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1.

Its depletion or disappearance causes rigidity in the muscle groups after death
a. Lactic Acid
b. Adenosine diphosphate
c. Adenosine triphospate
d. Hemoglobin
e. Oxygen
2. This field of forensic science involves the collection and examination of plant pallets and spores
connected with the crime scenes or illegal activities. Both spores and pollens can be identified and
used to link a crime scene to an individual.
a. Forensic Botany
b. Forensic Anthropology
c. Forensic Palynology
d. Forensic Entomology
e. Forensic Taphonomy
3. Which is NOT a valid statement regarding postmortem lividity?
a. It may prove positively that death has occurred.
b. It indicates that death was due to violence.
c. It indicates the position of the body at the time of death.
d. Its color may suggest the cause of death.
e. It may determine how long a person has been dead.
4. Which of the following statements is not valid?
a. The longer the postmortem interval, the less precise is the estimate of the time of death.
b. The determination of the time of death can eliminate suspects.
c. The estimation of the time of death is an exact science.
d. Rigor mortis is not the most reliable of methods to determine the time of death.
e. The examination of food in the stomach is one of the parameters to determine the time of death
5. Immediately following death, a chemical change known as _____ occurs in the muscles, causing them
to become rigid.
a. Cadaveric spasm
b. Algor mortis
c. Instantaneous rigor
d. Rigor mortis
e. Livor mortis
6. The general acceptance principle, which serves as a criterion for the judcicial admissibility of scientific
evidence, was set forth in the case of _____.
a. Coppolino vs. State
b. Daubert vs. Merrel Dow Phamaceuticals
c. Kumbo Tire Co. Ltd, vs. Carmichael
d. Frye vs. United States
e. Melendez-Diaz vs. Massachusetts
7. This field of forensic science deals with the study of insect matter, growth patterns, and succession of
arrival at a crime scene to determinate the postmortem interval or the time since death. This field of
study also helps in the determination if the body was moved after death.
a. Forensic Zoology
b. Forensic Anthropology
c. Forensic Palynology
d. Forensic Entomology
e. Forensic Taphonomy
8. A 72-year-old was found dead in the bathtub. At autopsy, the brain showed hemorrhage or bleeding.
She most likely died from:
a. Drowning
b. Electrocution
c. Strangulation
d. Heat Stroke
e. A fall
9. Refers to the circumstances that led to death and is the culmination of the complete investigation; as
explanation of how the cause of death came about.
a. Mechanism of death
b. Cause of death
c. Mode of death
d. Manner of death
e. Underlying cause of death
10. Immediately after hearing a loud shout coming from the bedroom, the parents after forcibly opening the
door, found their 25-year old son with a gunshot at the right temple and with the butt of the fatal gun
held tightly on the palm of the right hand. Such condition of the hand is known as:
a. Rigor mortis
b. Algor mortis

c. Death stiffening
d. Cadaveric spasm
e. Livor mortis
11. It is found in the most dependent portion of the body involving the superficial layer of the skin, color is
reddish purple to purple, uniform and not elevated. It appears after death important in determining if the
body has been moved:
a. Postmortem hypostasis
b. Postmortem suggilation
c. Postmortem lividity
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
12. The most useful indicator of the time of death during the 1st 24 hours postmortem is:
a. Rigor mortis
b. Algor mortis
c. K+ level in vitreous
d. Cadaveric Spasm
e. Livor Mortis
13. The color of death.
a. Rigor mortis
b. Algor mortis
c. K+ level in vitreous
d. Cadaveric spasm
e. Livor Mortis
14. This field of study refers to the utilization of plants, plant parts, pollens, diatoms, and plant DNA in
criminal investigation.
a. Forensic Palynology
b. Forensic Anthropology
c. Forensic Taphonomy
d. Forensic Limnology
e. Forensic Botany
15. This field of forensic science deals with identifying people who cannot be indentified through soft tissue
features, such as fingerprints or photographs. It involves with the examination of skeletal remains to
determine if they are human and, if so, the age, sex, height, and other characteristics, such as socioeconomic status of the deceased.
a. Forensic Botany
b. Forensic Anthropology
c. Forensic Palynology
d. Forensic Entomology
e. Forensic Taphonomy
16. He is considered as the Father of Forensic Toxicology.
a. Alphonse Bertillon
b. Francis Galton
c. Leone Lattes
d. Albert Osborne
e. Mathieu Orfila
17. The distinction between rigor mortis and cadaveric spasm are the following except:
a. Rigor mortis appears 2 to 4 hours after death; cadaveric spasm appears immediately
b. Rigor mortis and cadaveric spasm involve all muscles of the body
c. Rigor mortis is a natural phenomena occurring after death; cadaveric spasm may or may not
appear
d. Rigor mortis determines the time of death; cadaveric spasm may be useful to determine the nature
of death
e. Rigor mortis occurs after death due to disappearance of ATP; cadaveric spasm is due to extreme
nervous tension or exhaustion of the nervous system
18. The medico-legal officer will have jurisprudence to investigate all deaths when any of the following
conditions except:
a. Sudden infant death syndrome
b. Gunshot wound of the head
c. Drug overdose
d. Sudden and unexpected death
e. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)
19. The stiffness of death
a. Livor mortis
b. Rigor mortis
c. Cadaveric spasm
d. Secondary flaccidity
e. Algor mortis

