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PANDUAN PRAKTIKUM

Mata Kuliah Diversifikasi dan


Pengembangan Produk Hasil Perikanan

Editor :
Tri Winarni Agustini
Widodo Farid Maruf
Fronthea Swastawati
Ima Wijayanti

Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan


Universitas Diponegoro
Semarang
2013
I. Keadaan Umum Unit Pengolahan Ikan

a. Apa nama UPI yang anda kunjungi?...............................................................................


b. Dimana letak UPI yang anda kunjungi (alamat lengkap beserta nomor telp/fax)? ........
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
c. Produk apa yang diproduksi oleh UPI yang anda kunjungi?..........................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
d. .........................................................................................................................................
Kapan dan oleh siapa UPI yang anda kunjungi tersebut didirikan? ...............................
......................................................................................................................................
e. Apa visi dan misi UPI yang anda kunjungi? ..................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
f. Siapa nama direktur utama UPI yang anda kunjungi?....................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
Luas lahan dan tempat produksi? ..................................................................................
g. Bagaimana perkembangan usaha pengolahan ini dari awal berdiri hingga sekarang?
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
h. Kendala-kendala apa sajakah yang terjadi dalam usaha ini bagaimana cara
mengatasinya?.................................................................................................................
i. Berapa kapasitas produksi maksimal di UPI yang anda kunjungi tiap harinya?
......................................................................................................................................
j. Bagaimana struktur organisasi di UPI yang anda kunjungi

A.

PEMBUATAN SURIMI
I.
a.

Bahan Baku
Darimana saja asal bahan baku untuk pembuatan produk diperoleh?........................
....................................................................................................................................

b.

Jenis bahan baku apa yang digunakan di UPI yang anda kunjungi, dan bagaimana
ciri -ciri bahan baku yang baik? ..................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

c.

Berapa jumlah bahan baku yang dibeli setiap produks? ............................................

d.

Apakah ada persyaratan minimal bahan baku yang digunakan? ...............................


....................................................................................................................................

e.

Apa alasan pengolah memilih menggunakan bahan tersebut sebagai bahan baku
pembuatan produk? ...................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

f.

Apa kelebihan atau kekurangan dalam menggunakan bahan tersebut? ....................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

II.

Persiapan Bahan Baku


a.

Perlakuan apa saja yang dilakukan setelah bahan baku telah tersedia? .....................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
b.

Apakah bahan baku yang dibeli langsung diproses semua? ......................................


Jika tidak bagaimana perlakuannya dan bagaimana cara penyimpanannya? ............
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

III. Proses Produksi


a.

Bagaimana tahapan proses yang dilakukan UPI untuk mengolah produk tersebut?
a.1. Filleting
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.2. Pemisahan tulang, daging, dan kulit
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
a.3. Leaching
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
Perbandingan air dan bahan: ......................................................................................
Suhu air pencucian: ....................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.4. Dewatering
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.5. Pencampuran dengan bahan additive
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................

kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Bahan additive yang digunakan : ...............................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Jumlah bahan additive yang digunakan: ....................................................................
Perbandingan bahan additive dan bahan baku: ..........................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.6. Pembekuan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu pembekuan: .......................................................................................................
Lama pembekuan: ......................................................................................................
IV.
a.

Pengemasan
Apa bahan yang digunakan untuk pengemasan produk? mengapa memilih bahan
tersebut?......................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
b.

Berapa jenis bahan pengemas yang digunakan pada produk tersebut? ......................
....................................................................................................................................

c.

Apakah bahan pengemas tersebut sesuai dengan standar food grade? .......................

d.

Darimana asal bahan pengemas?.................................................................................


Bagaimana cara pengemasan?Melibatkan proses vacum atau tidak? ........................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

e.

Berapa ukuran pengemas?Mengapa?...........................................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

f.

Apakah isi label yang berada pada kemasan? ...........................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

g.

Bagaimana cara penyimpanan setelah dikemas? Berapa suhu penyimpanannya dan


lama penyimpanannya sebelum produk dipasarkan? .................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

V.

Penyimpanan
a.

Dimana produk tersebut disimpan setelah pengemasan dilakukan?............................


