would it have on the
traditional Soviet Union?
Become the most powerful man in the CIS. Stopped the union from existing
15. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin was faced with economic issues. What did
he do to attempt to solve these issues? Did it work? Why or why not?
Force the economy to be free market. No it made thing even worse prices and inflation soared
16. When Yeltsin stepped down, a new leader was elected. What are some of the problems
that faced this new leader, Vladimir Putin?

A decade of change and reform left society in upheaval increase in violence and lower standard
of living
17. What was the Chechnya issue? How did Putin deal with it? Was he able to end this issue
for the new Federation? Explain.
Chechnya wanted to secede but was not allowed. He forcibly dealt with the rebellion. Yes but
the fighting dragged on for years
18. In what ways were the policies of Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and Putin similar?
That all worked to improve the economy and other reforms to improve Russia and provide
stabilization for the country.