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# Subject: Chemistry

## Chapter #: 6: Quantitative Chemistry How Much? (Moles)

Answer the following Questions:
Q1)

## Question 2 part (c)

The following is a part of the description of the preparation of the soluble salt lithium
chloride.
25.0 cm3 of a solution of lithium hydroxide, concentration 1.00 mol/dm3 was placed in
a beaker. A few drops of the indicator, methyl orange, were added and the mixture
turned yellow. Hydrochloric acid was added form a burette until the mixture just turned
red. 20.0 cm3 of the acid was needed to neutralise the alkali.
Calculate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid.

## LiOH + HCl LiCl + H2O

Number of moles of LiOH is 25 cm3 of a 1.00 mol/dm3 solution
= __________________
Therefore number of moles of HCl in 20 cm3

= __________________

## Concentration of HCl = __________________

= _________________ mol/dm3

Q2)

## Question 2 part (c)

Potassium chlorate, which has a formula of the type, KClOn, decomposes to form
oxygen. 2.45 g of the chlorate produced 1.49 g of potassium chloride and 0.72dm 3 of
oxygen at r.t.p. Find the value of n.

KClOn KCl +

O2
Mass of one mole of KCl = 74.5 g

## Number of moles of KCl formed = ________________

Number of moles of oxygen molecules formed = ________________
Number of moles of oxygen atoms = ________________
Mole ratio KCl : O is ________________
n =________________


Q3)

of oxygen.

## 2C4H6 (g) + 11O2 (g) 8CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

i) What volume of oxygen reacts?
________________________________________________________________________

## ii) What volume of carbon dioxide is produced?

________________________________________________________________________

iii) What is the total volume of gases left at the end of the reaction?
________________________________________________________________________

b) Calculate the mass of water formed when 9.0 g of butyne is burnt. The mass of one
mole of butyne is 54 g.
from the above equation, 1 mole of butyne forms 3 moles of water
number of moles of butyne reacted ___________
number of moles of water formed ___________
mass of water formed ___________ g
Q4)

## October / November 2002


Question 3 part (f)

## Sodium reacts with sulphur to form sodium sulphide.

2Na + S Na2S
An 11.5 g sample of sodium is reacted with 10 g of sulphur. All of the sodium reacted
but there was an excess of sulphur.
Calculate the mass of sulphur left unreacted.
a) Number of moles of sodium atoms reacted = ___________
[2 moles of Na react with 1 mole of S]
b) Number of moles of sulphur atoms that reacted = ___________
c) Mass of sulphur reacted = ___________ g
d) Mass of sulphur left unreacted = ___________ g



Q5)

## Question 2 part (c)

Each tablet contains the same number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3. One tablet
reacted with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 0.24 dm3 of carbon dioxide at r.t.p.

## CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
(a) Calculate how many moles of CaCO3 there are in one tablet.
number of moles CO2 =

____________

____________

## number of moles of CaCO3 =

____________


b) Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol /dm3, needed to react with one
tablet.
number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in one tablet =

____________

number of moles of HCl needed to react with one tablet =
volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol /dm3, needed to react with one
tablet =

Q6)

____________
____________


## Question 5 part (d)

Sulphur dioxide reacts with chlorine in an addition reaction to form sulphuryl chloride.

## SO2 + Cl2 SO2Cl2

8.0 g of sulphur dioxide was mixed with 14.2 g of chlorine. The mass of one mole of
SO2Cl2 is 135 g.
Calculate the mass of sulphuryl chloride formed by this mixture.
Calculate the number of moles of SO2 in the mixture = ______________
Calculate the number of moles of Cl2 in the mixture = ______________
Which reagent was not in excess? ______________
How many moles of SO2Cl2 were formed = ______________
Calculate the mass of sulphuryl chloride formed = ______________ g



Q7)

## May / June 2004

Question 7

Chemists use the concept of the mole to calculate the amounts of chemicals involved
in a reaction.
a) Define mole.
________________________________________________________________________

## b) 3.0 g of magnesium was added to 12.0 g of ethanoic acid.

Mg + 2CH3COOH (CH3COO)2Mg + H2
The mass of one mole of Mg is 24 g.
The mass of one mole of CH3COOH is 60 g.
i) Which one, magnesium or ethanoic acid, is in excess? You must show your
reasoning.

