Anda di halaman 1dari 56

MODUL PEMBELAJARAN

Bimbingan belajar
NEWTONSIX
(belajar jadi lebih asyik)

BAHASA INGGRIS

Sekretariat: JL dahlia raya a19 no 9 perumahan jurangmangu indah

KATA PENGANTAR
(Dari manajemen NS)
Sebelumnya kita ucapkan selamat untuk teman-teman yang sudah lulus sma, tak terasa tiga
tahun sudah perjuangan di sma telah berlalu dan tentunya meninggalkan kesan yang mendalam

KIAT-KIAT BELAJAR BAHASA INGGRIS ala USM STAN

- Yakinkan dirimu belajar bahasa inggris tu mudah dan asyik..


- Kalau udah mentok belajar sructure mending hafalin rumus aja
- untuk soal cerita, cari kalimat utamanya dulu bisa di awal, di tengah dan di akhir paragraf
(soal yang ditanya biasanya berhubungan denga kalimat utamanya)
- soal2 yang di ujikan dalam usm stan Cuma 3 jenis aja kok structure, eror recognition, dan
reading, dan masih ada kemungkinan soal vocab keluar.. Cuma itu saja kok jadi gag usah
berfikir terlalu berat..
- ulangi terus dan ulangi terus
- perbayak latihan soal
sebelum di print tambahin sesuai ide kalian

DAFTAR ISI
- Structure and written expression
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)

T enses
Causative
Passive Voice
Modals
Gerund and to Infinitive
Agreement/Concord
C lauses
Conditional Clause (IF)
Parallel Structure
Direct and Indirect sentence (reported speech)
Wish, as if/as though, would rather
Phrasal Verbs
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Conjunctions
Parallel Verbs

- Error recognition
- reading

STRUCTUR AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION


CHAPTER I
TENSES
A. PRESENT TENSE
SIMPLE PRESENT
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang merupakan :
-

Habitual action ( kebiasaan )


General truth ( kebenaran umum )

Rumus : S + V1
Adverb of time : everyday, once, twice, three times, etc
Adverb of frequency : always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, never, etc
E.g. :
Istia asri parinda goes to campus everyday.
She always wear a green cloth at campus three times a week.
The sun rises (general truth).
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada masa sekarang.

Rumus : S + is/am/are + VING


Adverb of time : now, right now, at this time, at this moment
E.g.:
Istia is dancing salsa right now.
The boys is renovating they room at this time.
PRESENT PERFECT
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sudah selesai pada masa sekarang (hasil masih terlihat/
terasa).

Rumus : S + have/has + V3
Biasanya diikuti oleh : yet, already, just
E.g.:
I have already swept the floor
He has just moved to another country
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah berlangsung beberapa lama dan terus
berlangsung sampai sekarang.

Rumus : S + have/has + been + V3


Adverb of time : for three months, since yesterday, all these years, etc
E.g.:
It has been raining since last week.
The ganggas boy and Parinda have been playing uno for an hour.
B. PAST TENSE
SIMPLE PAST
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang terjadi pada masa lampau.

Rumus : S + V2
Adverb of time : yesterday, last night, twenty hours ago, just now
E.g.:
They went to Medan last week

I visited my father yesterday


PAST CONTINUOS
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu pada maa
lampau.

Rumus : S + was/were + VING


Adverb of time : at 10 last night, at this time yesterday, when + S + V 2 , While + S + was/were + VING , etc
E.g.:
She was watching a movie at 11 last night
She was waiting him when he came
They were studying English while he was eating
PAST PERFECT
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian telah selesai ketika kejadian lain terjadi.

Rumus : S + had + V3
Bisa diikuti oleh : already, just
Pemakaian :
S + had + V3 before S + V2
After S + had + V3 , S + V2
S + had + V3 when S + V2 (atau) S + V2 when S + had + V3

E.g.:
Fika had already swept the floor before her mother came home.
After Adit had had dinner, he went to bed.
PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sudah berlangsung beberapa lama tetapi masih terus
berlangsung ketika kejadian lain terjadi dimasa lampau.

