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Desain Penelitian

Desain Penelitian

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Research

Designs (desain penelitian)

Copyright © 1999W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved. by

Quantitative Research
Descriptive • Correlational • Quasi-experimental • Experimental

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Increased Control with Design

Research Design

Definition: Blueprint or detailed plan for conducting a study Purpose, Review of Literature, & Framework

Study Design
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Design Characteristics

• •

Maximizes control over factors to increase validity of the findings
Guides the researcher in planning & implementing a study Not specific to a particular study but is linked to other steps of the research process

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Concepts Relevant to Design

Causality:
Pressure

A
Ulcer

B

Multicausality:
Years Smoking High-Fat Diet Limited Exercise

Heart Disease

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Concepts Relevant to Design

accurately predicting an event • Bias: slanting findings away from the truth • Manipulation: implementation of a treatment
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Probability: likelihood of

Concepts Relevant to Design

Control
• • •

Implemented throughout the design Improve accuracy of findings Increased control in quasiexperimental research Greatest in experimental research

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Varying Control in Studies
Quasi-experimental Lower Control Experimental High Control

Type of Sample Selected:
Convenience ----------|--------> Random
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Varying Control in Studies
Quasi-experimental Lower Control Experimental High Control

Type of Sample Selected:
Heterogeneous -----|----> Homogeneous
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Varying Control in Studies
Measurement of Dependent Variable
Crude Precise Measurement------|----> Measurement

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Varying Control in Studies
Control of Independent Variable
Limited or Highly no Control ----------|--------> Controlled

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Varying Control in Studies
Quasi-experimental Experimental Lower Control High Control

Group
no comparison group ----> comparison group ----> alternative treatment control group ----> no treatment control group
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Varying Control in Studies

Selection of Groups
No randomization ---------> Randomization

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Varying Control in Studies
Quasi-experimental Lower Control Setting Selected Highly Natural -----------|----------> Controlled
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Experimental High Control

Design Validity

Measure of truth or accuracy of a study examined with critique & controlled in conducting a study
• • • •

Statistical conclusion validity Internal validity Construct validity External validity

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Types of Design Validity

Statistical Conclusion Validity -is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Statistical Conclusion Validity

Low statistical power: Type II error, no significant difference when there is. Violated assumptions
• • •

At least interval data Random sample Normal distribution

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Statistical Conclusion Validity

Reliability of Instruments: consistency in measurement
• • •

Physiological measures: Precision, such as with temp., BP Likert scale: Homogeneity--Reliability with Cronbach’s alpha (.7, .8, .9) Observations: Stability--Interrater reliability

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Statistical Conclusion Validity

Reliability of Treatment
• •

Protocol for treatment Training of researchers

Interrater reliability: # of items completed in protocol/ # of items on protocol (%)

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Types of Design Validity

Internal Validity -is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality, rather than the result of extraneous variables.

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Internal Validity

History: event impacting subjects & data collected Maturation of subjects: wiser, tired, older influencing responses Testing: learn from being in study Instruments’ accuracy

• •

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Internal Validity

Subject selection nonrandom & potentially biased Mortality: those dropping out of study Diffusion or imitation of treatment: control or comparison group has access to treatment

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Types of Design Validity

Construct Validity-examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables. Link of framework concepts & variables studied.

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Construct Validity

Validity of instruments
• •

Physiologic measure: Accuracy Scales: construct validity

• •

Mono-operation bias: 1 instrument to measure a variable Mono-method bias: 1 type of instrument, such as attitude scales

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Construct Validity
• •

Subjects guessing outcome of study & acting in a different way Subjects performing for experiment to be seen in a good light or trying to get an effective treatment Treatment interactions with more than one treatment

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Types of Design Validity
External Validity--is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study.

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External Validity

Interactions of:
• • •

Selection of subjects & treatment Setting & treatment: closing clinic, nonsupportive staff History & treatment: events influence treatment

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Elements of Strong Design

Controlling the Environment: selection of the study setting

Natural setting Partially controlled setting: clinic Highly controlled setting: lab

• •

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Elements of Strong Design

Controlling the Equivalence of Subjects & Groups

Random subject selection Random assignment to groups

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Elements of Strong Design

Controlling the Treatment (Tx)
• • • • •

Tx based on research & practice Protocol developed for implementation Document Tx was implemented Checklist to determine extent Tx was implemented if incomplete Re-evaluate Tx during study

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Elements of Strong Design

Controlling Measurement
• • • •

Reliability Validity # Measurement methods Types of instruments

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Elements of Strong Design

Controlling Extraneous Variables
• • • •

Identify & eliminate by sample criteria, setting, design Random sampling Sample: heterogeneous, homogeneous, matching Statistical control

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Problems with Study Designs

Inappropriate for purpose & framework Poorly developed Poorly implemented Inadequate treatment, sample, measurement methods

• • •

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Critiquing a Study Design
1. Was the type of design identified? 2. Was the study design linked to the purpose &/or objectives, questions, or hypotheses? 3. Were all variables manipulated or measured?
Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Critiquing a Study Design
4. If the study included a treatment, was it clearly described & consistently implemented? 5. Were extraneous variables identified & controlled? 6. What were the threats to design validity in this study?