________________________________________________________________________

## ii) How many moles of hydrogen were formed?

________________________________________________________________________

## iii) Calculate the volume of hydrogen formed, measured at r.t.p.

________________________________________________________________________

## c) In an experiment, 25.0cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide, 0.4mol /dm3, was

neutralised by 20.0cm3 of aqueous oxalic acid, H2C2O4.

## 2NaOH + H2C2O4 Na2C2O4 +2H2O

Calculate the concentration of the oxalic acid in mol /dm3.
i) Calculate the number of moles of NaOH in 25.0 cm3 of 0.4 mol /dm3 solution.
________________________________________________________________________

ii) Use your answer to i) and the mole ratio in the equation to find out the number of
moles of H2C2O4 in 20 cm3 of solution.
________________________________________________________________________

iii) Calculate the concentration, mol /dm3, of the aqueous oxalic acid.
________________________________________________________________________

Q8)

## Question 7 part (c)

Iron(III) sulphate decomposes when heated. Calculate the mass of iron(III) oxide
formed and the volume of sulphur trioxide produced when 10.0 g of iron(III) sulphate
was heated.
Mass of one mole of Fe2(SO4)3 is 400 g.

## Fe2(SO4)3 (s) Fe2O3 (s) + 3SO3 (g)

Number of moles of Fe2(SO4)3 =

_________________

## Number of moles of Fe2O3 formed =

_________________

## Mass of iron(III) oxide formed =

_________________ g

## Number of moles of SO3 produced =

_________________

## Volume of sulphur trioxide at r.t.p. =

_________________ dm3


Q9)

## Gypsum is hydrated calcium sulphate, CaSO4.xH2O. It contains 20.9% water by

mass. Calculate x.
Mr: CaSO4, 136; H2O, 18.
79.1 g of CaSO4 = ________________________________________________ moles
20.9 g of H2O = __________________________________________________ moles
x = _____________________________
Q10)

## October / November 2005


Question 6 part (a)

## a) The following method is used to make crystals of hydrated nickel sulphate. An

excess of nickel carbonate, 12.0 g, was added to 40 cm3 of sulphuric acid, 2.0
mol/dm3. The unreacted nickel carbonate was filtered off and the filtrate evaporated to
obtain the crystals.

## NiCO3 + H2SO4 NiSO4 + CO2 + H2O

NiSO4 + 7H2O NiSO4.7H2O
Mass of one mole of NiSO4.7H2O = 281 g
Mass of one mole of NiCO3 = 119 g
i) Calculate the mass of unreacted nickel carbonate.
Number of moles of H2SO4 in 40 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 acid = 0.08

## Number of moles of NiCO3 reacted =

_________________

## Mass of nickel carbonate reacted =

_________________ g

## Mass of unreacted nickel carbonate =

_________________ g


(ii) The experiment produced 10.4 g of hydrated nickel sulphate. Calculate the
percentage yield.
The maximum number of moles of NiSO4 .7H2O that could be formed =
____________________________________________________________________
The maximum mass of NiSO4 .7H2O that could be formed = __________________ g
The percentage yield = ___________________________________________ %

Q11)



## Propene reacts with hydrogen iodide to form 2 iodoprpane.

CH3CH=CH2 + HI CH3CHICH3
1.4 g of propene produced 4.0 g of 2 - iodopropane.
Calculate the percentage yield.
moles of CH3CH=CH2 reacted =

__________________________

## maximum moles of CH3CHICH3 that could be formed =

___________________

## mass of one mole of CH3CHICH3 = 170 g

maximum mass of 2 - iodopropane that could be formed =
percentage yield

___________________

_________________________ %


Q12)

## Question 6 part (a)

An ore of copper is the mineral, chalcopyrite. This is a mixed sulphide of iron and
copper.
Analysis of a sample of this ore shows that 13.80 g of the ore contained 4.80 g of
copper, 4.20 g of iron and the rest sulphur.
Complete the table and calculate the empirical formula of chalcopyrite.

composition by mass / g

copper

iron

4.80

4.20

sulphur

## simplest mole ratio of atoms


The empirical formula is

________________________________________________________________________

Q13)

## Question 7 part (d)

A better way of measuring the degree of unsaturation is to find the iodine number of
the unsaturated compound. This is the mass of iodine that reacts with all the double
bonds in 100 g of the fat. Use the following information to calculate the number of
double bonds in one molecule of the fat.