Rumus : S + had + been + VING


Pemakaiannya :
Before + S + V2 , S + had + been + VING for
When + S + V2 , S + had + been + VING for
After + S + had + been + VING, S + V2 for
Catatan : Harus diikuti oleh for
E.g.:
My little brother had been playing football for half an hour when I came by.
C.

FUTURE TENSE
SIMPLE FUTURE
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan dilakukan pada masa yang akan datang.

Rumus : S + will/shall + V1
Adverb of time : tonight, tomorrow, soon, next week, etc
E.g.:
Istia will go abroad next week.
My grandpa will recover from his illness soon.

PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS


Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan sedang dilakukan pada waktu tertentu dimasa
yang akan datang.

Rumus : S + will/shall + be + V1
Adverb of time : at 9 tonight, at this time, next week, etc
E.g.:
She will be swimming in the lake at 3 tomorrow.
He will be teaching at this time next month.

PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT


Menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sudah selesai terjadi dimasa akan datang.

Rumus : S + will/shall + have + V3


Adverb of time :
By next week, by next July
By the end of this year
By the time + S + V1 / Vs/es + O/C
E.g.:
They will have sent the letter, by the time you remind them.

PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah akan berlangsung beberapa lama dan terus
berlangsung sampai masa yang akan datang.

Rumus : S + will/shall + have + been + V3


Adverb of time : by tomorrow, by the end of this month, by the time, etc
Catatan : harus diikuti oleh for
E.g.:
By next week, he will have been living here for five years.
Aditya will have been teaching English for four months by the end of this week.
Contoh Soal :
1. All of my life...in the library.
a. Is spent
c. Spending
b. Are spending
d. Has spending
2. I sterted school when i was five years old. I ... a student for seventeen years now.
a. Am
c. Have been
b. Am being
d. Am to be
3. Istia...Indonesia before he came to Jakarta to study in the international student program.
a. Has never visited
c. Would never visited
b. Never visited
d. Had never visited
4. I have(A) spent(B) three weeks(C) in Germany last July.
5. Tony is going to return to Medan as soon as he...his university diplomas degree.
a. Gets
c. Would get
b. Will get
d. Got
6. When ... the conference?
a. The Director attended
c. The Director will attend
b. Did the Director attend
d. The Directors attendance
7. How many cards...in the box.

8.

a. There are a there have


c. Are there
b. There have
d. Have there
At this moment, the government...the military operation in Aceh.
a. Legalizes
c. Has legalizes
b. Is legalizes
d. Has been legalizes

If better is possible, good is not enough


CHAPTER II
CAUSATIVE
1. Active
a.Infinitive Without to
b. Infinitive with to
has
get
have
order
S+
make
+ object + V1 S +
want + object+ to V1
Let
command
Help
Example :
1. Erwin has Hasan cut his hair
2. SBY get Hidayat Nur Wahid to copy the text
2. Passive
has
get
Have
order
S+
Make
want + Object + V3
Let
command
Help
Example:
Emak has Bajuri kicked by Oneng
Notes: 1. make : memaksa
2. have : meminta
3. get
: membujuk
Questions:
1. Mr. Jusuf Kalla have the commission of general ellection( KPU) ________the result of general ellection
quickly.
A. To process
C. processed
B. Process
D. Processing
2. Mr. Endarto had his student__________their valuation report before August.
A. finish
C. They finished
B. to finish
D. Finished
3. The Minister of finanance, Mrs.Sri mulyani, get all of STAN graduations _____well.
A. To work
C. working
B. Will work
D. Is worked
4. Computer has the CPU __________the data.
A. Transfered
C. It transfered
B. Transfer
D.to be transfered

5.

My darling has all of our memories________for her.


