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Concentration- grams of solid dissolved in
ml of solution. It is like density of a liquid.
Standard Concentration is defined as the
number of grams of solid per 100 ml of
Mole- a mole is a NUMBER. A mole of
anything is defined as 6.02 x 1023 of that
substance. (Technically, it is 6.022, but we
will use 6.02)

Basically, it represents a fixed quantity. When you go

to the store and order a DOZEN eggs, you get 12
eggs. When you buy a computer with memory you
ask how much RAM does it have, or how many
GIGABYTES does the hard drive have. If you calculate
the area of a circle you know the formula is r2. Pi
has a fixed quantity, 3.14159 26535 89793 23846
26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209
74944 59230 78164 06286 20899 86280 34825
34211 70679 82148 08651 32823 06647 09384
46095 50582 23172 53594 08128 48111 74502
84102 70193 85211 05559 64462 29489 54930
38196 44288 10975 66593 34461 28475 64823
37867 83165 27120 19091

= 3.14 In the same way, M stands for a

number too. M (for moles or molecules)
also represents a number that has been
mathematically calculated by a
mathematician named Avogadro. This
number has been determined to be

6.02 x 1023 particles.

So one Mole of anything contains
6.02 x 1023 of that many particles.

6.02 x 1023 is difficult for the mind to comprehend. Here are

some concrete examples of how much that would be. A cube
made of a mole of salt grains would make a cube that was
27 miles long on each side.

A mole of marshmallows would

be enough to cover the earth in
a layer of gooey white 19 miles
thick. That would make a lot of

A mole of blood cells would be

more than all the blood cells of
every human on earth.

1 mole of pennies could be distributed to all the

currently-living people of the world so that they
could spend a million dollars per hour every hour
(day and night) for the rest of their lives.

A Mole of Moles would

cover the earth and the
depth would be pretty
thick. The layer of moles
would reach to the outer

A mole allows a person to compare exact

numbers of molecules or particles in a
solution. This is different from concentration
which uses mass as a comparison. Think of
it using this analogy. Suppose I wanted to
put together a 5 v 5 rugby game. I select 5,
50 lb guys to play against 5, 200 lb guys.

Clearly a mismatch according to

concentration, as the 200 pounders
outweigh the 50 pounders. But according
to Molarity, they are equal. Each team has
the same number of players. So, that is
the point. Moles does not care about the
size or weight of the particles, it merely
says, the teams are equal if they have the

same molarity.

(Moles and molarity are technically not the

same. Molarity is actually Moles divided by
volume, but since all of our volumes will

deal with one liter, then they will be the

To calculate the number of Moles the
Moles = Grams of Solid
Molecular Mass
of that solid is used.

Molecular Mass is the sum of the masses of the

atoms that make up a molecule or
For example. The Mass of Water, H2O would
be 18 amu. Hydrogen has a mass of 1 amu,
and oxygen has a mass of 16 amu. Since you
have two hydrogen atoms, the sum of the
atoms would be 18 amu.

What is the Molecular Mass for lead nitrate?


So, the mass of Pb is 207.2 which
we will round to 207. Nitrogen,
N, is 14.01. Rounding to 14 and
times 2, gives 28. There are 6
oxygen atoms at 16 giving 96.
Sum all to get 207, 28, 96 = 331

Now, if we want to know Moles, we can

calculate that if we know grams. So, lets say
we have 150 grams of lead nitrate. How
many moles would that be?

Answer next slide.

Since Moles is
Grams/Molecular Mass
Then Moles = 150/ 331 (we just calculated
this earlier, remember dinkus? Go back two
This means Moles = 0.45
So our number of moles is 0.45 M

If we were to compare the Concentration of

the two rugby teams, the Mass/team then
there would certainly be uneven teams.
That is why moles are used in many
situations. Atoms and molecules have
different sizes, yet in many situations, it is
necessary to compare exact numbers of
atoms to determine ratios of atoms that are

If we were to make the teams fair according

to CONCENTRATION, which deals with grams
(mass)/volume, then we would need to have
many more of the 50 pound players on the
50 pound soccer team (20 actually). Now the
teams would be 20 v 5 and according to
CONCENTRATION, they would be fair.

Can two different solutions have the same

concentration as well as the same
The answer to this question is yes they can,
as long as the molecules used to make the
solutions have the same molecular masses.
This solution would most likely occur in
organic chemistry where you can have
isomers (same molecular formulas,
different structural formulas) of

Calculate the molarity of a

solution made when 120
grams of MgSO4 are dissolved
into one liter of water.

Start with your formula: M = gms/MW

M = 120 grams/ MW
The Molecular Mass of MgSO4 is
Mg 24 + S 32 + O 16 x 4 = 64
The sum of all the atomic masses is 120 amu. So
now divide 120 grams/120 amu to get 1 Mole.
This means that your solution is one Molar, 1M,
or that you have 6.02 x 1023 molecules in the
one liter of solution that is made.

How many grams of solid would

you need to add to one liter of
water to make a 0.46M solution of

M = grams/MW
Na-23 H-1 C-12 O-16 x 3=48
MW of NaHCO3 = 84 amu
0.46 = X
84 solving for X
X = 38.64 grams needed

What is the molecular mass of a

solid that was added to one
liter of liquid to make a 1.3M
solution if 256 grams of solid
were used to make the

M = Grams Solid/MW
1.3 = 256 grams

Now, solve for X. 1.3X = 256

X = 196.9 which rounds to 197

What day of the year is

And why is it this day?

The first person to tell me gets a

free slice of pizza in the lounge.