## Mass of one mole of the fat is 884 g.

One mole of I2 reacts with one mole

C=C.

## 100 g of fat reacts with 86.2 g of iodine.

884 g of fat reacts with ________________________ g of iodine.
One mole of fat reacts with ________________________ moles of iodine molecules.
Number of double bonds in one molecule of fat is ________________________ 

Q14)

## Question 7 part (b) (ii)

A small piece of marble, calcium carbonate, was added to 5 cm3 of hydrochloric acid
at 25C. The time taken for the reaction to stop was measured.

CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

## One piece of marble, 0.3 g, was added to 5 cm of hydrochloric acid, concentration

3
1.00 mol / dm . Which reagent is in excess? Give a reason for your choice.
mass of one mole of CaCO3 = 100 g
number of moles of CaCO3 = ____________________________________________
number of moles of HCl = _______________________________________________
reagent in excess is ____________________________________________________
reason ____________________________________________________________ 
Q15)

Variant 31

## Question 7 part (b)

Using 25.0 cm of aqueous sodium hydroxide, 2.24 mol / dm , 3.86 g of crystals were
obtained. Calculate the percentage yield.

## 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Na2SO4 + 10H2O Na2SO4.10H2O
Number of moles of NaOH used =
Maximum number of moles of Na2SO4.10H2O that could be formed =
Mass of one mole of Na2SO4.10H2O = 322 g
Maximum yield of sodium sulphate-10-water = _____________________________ g
Percentage yield = __________________________%
Q16)

Variant 32



## Question 7 part (b)

Using 25.0 cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide, 2.64 mol / dm3, 3.95 g of crystals were
obtained. Calculate the percentage yield.

## 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Na2SO4 + 10H2O Na2SO4.10H2O
Number of moles of NaOH used =
Maximum number of moles of Na2SO4.10H2O that could be formed =
Mass of one mole of Na2SO4.10H2O = 322 g
Maximum yield of sodium sulphate-10-water = _____________________________ g

Q17)

## October / November 2008

Variant 31


Question 4 part (b)

Across the world, food safety agencies are investigating the presence of minute traces
of the toxic hydrocarbon, benzene, in soft drinks. It is formed by the reduction of
sodium benzoate by vitamin C.
Sodium benzoate is a salt, it has the formula C6H5COONa. It can be made by the
neutralisation of benzoic acid by sodium hydroxide.
Benzene contains 92.3% of carbon and its relative molecular mass is 78.
a) What is the percentage of hydrogen in benzene?
________________________________________________________________________

## b) Calculate the ratio of moles of C atoms: moles of H atoms in benzene.

____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
c) Calculate its empirical formula and then its molecular formula.
The empirical formula of benzene is

__________________________________

## The molecular formula of benzene is

__________________________________


Q18)

Variant 31

## Question 7 part (a) (i)

The alkanes are generally unreactive. Their reactions include combustion, substitution
and cracking .The complete combustion of an alkane gives carbon dioxide and water.
10 cm3 of butane is mixed with 100 cm3 of oxygen, which is an excess. The mixture is
ignited. What is the volume of unreacted oxygen left and what is the volume of
carbon dioxide formed ?

C4H10 (g) +

## Volume of oxygen left =

___________________________ cm3

## Volume of carbon dioxide formed =

___________________________ cm3

Q19)

Variant 31

Question 9

## Quantities of chemicals, expressed in moles, can be used to find the formula of a

compound, to establish an equation and to determine reacting masses.
a) A compound contains 72% magnesium and 28% nitrogen. What is its empirical
formula?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
b) A compound contains only aluminium and carbon. 0.03 moles of this compound
reacted with excess water to form 0.12 moles of Al(OH)3 and 0.09 moles of CH4.
Write a balanced equation for this reaction.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
c) 0.07 moles of silicon reacts with 25 g of bromine.

Si + 2Br2 SiBr4
i) Which one is the limiting reagent? Explain your choice.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
ii) How many moles of SiBr4 are formed?
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q20)

## May / June 2009

Variant 32

Question 9

Part (a) and (b) are same as it is in Q19) part (a) and (b) only part (c) form this variant
for part (a) and (b) of this question refer Q18) part (a) and (b).
c) 0.08 moles of silicon reacts with 7.2g of fluorine.