A. Will be cancel
C. cancelled
B. To cancel
D.Be cancelled
6. AA : What is your plan to make this computer run?
WW:
I______________
A. Will have repaired it
C. Will have it repaired
B. Have repaired it
D. will have been being repaired
7. X : Why didnt you come yesterday?
Y : I m sorry, I didnt get the sms, my cellphone wasnt working yesterday.
X : Have you taken it to the service center___________
A. They will have check it for you
C. They have to check it
B. To have it checked
D. To have to check it
8. Your dress is too short, Ani, you must have it___________
A. Length
C. Lengthened
B. Long
D. Lengthen
9. If you dont love me anymore, dear Ill get you______away to Mimika
A. To takes
C. to take
B. To be taken
D. taken
10. My sister and I do not have time to clean this room, we ______for us.
A. Must have done it for someone C. must have someone done it
B. Must have to do it
D. must have someone do it
11. She got her brother _______the toy for her birthday yesterday.
A. Brought
C. brings
B. To bring
D. to be brought

CHAPTER III
PASSIVE VOICE
Bentuk kalimat dimana subjek atau pokok kalimatnya dikenai suatu tindakan.
S + be + V3 (past participle)
(be)I
: am, is, are
(be)II
: was, were
(be)III
: been
(be)ing
: being
(be)inf
: be

1.
2.
I3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

TENSES
Simple Present
Simple Past
Present Continous
Past Continous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Simple Future
Future Perfect
Past Future
Past Future Perfect
Modals Aux.

ACTIVE
S + Verb1(s/es) + O
S+verbII
S+am,is,are+ Ving
S+was/were+Ving
S+has/have+VIII
S+had+ VIII
S+shall/will+V1
S+will+have+ VIII
S+would+ V1
S+should/would+have+ VIII
S+modal+ V1

PASSIVE
S+am,is,are+VerbIII
S+was/were+VerbIII
S+am,is,are+being+ VIII
S+was/were+being+ VIII
S+has/have+been+ VIII
S+had +been+ VIII
S+shall/will+be+ VIII
S+will+have+been+ VIII
S+would+be+ VIII
S+should/would+have+ been+VIII
S+modal+be+ VIII

Questions:
1. All the books in the library______by the minister of Finance last year.
A. Were given
C. has given
B. gave
D. give
2. have you posted the mail?
Not yet sir, it _____at five oclock.
A. Will posted
C.posts
B. Will post
D. will be posted
3. What should ________to be accepted as the collegian of state acountancy college?.
A. To be done
C. being done
B.
Be done
D.been done
4. Its no use expecting an answer today, as your proposal_______by his mother.
A.had not yet been receive
C. will not have been received yet
B. is not receive yet
D. will receive
5. Jones
: Why doesnt she accept the job?
Michle
: ___________________________
A. Because she hasnt been offered it
C. because she didnt offer it

B. Because she doesnt offer it


D. Because she hasnt offered it
6. If you_________ in the STAN enterance test, there will be many alternative to choose.
A. are not accepted
C. accepted
B. do not accept
D. was accept
7. Ustman Bin Affan ,one of disciples of our prophet Muhamad SAW, ____ by God to enter the heaven.
A. have quaranteed
C. is quarenteed
B. quaranteed
D. was quarenting
8. I became quite nervous when I knew that I would be _______by
Mr. Kusman Aji.
A. Was interviewing
C. interviewed
B. Interview
D. interviewing
9. The tower of Telkomsel ________when the earth quake happened
A. was built
C. is to built
B.are building
D. was being built
10. who will represent our school to join the mathematic olympiad ?
I dont know yet, they _______by our head master.
A. Still selecting
C. are still being selected
B. Still be selected
D.. are still selecting