....................................................................................................................................

b.

Berapa suhu ruangan yang digunakan untuk penyimpanan? ......................................

c.

Berapa lama produk yang sudah dikemas dapat bertahan? ........................................

d.

Kerusakan apa yang sering terjadi pada saat penyimpanan?Bagaimana cara


mengatasinya? ............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

VI.

Pemasaran
a. Bagaimana teknik pemasaran yang dilakukan? ..........................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
b. Sarana transportasi apa yang digunakan oleh UPI yang anda kunjungi untuk
memasarkan produk? ..................................................................................................
c. Kendala apa yang dihadapi di dalam pemasaran?.......................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
d. Dalam satu kali produksi dapat memasarkan berapa banyak?...................................
....................................................................................................................................
Pembahasan:

Kesimpulan dan saran:

Daftar Pustaka

Nilai :
.
Draft :
.
Nama dan paraf asisten:
..

PEMBUATAN PRODUK PERIKANAN BEKU


A. PRODUK IKAN BEKU
I.

Bahan Baku
a. Darimana saja asal bahan baku untuk pembuatan produk diperoleh?........................
b. Jenis bahan baku apa yang digunakan di UPI yang anda kunjungi, dan bagaimana
ciri -ciri bahan baku yang baik? .................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
c. Berapa jumlah bahan baku yang dibeli setiap produks? ............................................
d. Apa alasan pengolah memilih menggunakan bahan tersebut sebagai bahan baku
pembuatan produk? ....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
e. Apa kelebihan atau kekurangan dalam menggunakan bahan tersebut? ....................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

II. Persiapan Bahan Baku


a.

Perlakuan apa saja yang dilakukan setelah bahan baku telah tersedia? .....................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

b.

Bagaimana proses sortasi mutu bahan baku?..............................................................


....................................................................................................................................

c.

Apakah bahan baku yang dibeli langsung diproses semua? ......................................


Jika tidak bagaimana perlakuannya dan bagaimana cara penyimpanannya? ............
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

III. Proses Produksi


a.

Bagaimana tahapan proses yang dilakukan UPI untuk mengolah produk tersebut?
a.1. Perlakuan Ikan segar

alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................


....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.2. Pencucian I
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Perbandingan air pencucian dan bahan: .....................................................................
Suhu air pencucian: ....................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.3. Sortasi ukuran dan jenis
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.4. Jenis produk
produk filleting
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu ikan dan ruang selama proses: ..........................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Produk whole fish
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu ikan dan ruang selama proses: ..........................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.5. Pencucian II dan Penirisan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Perbandingan air pencucian dan bahan: .....................................................................
Suhu air pencucian: ....................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.6. Penimbangan menurut standar pengemasan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.7. Penyusunan menurut blok-blok ikan beku
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................


kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.8. Pembekuan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu pembekuan: .......................................................................................................
Lama pembekuan: ......................................................................................................
IV.

Pengemasan

a.

Apa bahan yang digunakan untuk pengemasan masing-masing produk? mengapa


memilih bahan tersebut? ............................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

b. Berapa jenis bahan pengemas yang digunakan pada produk tersebut?......................


....................................................................................................................................
c.

Apakah bahan pengemas tersebut sesuai dengan standar food grade? .......................

d.

Darimana asal bahan pengemas?.................................................................................


Bagaimana cara pengemasan?Melibatkan proses vacum atau tidak? ........................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

e.

Berapa ukuran pengemas?Mengapa?...........................................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

f.

Apakah isi label yang berada pada kemasan? ...........................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

g.

Bagaimana cara penyimpanan setelah dikemas? Berapa suhu penyimpanannya dan


lama penyimpanannya sebelum produk dipasarkan? .................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

V.

Penyimpanan
a.

Dimana produk tersebut disimpan setelah pengemasan dilakukan?............................


....................................................................................................................................

b.

Berapa suhu ruangan yang digunakan untuk penyimpanan? ......................................

c.

Berapa lama produk yang sudah dikemas dapat bertahan? ........................................

d.

Kerusakan apa yang sering terjadi pada saat penyimpanan?Bagaimana cara


mengatasinya? ............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

VI.