Si + 2F2 SiF4
i) Which one is the limiting reagent? Explain your choice.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
ii) How many moles of SiF4 are formed?
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q21)

Variant 31

## Question 6 part (b)

9.12 g of anhydrous iron(II) sulfate was heated. Calculate the mass of iron(III) oxide
formed and the volume of sulfur trioxide, at r.t.p., formed.

## 2FeSO4 (s) Fe2O3 (s) + SO2 (g) + SO3 (g)

mass of one mole of FeSO4 = 152 g
number of moles of FeSO4 used = _______________
number of moles of Fe2O3
formed

= _______________

## mass of one mole of Fe2O3

= _______________ g

## mass of iron (III) oxide formed

= _______________ g

## number of moles of SO3 formed

= _______________

## volume of sulfur trioxide formed

= _______________ dm3


Q22)

Variant 31

Question 7

part (e)

## Titanium is a transition element. It is isolated by the following reactions.

titanium ore

titanium(IV) oxide

## titanium(IV) chloride titanium

TiO2

TiCl

Ti

The titanium ore contains 36.8% iron, 31.6% titanium and the remainder is oxygen.
i) Determine the percentage of oxygen in this titanium compound.
percentage of oxygen = __________________________________ % 
ii) Calculate the number of moles of atoms for each element.
The number of moles of Fe is shown as an example.
number of moles of Fe = 36.8 / 56 = 0.66
number of moles of Ti = ______________________________________________
number of moles of O = ______________________________________________ 
iii) What is the simplest ratio for the moles of atoms?
Fe

_______

Ti

_______

O
_______


## iv) What is the formula of this titanium compound?

__________________________________________________________________ 
Q23)

## May / June 2010

Variant 32

Question 8

part (c)

A 5.00 g sample of impure lead(II) nitrate was heated. The volume of oxygen formed
was 0.16dm3 measured at r.t.p. The impurities did not decompose.
Calculate the percentage of lead(II) nitrate in the sample.

## 2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

Number of moles of O2 formed = ________________________
Number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 in the sample = ________________________
Mass of one mole of Pb(NO3)2 = 331 g
Mass of lead(II) nitrate in the sample = ________________________ g
Percentage of lead(II) nitrate in sample =________________________


Q24)

Variant 31

## 6.0 g of cobalt(II) carbonate was added to 40 cm of hydrochloric acid, concentration

3
2.0 mol /dm . Calculate the maximum yield of cobalt(II) chloride 6 water and show
that the cobalt(II) carbonate was in excess.

## CoCO3 + 2HCl CoCl2 + CO2 + H2O

CoCl2 + 6H2O CoCl 2.6H2O
Maximum yield
Number of moles of HCl used = _________________
Number of moles of CoCl2 formed = _________________
Number of moles of CoCl2.6H2O formed = _________________
Mass of one mole of CoCl2.6H2O = 238 g
Maximum yield of CoCl2.6H2O = _________________ g

To show that cobalt(II) carbonate is in excess
Number of moles of HCl used = _________________ (use value from above)
Mass of one mole of CoCO3 = 119 g
Number of moles of CoCO3 in 6.0 g of cobalt(II) carbonate = _________________ 
Explain why cobalt(II) carbonate is in excess ________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q25)

Variant 32

## Question 7 part (d)

20.0 cm3 of sulfuric acid, concentration 0.30 mol / dm3, was added to 40 cm3 of
sodium hydroxide, concentration 0.20 mol / dm3.

## 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

a) How many moles of H2SO4 were added? _________________ 
b) How many moles of NaOH were used? _________________ 
c) Which reagent is in excess? Give a reason for your choice.
reagent in excess ___________________________________________________ 
reason ______________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q26)

Variant 33

## Question 5 part (b)

Maleic acid is an unsaturated acid. 5.8 g of this acid contained 2.4 g of carbon, 0.2 g
of hydrogen and 3.2 g of oxygen.
a) How do you know that the acid contained only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen?
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
b) Calculate the empirical formula of maleic acid.
Number of moles of carbon atoms = _________________
Number of moles of hydrogen atoms = _________________
Number of moles of oxygen atoms = _________________
The empirical formula is ______________________________________________ 

Q27)

## May / June 2011

Variant 31

Question 7

Excess hydrochloric acid was added to powdered zinc. The hydrogen evolved was
collected and its volume measured every 20 seconds.
The experiments were repeated at the same temperature using the same number of
moles of powdered magnesium and aluminium.