20. A stage of decomposition seen in bodies immersed in water or in damp, warm environments; makes
the cadavers resistant bacteriologic and chemical degradation.
a. Putrefaction
b. Maceration
c. Adipocere
d. Autolysis
e. Wet decomposition
21. After death, two decomposition processes naturally take place:
a. Autolysis and mummification
b. Maceration and putrefaction
c. Autolysis and putrefaction
d. Putrefaction and wet decomposition
e. Autolysis and adipocere formation
22. This manner of death arises when the cause of death cannot be determined by a physical finding at
autopsy or because of the absence of meaningful findings in the subsequent toxicological and
microscopic examinations.
a. Accident
b. Therapeutic complication
c. Suicide
d. Natural
e. Undetermined
23. A decomposition process involving tissue breakdown due to bacteria:
a. Putrefaction
b. Maceration
c. Adipocere
d. Autolysis
e. Wet decomposition
24. Levels of ______ in the ocular fluid can help indicate the time of death
a. Lactic acid
b. Potassium
c. Adenosine triphosphate
d. Hemoglobin
e. Oxygen
25. Which if the following statements regarding forensic autopsy is correct:
a. That the autopsy can be properly carried out even without a history
b. The autopsy always yields the cause of death
c. Only true and suspected homicide victims need examination
d. Embalming of the decedents remains will obscure the effects of trauma and disease
e. In alleged poisoning cases, the poison or drug is always detected by the toxicologists
26. An external examination of a dead body without incision being made:
a. Forensic autopsy
b. Exhumation
c. Postmortem examination
d. Crime scene investigation
e. Hospital autopsy
27. A homicide will be most difficult to prove from an autopsy in which of the following situations:
a. Poisoning
b. Drowning
c. Electrocution
d. Smothering
e. Air embolism
28. Scientific methods of human identification except:
a. Visual identification by relatives
b. DNA analysis
c. Comparison of antemortem and postmortem xrays
d. Dental indentification
e. Fingerprints
29. Asphyxia encompasses a variety of conditions that involve interference with the intake of:
a. Oxygen
b. Potassium
c. Carbon dioxide
d. Hemoglobin
e. Lactic acid
30. The field of ________ takes advantage of the durable nature of bones over a long period of time to
examine and identify human skeletal remains through a multitude of individual characteristics:
a. Forensic palynology
b. Forensic anthropology
c. Forensic medicine