CHAPTER IV
MODALS
Modals adalah kata kerja bantu yang memberikan arti tambahandan harus diikuti dengan kata kerja bentuk
dasar(Vinf) yang terdiri dari: Shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, need, dare, used to.
MODAL + VERB 1
1. Can/could/may/might
Menyatakan suatu kemungkinan suatu peristiwa.
Eg: It might rain tomorrow
2. Should
Menyatakan suatu anjuran/ saran
Eg: You should study hard to pass USM STAN
Menyatakan arti seharusnya dalam bentuk present
Eg: As agood moslem, We should obey our parents
3. Must
Keharusan mutlak
you must work at department of finance to be rich young man.
Kesimpulan logis
Andi bought new car, He must be rich.
MODAL PERFECT
S + Modals + Have + VIII + Object
1. Could have + VIII
Menyatakan suatu yang sebenarnya kejadian yang bisa terjadi diwaktu lampau namun tidak terjadi
2. Might have+ V III
Menyatakan suatu kemungkinan dari suatu kejadian yang telah terjadi di waktu lampau.
3. Should have + VIII
Menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sehausnya terjadi di waktulampau namun tidak terjadi.
4. Mut have + VIII
Menyatakan kesimpulan logis dari kejadian masa lalu.
Questions:
1. Narjik was absent two days. He____sick.
A. Could be
C. might have been
B. will
D. should
2. He told me about the history of this village
He_______here for along time
A. must have lived
C. would have lived
B. should be living
D. ought to have lived
3. There is a bird in a locked room. It _____down the chimney.
A. might have come
C. should have come
B. would have come
D. should come
4. Bedu passed the exams with flying colour.
She ____hard for it
A. must study
C. must have studied

B. should have studied


D.should study
Miing is the best student in my class. I saw she living his house, but he missed the exam.She____an
accident.
A. Should have
C. must have had
B. Must have
D. should have had
6. All of students of Newton Six supposed to be here at 07.00 p.m
They_______about this meeting
A. Must have forgotten
C. will forget
B. May have forgotten
D.must forget
7. It could be rain tomorrow.
It means that____rain tomorrow.
A.
It should be
C. may be it will
B.
it must be
D. it is necessary
8. She repaired her computer, but it became worse.
She__________
A.should have it repaired
C. ahould have it repaired
B. must repaired it
D. will repaire it
9. The pharmacist _______a record of prescriptions that are filled.
A. may keep
C. can keep
B.could keep
D. must keep
10. Oneng, together with his boy friend,is watching TV now,actually she ____be doing her homework.
A. might
C. would
B. should
D. can
5.

CHAPTER V
GERUND AND TO INFINITIFE
1.Gerund
Gerund adalah kata kerja yang berubah fungsi menjadi kata benda dengan cara penambahan ing setelah
kata kerja. Gerund dapat berfungsi sebagai:
Subjek
Object
Predicate complement
Noun modifier
Adapun kata-kata yang harus diikuti oleh bentuk Gerund adalah:
Mind, avoid, keep, enjoy, finish, deny,permit, risk, admit, appreciate, image, dislike, consider, delay,
detest, forbid, stop, forget, dan remember.hate, cant help, cant stand, prefer, neglect, practice,
,regret.
Apabila didahului oleh kata depan ( preposition) maka wajib di bentuk ke dalam Gerund.
Kata kata dibawah ini bisa diikuti oleh Gerund atau To Infinitife yaitu: remember, start, begin, love,
like continue,hate, stop, forget
2. Infinitife
1. Sebagai subject
Example: To understand Cost Accountancy is not easy
2. Sebagai keterangan dari suatu kata benda
Example: I have something to do
3. Sebagai keterangan dari kata sifat
4. Example: English is easy to understand if we have great eager
5. Sebagai keterangan dari kata kerja
Example: They come to help you solve the problem
6. Sebagai keterangan dari Wh-word
Example: I dont know how to make my mother happy
Questions:
1. I heard you decided to buy a new book on Kwitang?
Well, I considered________one because our lending book is not enough but I finally decided not to.
A to buy
C. bought
B. wanted to buy
D. Buying
2. Im accustomed__________at 14.00 P.M. after coming back from my campus.
A. take a nap
C. taking a nap
B. taken anap
D. Took a nap
3. I used to ________________in the morning to keep my health.
A. walk
C. To walk
B. walking
D. Walked
4. ______English can brighten our future.
A. to study
C.studied
B. studying
D. More studied
5. Do you think your mother would object to__________your sister some money.
A.giving
C.given