a) Identify metals A, B and C by choosing from zinc, magnesium and aluminium. Give
a reason for each choice.
metal A ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
metal B ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
metal C _____________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ 
b) Using moles, explain why two of the metals form the same volume of hydrogen but
the third metal forms a larger volume.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
Q28)

Variant 32

## Hydrocarbons are compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen.

3
3
20cm of a gaseous hydrocarbon was burned in 120cm of oxygen, which is in
excess. After cooling, the volume of the gases remaining was 90cm3. Aqueous
3
sodium hydroxide was added to remove carbon dioxide, 30 cm of oxygen remained.
All volumes were measured at r.t.p..
a) Complete the following.
volume of gaseous hydrocarbon = __________ cm3
volume of oxygen used = __________ cm3
volume of carbon dioxide formed = __________ cm3 
b) Use the above volume ratio to find the mole ratio in the equation below and hence
find the formula of the hydrocarbon.
______ CxHy (g) + ______ O2 (g) ______ CO2 (g) + ______ H2O (l)
hydrocarbon formula = __________________________ 

Q29)

Variant 31

## Question 7 part (c)

There are three possible equations for the thermal decomposition of sodium
hydrogencarbonate.

## 2NaHCO3 (s) Na2O (s) + 2CO2 (g) + H2O (g) equation 1

NaHCO3 (s) NaOH (s) + CO2 (g) equation 2
2NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (g) equation 3
The following experiment was carried out to determine which one of the above is the
correct equation. A known mass of sodium hydrogencarbonate was heated for ten
minutes. It was then allowed to cool and weighed.

Results
Mass of sodium hydrogencarbonate = 3.36 g
Mass of the residue = 2.12 g
Calculation
Mr for NaHCO3 = 84g; Mr for Na2O = 62g; Mr for NaOH = 40g
Mr for Na2CO3 = 106 g
a) Number of moles of NaHCO3 used = __________

b) if residue is Na2O, number of moles of Na2O = __________
If residue is NaOH, number of moles of NaOH = __________
If residue is Na2CO3, number of moles of Na2CO3 = __________

c) Use the number of moles calculated in (a) and (b) to decide which one of the three
equations is correct. Explain your choice.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
Q30)

Variant 32

## Question 6 part (c)

Insoluble salts are made by precipitation. An equation for the preparation of barium
sulfate is given below.

## BaCl2 (aq) + MgSO4 (aq) BaSO4 (s) + MgCl2 (aq)

This reaction can be used to find x in the formula for hydrated magnesium sulfate
MgSO4.xH2O.
A known mass of hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.xH2O, was dissolved in water.
Excess aqueous barium chloride was added. The precipitate of barium sulfate was
filtered, washed and dried. Finally it was weighed.
Mass of hydrated magnesium sulfate = 1.476 g
Mass of barium sulfate formed = 1.398 g
The mass of one mole of BaSO4 = 233 g
The number of moles of BaSO4 formed = __________

The number of moles of MgSO4.xH2O = __________

The mass of one mole of MgSO4.xH2O = __________ g

The mass of one mole of MgSO4 = 120 g



x = __________

Q31)

Variant 33

## Question 7 part (a) and (b)(iii)

The alkenes are a series of unsaturated hydrocarbons. They have the general
molecular formula CnH2n.
a) Deduce the molecular formula of an alkene which has a relative molecular mass of
126. Show your working.
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
b) Bond energy is the amount of energy, in kJ, which must be supplied to break one
mole of the bond.
bond energy
bond
in kJ / mol
HH
+436
C == C
+610
CC
+346
CH
+415
Use the data in the table to show that the following reaction is exothermic.

____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q32)

Variant 31

## Question 8 part (b)

A sample of rust had the following composition: 51.85 g of iron 22.22 g of oxygen
16.67 g of water.
Calculate the following and then write the formula for this sample of rust.
number of moles of iron atoms, Fe = ____________

number of moles of oxygen atoms, O = ____________

number of moles of water molecules, H2O =____________


simplest mole ratio Fe : O : H2O is ______ : ______ : ______
formula for this sample of rust is ____________

Q33)

Variant 32



## Question 7 part (e)

0.01 moles of an alkene needed 2.4 g of oxygen for complete combustion. 2.2 g of
carbon dioxide were formed. Determine the following mole ratio.
moles of alkene : moles of O2 : moles of CO2
From this ratio determine the formula of the alkene.