d. Forensic pathology
e. Forensic taphonomy
31. It is an enzyme that is secreted by the prostate gland and is found in high concentrations in semen.
a. Precipitin
b. Prostate specific antigen
c. Acid phosphatase
d. Benzidine
32. The fundamental unit of heredity
a. Gene
b. DNA
c. Chromosome
d. Zygote
33. DNA is constructed as a very large molecule made of a linked series of repeating units called:
a. Alleles
b. Locus
c. Genes
d. Nucleotides
34. The determination that a substance is blood is best made by means of a preliminary color test. A
positive result from this test is highly indicative of blood.
a. Benzidine test
b. Luminal test
c. Kastle-meyer test
d. Bluestar test
e. Precipitin test
35. The best way to locate and characterize a seminal stain is to perform the _____ test.
a. Acid phosphatase test
b. Luminol test
c. Kastle-Meyer Test
d. Bluestar test
e. Precipitin test
36. Blood can be characterized as being a human origin by the _____ test
a. Acid phostaphatase test
b. Luminal test
c. Kastle-meyer test
d. Bluestar test
e. Precipitin test
37. Amazingly, the sensitivity of STR profiling requires only _____ DNA containing cells to ontain an STR
profile
a. 16
b. 18
c. 23
d. 32
e. 46
38. During DNA evidence collection, all body fluids must be assumed to be ____ and handled with latexgloved hands.
a. Contaminated
b. Degraded
c. Spoiled
d. Infectious
e. Fragile
39. Persons with type O blood have _____ antigens on their red blood cells.
a. A antigens
b. B antigens
c. Both a and b antigens
d. Neither a nor b antigens
40. A 70 year-old man with a medical history of heart disease (coronary atherosclerosis) is beaten about
the head and robbed. He is unconscious when admitted to the hospital. During his hospital course over
the next two weeks, he develops bronchopneumonia, sepsis and rental failure and dies four days later.
The underlying cause of death is:
a. Blunt trauma to the head
b. Bronchopneumonia
c. Coronary atherosclerosis
d. Renal failure
e. Sepsis
41-50. State the manner of death of the following cases:
41. Death by overdose of a first time user of alcohol Accident

42. The decomposing body of a 32-year-old female was found in a creek two miles from her burglarized
house, clad in pajamas, barefoot(with the soles of her feet clean), and her hands bound behind her
back. An autopsy failed to reveal a cause of death. Homicide
43. A homeowner surprises a member of an akyatbahay gang who enter his house, engaging him in a
violent struggle only to collapse and due of a heart attack. Homicide
44. What is the manner of death of the skeletonized remains of a young adult male without the evidence of
trauma - Undetermined
45. A contact wound to the back of the head Homicide
46. Mrs. Kimmy, a young housewife, was bitten by her husbands mistress, Miss dora, during an
altercation. She was brought to the Baguio General Hospital and is rightly treated with penicillin. She
died a few hours later of anaphylaxis (allergic reaction) as a result of the penicillin injection Homicide
47. An elevated carboxyhemoglobin blood level in a fire victim Accident
48. Mr. Pototoy died of a gunshot wound on the head while playing Russian roulette Suicide
49. A UB professor sustained a contact gunshot wound to the right temple. Crime scene investigation
revealed that a caliber 0.9mm firearm was present at the scene of the shooting incident. A linear scar
was also noted in the left wrist during the autopsy Suicide
50. Sudden death of a young chronic user of cocaine Natural
51. Collecting DNA sample from the accused without his knowledge and consent, and use it as evidence:
a. Post conviction DNA testing
b. PCR-based short tandem repeats DNA analysis
c. Surreptitious DNA profiling
d. Familial DNA searching
52. It is considered a landmark case where the supreme court held that a DNA test is a valid probative tool
to determine paternity; in this case the court also said that there is nothing in the rules of evidence that
prohibits the admissibility of a DNA test;
a. Herrera vs. Alba
b. People vs. Yatar
c. People vs. Vallejo
d. Agustin vs. Court of Appeals
53. Every gene has a certain number of the base pairs distributed in a particular sequence. This gives a
person his or her genetic code. Somewhere in the DNA framework, nonetheless, are selections that
differ. They are known as _________ which are the areas analyzed in DNA profiling.
a. DNA markers
b. Polymorphic loci
c. Chimeras
d. Junk DNA
54. Its also possible to use DNA profiling as evidence of genetic relationship, but testing that shows no
relationship isnt absolutely certain. While almost all individuals have a single and distinct set of genes,
rare individuals, know as _____, have at least two different sets of genes. There have been several
cases of DNA profiling that falsely proved that a mother was unrelated to her children.
a. Heterozygous
b. Polymorphic
c. Junk DNA
d. Chimeras
55. A DNA molecule, as described by Watson and Crick, is a long twisting chain know as a ____.
a. Genes
b. Complementary base pairs
c. Double helix
d. Polymorphic loci
56. They are locations on the chromosome that contain short sequences that repeat themselves within the
DNA molecule; they also serve as useful markers for identification because they are found in great
abundance throughout the human genome:
a. STRs
b. Locus
c. Genes
d. Nucleotides
57. The following statements about mitochondrial DNA analysis are correct except:
a. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother
b. Every persons mitochondrial DNA is unique to that person
c. Mitochondrial DNA typing does not approach STR analysis in its discrimination power
d. Mitochondrial DNA typing is best reserved for analyzing degraded samples, hai shaft and dried
skeletal remains
58. The base sequence A-C-T-G-C-A-G CAN BE PARIED with the base sequence _____ in a double helix
configuration.
a. T-G-C-A-G-A-C
b. C-A-T-G-A-G-C
c. C-A-G-T-A-C-T
d. G-T-C-A-T-G-A