B.give
D. be given
6. What your mother expect you?
She expect me _____in his company.
A. lead
C. leading
B. is lead
D. To lead
7. what do you think about________the Carita Beach?
A. goes
C.to go
B. going
D. Will go
8. Police stoped_______the person because the doer has been arrested.
A. investigating.
C. To investigate
B. investigate
D. Investigated
9. I cant stand seing his attitude. He always make his mother get angry with him.
A
B
C
D
10. As a good moslem,we must avoid to consume drugs and drinkingalcohol.
A
B
C
D

CHAPTER VI
AGREEMENT/CONCORD
Agreeement adalah penyesuaian antara subjek dengan kata kerjanya dalam suatu kalimat.
A. Singular
1. Subject sebuah kalimat yang diawali dengan kata: every..much..,each of.., one of.
2. Subjek yang menyatakan jumlah,jarak, waktu, volume,uang.
3. Subject yang diikuti oleh kata benda abstrak/gerund
4. Apabila diikuti oleh ungkapan as well as, with, along with, together with, inaddition to,
accompanied by maka subjeknya berbentuk singular jika subjek pertamanya berbentuk
tunggal(singular).
5. Kata a lot of, most, more, some, all, half bila diikuti oleh uncountable noun maka subjeknya
berbentuk singular.
6. Either,or.,neither,nor,dianggap singular bila noun keduanya berbentuk tunggal.

7.

Kata yang selalu dianggap singular


Anybody
somebody
Anyone
Someone
anything
Something

Nobody
Noone
nothin

8. A number + plural noun


plural
The number of+ plural noun
singular
B. Plural
1. The + Adjective
2. Both..,and..,membutuhkan kata kerja plural
3. Kata many, few,several membutuhkan kata kerja plural
4. Kata none,all, majority, half bila di ikuti kata benda jamak maka butuh kata kerja plural.
C. Kata hubung and menghubungkan pemakaian jenis dan bentuk kata yang sama seperti gerund
dengan gerund, noun dengan noun

Allah will not change people destiny until they change it by themselves. (Arradu : 11)
Questions:
1. Many people_____ by a misterious virus which kills human only in five minutes.
A. Has been infected
C . have been infected
B. Had been infected
D. has been being infected
2. Watching TV ______us become lazy person.
A. Makes
C. Are making
B. Have made
D.was making
3. Both Mr. Yusuf Kalla and Mrs. Megawati ______the candidate of the president of Republic of
Indonesia.in the next ellection.
A. wants to become
C. Has Wanted to become
B. want to become
D. Wants becoming

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

The distance between Palembang and Indralaya _______32 kilometres.


A. Are
C were
B. Is
D. to be
Mr. James Que, accompanied by Mr. Andre Wongso and Mr.Brigie S,_______ a motivation tarining in
JCC.
A. was holding
C. Held
B. were holding
D. Have held
The majority of universities in Indonesia______scholar ship for their clever collegian .
A. Was given
C. give
B. Has given
D. is giving
All of poor students in my province________given the schools uniforms by our governoor, Mr.Alex
Noerdin last month..
A. Has been
C. is
B. are
D. were
Have you checked where most of the Newton six students come from?
All right,a half of them _____from Pondok Indah residence
A. Come
C. comes
B. Was coming
D. To come

9. Neither the children nor their parents has to take important


A
rules to build an effective comunication.
C
D

10. The number of murder cases in Indonesia have been increasing


A
B
C
year by year .
D
Answers:
1.

TENSES
1.B
2.A
3.A
4.A
5.B

2.