__________________________________________________________________ 
Write an equation for the complete combustion of this alkene.
__________________________________________________________________ 
Q34)

Variant 31

## Strontium chloride-6-water can be made from the insoluble compound, strontium

carbonate, by the following reactions.

SrCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) Sr Cl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
SrCl 2 (aq) + 6H2 O (l) SrCl2.6H2O(s)
The following method was used to prepare the crystals.
1 Add excess strontium carbonate to hot hydrochloric acid.
2 Filter the resulting mixture.
3 Partially evaporate the filtrate and allow to cool.
4 Filter off the crystals of SrCl2.6H2O.
5 Dry the crystals between filter papers.
In the above experiment, 50.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 2.0 mol / dm3
was used. 6.4 g of SrCl2.6H2O was made.
Calculate the percentage yield.
number of moles of HCl used = ________________
number of moles of SrCl2.6H2O which could be formed = ________________
mass of one mole of SrCl2.6H2O is 267 g
theoretical yield of SrCl2.6H2O = ________________ g
percentage yield = ________________ %



Q35)

Variant 32

## Question 5 part (d)

Sulfur dioxide can also be made by the reaction between a sulfite and an acid.

## Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + SO2 + H2O

Excess hydrochloric acid was added to 3.15 g of sodium sulfite. Calculate the
maximum volume, measured at r.t.p., of sulfur dioxide which could be formed.
The mass of one mole of Na2SO3 is 126 g.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q36)

Variant 33

## An organic compound has a molecular formula C6H8O4. It is an unsaturated carboxylic

acid. One mole of the compound reacts with two moles of sodium hydroxide.
How many moles of COOH groups are there in one mole of this compound?
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q37)

Variant 33

## Bond breaking is an endothermic process. Bond energy is the amount of energy

needed to break or form one mole of the bond. Complete the table and explain why
the forward reaction is exothermic.

bond
N== N

bond energy
kJ / mol
944

energy change
kJ
+944

HH

436

3 436 = +1308

NH

388

exothermic
or endothermic
Endothermic

____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q38)

Variant 31

## What are the molecular and empirical formulae of cyclohexane?

molecular formula ________________
empirical formula ________________

Q39)

Variant 31

## Question 7 part (b)

The concentration of the hydrochloric acid was 2.20 mol / dm3. The volume of acid
needed to neutralise the 25.0 cm3 of lithium hydroxide was 20.0 cm3. Calculate the
concentration of the aqueous lithium hydroxide.

## LiOH + HCl LiCl + H2O

____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 

Q40)

Variant 32

## a) Define the following

i) the mole
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
ii) the Avogadro constant
____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ 
b) Which two of the following contain the same number of molecules?
Show how you arrived at your answer.
2.0 g of methane, CH4
8.0 g of oxygen, O2
2.0 g of ozone, O3
8.0 g of sulfur dioxide, SO2
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
c) 4.8 g of calcium is added to 3.6 g of water. The following reaction occurs.

Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2
i) the number of moles of Ca = _______________
the number of moles of H2O = ________________ 
ii) Which reagent is in excess? Explain your choice.
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
iii) Calculate the mass of the reagent named in (ii) which remained at the end of the
experiment.
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
Q41)

Variant 33

## Question 7 part (d)

20cm3 of a hydrocarbon was burnt in 175cm3 of oxygen. After cooling, the volume of
the remaining gases was 125cm3. The addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide
removed carbon dioxide leaving 25cm3 of unreacted oxygen.
i) volume of oxygen used = _____________ cm3

ii) volume of carbon dioxide formed = ___________ cm



iii) Deduce the formula of the hydrocarbon and the balanced equation for the reaction.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ 
Q42)

Variant 31

## Question 4 part (d)

Calculate the maximum mass of carbon dioxide given off when 20.0 g of small lumps
3
of calcium carbonate react with 40 cm of hydrochloric acid, concentration 2.0 mol /
3
dm .

## CaCO3(s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl 2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

number of moles of HCl used =

Q43)

Variant 31

## Question 6 part (c)

Basic lead(II) carbonate has a formula of the type xPbCO3.yPb(OH)2 where x and y
are whole numbers.
Determine x and y from the following information.