Pemasaran
a. Bagaimana teknik pemasaran yang dilakukan? ..........................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
b. Sarana transportasi apa yang digunakan oleh UPI yang anda kunjungi untuk
memasarkan produk? ..................................................................................................
c. Kendala apa yang dihadapi di dalam pemasaran?.......................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
d. Dalam satu kali produksi dapat memasarkan berapa banyak?...................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
B. PRODUK UDANG BEKU
I.

Bahan Baku
a. Darimana saja asal bahan baku untuk pembuatan produk diperoleh?........................

b. Jenis bahan baku apa yang digunakan di UPI yang anda kunjungi, dan bagaimana
ciri -ciri bahan baku yang baik? .................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
c. Berapa jumlah bahan baku yang dibeli setiap produks? ............................................
d. Apa alasan pengolah memilih menggunakan bahan tersebut sebagai bahan baku
pembuatan produk? ....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
e. Apa kelebihan atau kekurangan dalam menggunakan bahan tersebut? ....................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
II. Persiapan Bahan Baku
a.

Perlakuan apa saja yang dilakukan setelah bahan baku telah tersedia? .....................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

b.

Bagaimana proses sortasi mutu bahan baku? ............................................................


....................................................................................................................................

c.

Apakah bahan baku yang dibeli langsung diproses semua? ......................................


Jika tidak bagaimana perlakuannya dan bagaimana cara penyimpanannya? ............
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

III. Proses
a. Bagaimana tahapan proses yang dilakukan UPI untuk mengolah produk tersebut?

a.1. Pencucian I
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Perbandingan air pencucian dan bahan: .....................................................................
Suhu air pencucian: ....................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.2. Penimbangan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.4. Pemotongan kepala/ekor/kulit
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................


kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu ikan dan ruang selama proses: ..........................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.5. Pengukuran
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.6. Pengelompokan bahan baku
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.7. Pengupasan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.8. Pensortiran warna dan kualitas
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................
kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
a.9. Pembekuan
alat yang digunakan: ..................................................................................................
ketelitian alat: .............................................................................................................

kelebihan & kekurangan penggunaan alat tersebut: ..................................................


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Proses: ........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Suhu pembekuan: .......................................................................................................
Lama pembekuan: ......................................................................................................
IV.

Pengemasan

a. Apa bahan yang digunakan untuk pengemasan masing-masing produk? mengapa


memilih bahan tersebut? ............................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
b. Berapa jenis bahan pengemas yang digunakan pada produk tersebut? ....................
....................................................................................................................................
c. Apakah bahan pengemas tersebut sesuai dengan standar food grade? .......................
d. Darimana asal bahan pengemas ?................................................................................
e. Bagaimana cara pengemasan ? Melibatkan proses vacum atau tidak?........................
...................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
f. Berapa ukuran pengemas ? Mengapa ? .......................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
g. Apakah isi label yang berada pada kemasan? ...........................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
h. Bagaimana cara penyimpanan setelah dikemas? Berapa suhu penyimpanannya dan
lama penyimpanannya sebelum produk dipasarkan? .................................................
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
V. Penyimpanan
a. Dimana produk tersebut disimpan setelah pengemasan dilakukan?............................
....................................................................................................................................
b. Berapa suhu ruangan yang digunakan untuk penyimpanan? ......................................
c. Berapa lama produk yang sudah dikemas dapat bertahan? ........................................
d. Kerusakan apa yang sering terjadi pada saat penyimpanan ? Bagaimana cara
mengatasinya ? ............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
VI. Pemasaran
a. Bagaimana teknik pemasaran yang dilakukan? ..........................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
b. Sarana transportasi apa yang digunakan oleh UPI yang anda kunjungi untuk
memasarkan produk? ..................................................................................................
c. Kendala apa yang dihadapi di dalam pemasaran?.......................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
d. Dalam satu kali produksi dapat memasarkan berapa banyak?...................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Pembahasan:

Kesimpulan dan saran:

Daftar Pustaka

Nilai :
.
Draft :
.
Nama dan paraf asisten:
..