CAUSATIVE
1.B
2.A
3.A
4.B
5.C

3.
6.C
7.D
8.A
9.B
10.A

6.C
7.B
8.C
9.C
10.D
11.B

PASSIVE VOICE
1.A
2.D
3.B
4.C
5.A

4.

6.A
7.C
8.C
9.D
10.C

MODALS
1.C
2.A
3.A
4.C
5C

6.A
7.C
8.A
9.D
10.B

5.

GERUND AND TO INFINITIFE


1.D
2.C
3.A
4.B
5.A

6.D
7.B
8.A
9.B
10.C

6.

AGREEMENT/CONCORD
1.C
2.A
3.B
4.B
5A

6.C
7.D
8.A
9.A
10.B

CHAPTER VII
CLAUSES

A. Adjective Clause
Jenis jenis Relative Pronoun dapat dilihat pada tabel di bawah ini :
Subject

Object

Possesive

Person

Who /
That

Whom /
that

Whose

Thing

Which /
that

Which /
that

Of which

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Who
Subject of person
E.g.: - The girl is my sister
- She broke this door yesterday
The girl who broke this door yesterday is my sister
Whom
Object of person
E.g.: - The man looked so tired
- I saw him driving a car
The man whom i saw driving a car looked so tired
Whose
Possesive of person and thing
E.g.: - The boy looks hungry
- His shoes is green
The boy whose shoes is green looks hungry
Which
Subject and object of thing
E.g.: - The book is expensive
- I bouht it in the bookstore over there
The book which i bought in the bookstore over there is expensive
Of which
Possesive of thing
E.g.: - The car is old
- Its doors are broken
The house, doors of which are broken, is old. (or)
The House of which does broken, is old.

B. Adverbial Clause
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai kata keterangan.
Jenis jenis :
1. Adverb of Reason
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan alasan.
Kata : Because, as, since, for

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

C.

E.g.: He forgot to lock the door because he as in hurry.


Adverb Clause of Result
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menyatakan hasil dari suatu pekerjaan.
Kata : - so/hence/thus/therefore/consequnetly
- so + adj/adv + that (sangat...sehingga)
- such + noun + that (...sehingga)
E.g.: He didnt study hard; therefore, he didnt pass the test
Adverb Clause of Purpose
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan tujuan dari suatu pekerjaan.
Kata : so that, in order that, in order to + V1
E.g.:- The question is so difficult that i cant answer it
- This is such a difficult question that i cant answer it
Adverb Clause of Contrast
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menunjukan pertentangan
Kata : - although, eventhough
- however, nevertheless, whereas, still
+S+P
- on the other hand, but, yet
E.g.: - Although it rains heavily, he still goes out
Adverb Clause of Place
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menyatakan tempat.
Kata : where, wherever
E.g.: This is the town where i was born
Adverb Cluse of Time
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan waktu.
Kata : when, after, before, while, since
E.g.: Its the week when i started to work here

Noun Clause
Anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda dengan menggunakan:
That, what, who, which
+S+P
Where, when, why, whether
Posisi :
1. Sebagai Subjek
Terletak di awal kalimat
E.g.: - What he has done admired everybody in his class room.
- Whether he could pass the test will be announced next week.
2. Sebagai Objek
Terletak setelah kata kerja
E.g.: - Nobody knows why she has involved in the school fighting yesterday.
- She realizes that she has lost her new green shoes.
3. Sebagai Pelengkap
Terletak disebelah to be atau berfungsi sebagai pelengap keterangan.
E.g.: - That is what i want.
- I have no idea why she leaves me alone.

Contoh Soal :
1. She is so slow as she never gets to class on time.
a. Is
c. As
b. So
d. On
2. Dont forget to register this week so you can vote in the election...
a. To register
c. So
b. This week
d. Can
3. I didnt hear...because there was to much noise when i was sitting.
a. What said
c. What did he say
b. What he said
d. What was he saying
4. Sumbawa is not quite fertile, ...it is very good for breeding cattle.
a. Since
c. Yet
b. As
d. For
5. The living room was ... tht i had to move to another room to continue my reading.
a. Much noisy
c. Too noisy
b. So noisy
d. Very noisy
6. He never cheats in the classroom...he is considered naughty.
a. Although
c. And
b. However
d. Since
7. The people which cheated on the examination had to leave the room.
a. The people
c. Had to
b. Which
d. Leave
8. Could you please tell me...
a. Where is STAN secretariat?
b. Where STAN secretariat?
c. Where STAN secretariat is?
d. Where did STAN secretariat?