## PbCO3 PbO + CO2

Pb(OH)2 PbO + H2O
When heated, the basic lead(II) carbonate gave 2.112 g of carbon dioxide and 0.432 g
of water.
Mass of one mole of CO2 = 44 g
Mass of one mole of H2O = 18 g
Number of moles of CO2 formed = ________________

Number of moles of H2O formed = ________________

x = _____________ and y = _____________
Formula of basic lead(II) carbonate is ______________________________________


Q44)

Variant 32

## Silver(I) chromate(VI) is an insoluble salt. It is prepared by precipitation.

3
3
20 cm of aqueous silver(I) nitrate, concentration 0.2 mol / dm , was mixed with 20
3
3
cm of aqueous potassium chromate(VI), concentration 0.1 mol / dm . After stirring,
the mixture was filtered. The precipitate was washed several times with distilled water.
The precipitate was then left in a warm oven for several hours.

## 2AgNO3 (aq) + K2CrO4 (aq) Ag2CrO4 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)

What is the maximum mass of silver(I) chromate(VI) which could be obtained from
3
3
20 cm of aqueous silver(I) nitrate, concentration 0.2 mol / dm ?
number of moles of AgNO3 used = __________________

number of moles of Ag2CrO4 formed = __________________

mass of one mole of Ag2CrO4 = 332 g
mass of Ag2CrO4 formed = __________________ g

Q45)

Variant 33

## C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

The mass of one mole of glucose, C6H12O6, is 180 g.
Calculate the maximum mass of ethanol which could be obtained from 72 g of
glucose.
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Q46)

Variant 31

## Question 6 part (d)

Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen. This reaction is catalysed
by manganese(IV) oxide. In the first experiment, the maximum volume of oxygen
produced was 96 cm3 measured at r.t.p. Calculate the concentration of the aqueous
hydrogen peroxide in mol / dm3.

## 2H2O2 (aq) 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)

number of moles of O2 formed = __________________________________________


number of moles of H2O2 in 40 cm of solution = _____________________________

3
concentration of the aqueous hydrogen peroxide in mol / dm =__________________
3

_____________________
Q47)

Variant 32

## Question 7 part (b)

The soluble salt hydrated lithium sulfate is made by titration from the soluble base
3
lithium hydroxide. Using 25.0 cm of aqueous lithium hydroxide, concentration 2.48
3
mol / dm , 2.20 g of hydrated lithium sulfate was obtained.
Calculate the percentage yield, giving your answer to one decimal place.

## 2LiOH + H2SO4 Li2SO4 + 2H2O

Li2SO4 + H2O Li2SO4.H2O
Number of moles of LiOH used = __________________
Number of moles of Li2SO4.H2O which could be formed = __________________
Mass of one mole of Li2SO4.H2O = 128 g
Maximum yield of Li2SO4.H2O = __________________
Percentage yield = __________________%

Q48)

Variant 33

## Ammonia is made by the Haber process.

a) The equilibrium mixture leaving the reaction chamber contains 15% ammonia.
Suggest how the ammonia could be separated from the mixture.
boiling point / C
hydrogen 253
nitrogen 196
ammonia 33
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b) Ammonia is used to make nitrogen trifluoride, NF3. Nitrogen trifluoride is essential
to the electronics industry. It is made by the following reaction.

Determine if the above reaction is exothermic or endothermic using the following bond
energies and by completing the following table. The first line has been done as an
example. Bond energy is the amount of energy, in kJ / mole, needed to break or make
one mole of the bond.
bond

NH

390

FF
NF

155
280

HF

565

bond

## bond energy in kJ / mole

NH

(3 390) = 1170

FF
NF
HF

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Q49)

Variant 33

## The alkanes are a family of saturated hydrocarbons. Their reactions include

combustion, cracking and substitution. The complete combustion of hydrocarbons
produces carbon dioxide and water only.
a) Write the equation for the complete combustion of nonane, C9H20.
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b) 20 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon was mixed with an excess of oxygen, 200 cm3.
The mixture was ignited. After cooling, 40 cm3 of oxygen and 100 cm3 of carbon
dioxide remained. Deduce the formula of the hydrocarbon and the equation for its
combustion. All volumes were measured at r.t.p..
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Q50)

Variant 31

## Hydrogen reacts with the halogens to form hydrogen halides.

Bond energy is the amount of energy, in kJ, that must be supplied (endothermic) to
break one mole of a bond.
Bond
HH
ClCl
HCl

## bond energy in kJ / mol

+436
+242
+431

Use the above data to show that the following reaction is exothermic.

H H + Cl Cl 2H Cl

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