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Critiquing a Study Design
7. Was a pilot study performed prior to this study? What was the reason for the pilot & the outcome?
* Study feasibility * Refine design or treatment * Examine validity & reliability of measurement methods
Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Identifying a Design in a Quantitative Research Report
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Study Purpose
• • • • •

Describe Variables Examine Relationships Determine Differences Test a Treatment A Combination of these

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Types of Designs
• • • •

Descriptive Study Designs Correlational Study Designs Quasi-Experimental Study Designs Experimental Study Designs

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Identifying a Design
No

Is there a treatment?

Yes Is the treatment tightly controlled by the researcher? No Yes Will a randomly assigned control group be used Yes Is the original sample randomly selected? No Yes Experimental Study

Is the primary purpose examination of relationships? No Descriptive Design Yes Will the sample be studied as a single group? No Yes Correlational Design

Quasi-Experimental Study No

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Identifying a Descriptive Design
Examining sequences across time?
No One Group? Yes Following same subjects across time?

No
Comparative Descriptive Design

Yes
Descriptive Design No Cross-sectional design

No Data collected across time Yes Studying events partitioned across time? No Trend Analysis Yes Cross-sectional design with treatment partitioning Yes No Longitudinal Study

Yes Single unit of study

Yes
Case Study

Repeated measures of each subject No Longitudinal design with treatment partitioning

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Study Designs
• • • •

Typical Descriptive Design Comparative Descriptive Design Time Dimensional Design Case Study Design

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Diagramming the Design

Clarifies the variables to be measured or manipulated Indicates focus of the study: description, relationships, differences, &/or testing a treatment

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Diagramming the Design

Identifies data collection process: time for study, treatment implementation, measurement of variables Provides direction to data analysis

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Typical Descriptive Design
Clarification Measurement
Variable 1

Description
Description of Variable 1 Description of Variable 2 Description of Variable 3 Description of Variable 4

Interpretation

Phenomenon of Interest

Variable 2

Interpretation of Meaning

Variable 3

Variable 4

Development of Hypotheses

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Comparative Descriptive Design
Group I {variable(s) measured}

Describe

Comparison of Groups on Selected Variables Group II {variable(s) measured}

Interpretation of Meaning

Describe

Development of Hypotheses

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Correlational Study Designs

Descriptive Correlational Design Predictive Design Model-Testing Design

• •

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Identifying Type of Correlational Design
Describe relationships between/among variables? Predict relationships between/among variables? Test theoretically proposed relationships?

Descriptive correlational design

Predictive correlational design

Model testing design

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Correlational Design
Measurement
Research Variable 1 Description of variable Interpretation of Meaning

Examination of Relationship

Research Variable 2

Description of variable

Development of Hypotheses

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Predictive Design
Value of Independent Variable 1 Value of Independent Variable 2 Predicted Value of Dependent Variable

Value of Intercept

+

+

=

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Study Groups
• • • •

Groups in comparative descriptive studies Control group Comparison group Equivalent versus nonequivalent groups

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Pre-Experimental Designs
• • •

One-group post-test–only design Post-test–only design with nonequivalent groups One-group pretest–post-test design

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Quasi-Experimental Designs
• • •

Untreated control group design with pretest & post-test Nonequivalent dependent variables design Removed-treatment design with pretest & post-test

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Pretest–Post-Test Control Group Design
Measurement of dependent variables Randomly selected experimental group Randomly selected control group
Treatment: Findings:

Manipulation of independent variable TREATMENT

Measurement of dependent variable(s) POST-TEST

PRETEST

PRETEST

POST-TEST

Under control of researcher comparison of pretest and post-test scores comparison of experimental and control groups comparison of pretest-post-test differences between samples Your self (1990). The impact of group reminiscence counseling on a depressed elderly population testing mortality instrumentation restricted generalizability as control increases

Example: Uncontrolled threats to validity:

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Post-Test–Only Control Group Design
Measurement of independent variables Randomly selected experimental group Randomly selected control group Treatment: Findings: Example: Uncontrolled threats to validity: Under control of researcher comparison of experimental and control groups Clochesy, Difani & Howe (1991). Electrode site preparation techniques: a follow-up study instrumentation mortality limited generalizability as control increases TREATMENT Measurement of dependent variable(s) POST-TEST

POST-TEST

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Advantages of QuasiExperimental Designs
• • •

More Practical: Ease of implementation More Feasible: resources, subjects, time, setting More Generalizable: Comparable to practice

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Advantages of Experimental Designs
• •

More Controls: design & conduct of study Increased internally valid: decreased threats to design validity Fewer Rival Hypotheses

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Outcomes Research

Agencies Supporting Outcomes Research
• •

Agency for Health Services Research (AHSR) Agency for Health Care Policy & Research (AHCPR)

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Outcomes Research

Structure of Care
System Characteristics • Provider Characteristics • Patient Characteristics

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Outcomes Research

Process of Care • Ordering tests • Treatments: pharmacological & nonpharmacological • Referral • Hospitalization • Counseling & education

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Outcomes Research

Outcomes

Clinical end points • Functional status • General well-being • Satisfaction with care

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Critiquing A Design

• •

Identify elements that were controlled in the study Identify possible sources of bias Are there elements that could have been controlled to improve the study design?

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Critiquing A Design

• •

What elements of the design were manipulated and how were they manipulated? How adequate was the manipulation? What elements should have been manipulated to improve the validity of the findings?

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Critiquing A Design

Based on your assessment of the adequacy of the design, how valid are the findings?

Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Critiquing A Design

Is there another reasonable (valid) explanation (rival hypothesis) for the study findings other than that proposed by the researcher?

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Questions

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