e. T-G-A-C-G-T-C
59. At the crime scene, you encounter a cigarette butt and a drinking glass possibly used by the subject.
What are the potential sources of DNA for the aforementioned pieces of physical evidence?
a. Saliva, sweat and skin cells
b. Saliva and skin cells
c. Saliva and sweat
d. Skin cells and sweat
60. It is the use of family members DNA to indentify a closely related suspect in jurisdictions where large
DNA databases exist, but no exact match has been found. The first successful use of the practice was
in a UK case where a man was convicted of manslaughter when he threw a brick stained with his own
blood into a moving car. Police could not get an exact match to he UKs DNA database because the
man had no criminal convictions, but police implicated him using a close relatives DNA.
a. Familial DNA searching
b. Polymorphic loci
c. Chimeras
d. Surreptitious DNA profiling
61. While a lot of DNA contains information for a certain function, there is some called _____, which is
currently used for human identification. At some special locations (called loci) in this type of DNA,
predictable inheritance patterns were found to be useful in determining biological relationships. These
locations contain specific DNA markers that DNA scientists use to identify individuals:
a. Nuclear DNA
b. Junk DNA
c. Mitochondrial DNA
d. Chimeras
62. It was in the landmark case of _____ where the Supreme Court first recognized the probative value and
admissibility of DNA evidence in convicting the accused beyond reasonable doubt.
a. People vs. Vallejo
b. People vs. Yatar
c. Herrera vs. Alba
d. People vs. Techankee
63. Hiffney was accused of raping Maria. The physician who conducted the medico-legal examination on
the victim obtained vaginal swabs for forensic DNA analysis. Could the police investigator compel the
accused to submit his DNA sample to serve as reference DNA in the criminal case?
a. No. compelling the accused to submit his DNA sample would violate his constitutional right against
self-incrimination.
b. Yes, as long as the police obtain a court order to collect DNA sample from the accused.
c. No. the accused can refuse to submit his DNA sample for DNA analysis because it would violate his
right to privacy and his right against self-incrimination.
d. Yes. As long as the accused is under legal arrest, the police can compel him to submit his
reference DNA for analysis without violating his right against self-incrimination.
64. In the case of _____, the US Supreme Court ruled that, in assessing the admissibility of new and
unique scientific tests, the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of general acceptance
a. Coppolino vs. State
b. Daubert vs. Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals
c. Kumho Tire Co., Ltd vs. Carmichael
d. Frye vs. United States
e. Melendez-Diaz vs. Massachusetts
65. It is a technique for replicating, multiplying or copying, a portion of a DNA strand outside a living cell.
a. Restriction fragment length polymorphism
b. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
c. Polymorphic chain reaction
d. Variable number tandem repeats
66. Genes are positioned on threadlike bodies called:
a. DNA
b. Chromosomes
c. Nucleotides
d. Polymorphic loci
e. Allele
67. The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is a function of the ____ unit or
division of the crime laboratory.
a. Biological Science
b. Forensic Chemistry
c. Physical Science
d. Medico-legal
e. Crime scene investigation
68. Airtight packages make the best containers for blood-containing DNA evidence.
a. True
b. False

69. This technique in forensic DNA profiling is useful when one is confronted with a DNA mixture containing
more than one male contributor:
a. Mitochondrial DNA analysis
b. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
c. Polymerase chain reaction short tandem repeat DNA testing
d. Variable number tandem repeats
e. Y-chromosome STR profiling
70. In human cells, DNA is tightly wrapped into _____ pairs of chromosomes
a. 18
b. 22
c. 23
d. 46