MODALS
Modals adalah kata kerja bantu (auxulary verb) yang member tambahan arti pada kalimat.
Fungsi modals:
A. Ability menyatakan kemampuan
Modals : can / could
Catatan : can/could = to be + able to (atau) to be + capable V ING
B. Permission menyatakan izin
Modals : - can / could - to be allowed to
- May / might - to be permitted to
(makna aktif) (makna pasif)
C. Possibility menyatakan kemungkinan
Modals : - can / could
- May / might
D. Obligation menyatakan keharusan
Modals : - must

- Should
- Ought to
Catatan : must = have/has/had + to = harus
E. Logical Conclusion menyatakan kesimpulan logis dari suatu kejadian / pernyataan.
1. Jika pernyataan (keadaan) berbentuk Present Tense, maka kesimpulan dinyatakan dengan
menggunakan modal:
Can / could
May / might
V1
Must
+
be + VING
Should / ougth to
be + complement
2. Jika pernyataan (keadaan) berbentuk past tense, maka kesimpulan dinyatakan dengn modal perfect.
Could / might
V3
Ought to / should
+ have
been + VING
Must
been + complement
could
contoh :
Might have = mungkin sudah...
Ought to/ should + have = seharusnya sudah
(digunakan untuk menyatkan peristiwa yang tidak terjadi dimasa lampau)
Must have = pasti sudah...
(digunakan untuk menyimpulkan sesuatu yang pasti terjadi dimasa lampau)
Could have = seharusnya..
(digunakan untuk peristiwa yang tidak terjadi dimasa lampau)
Would + V1 adalah modal yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan secara rutin
(berulang ulang) dimasa lampau.
Contoh Soal :
1. He went by bus, but he...by car.
a. Might of gone
c. Could have gone
b. Should gone
d. Ougth have gone
2. Mom & dad just left for the airport twenty minutes ago, so they...there yet.
a. Cant have gotten
c. Had better have gotten
b. Shouldnt have gotten
d. Could have gotten
3. Tropical forests(A) can be find(B) in Shouteast(C) Asia countries(D).
4. The light is out in her room; she...
a. Must go to bed
c. Must gone to bed
b. Must have gone to bed
d. Must be gone to bed
5. She went to the office by taxi, but she...by bus.
a. Might of gone
c. Could have gone
b. Should gone
d. Ought have gone
6. The garden was very clean. Somebody...
a. Must have cleaned
c. Should have cleaned
b. Ought have cleaned
d. Might cleaned
7. He hasnt finished reading. He ... the whole content of it.
a. Could have known
c. Shouldnt have known
b. Had better have
d. Cant have known

CHAPTER VIII
CONDIITIONAL CLAUSE (IF)
If clauses digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah kondisi atas kejadian atau keberadaan sesuatu.
Contoh : If you mix sugar with water, it will dissolve
Here, the sugar will dissolve on the condition that you mix it with water.
Ada tiga tipe if clauses:
Type 1. mengenai kejadian nyata
Dalam tipe 1, if clause dalam present tense, sedangkan main clause biasanya dalam bentuk present, future, atau
imperative.
Contoh:
If you go to the drug store, buy me a soft drink. (present ; imperative)
If Mary calls, Ill invite her to the concert. (present ; future)
If Mary should call, Ill invite her to the concert. (modal ; future)
Type 2
Type 2 is concerned with hypothetical or unreal situations in the present. (berkaitan dengan khayalan atau situasi
yang tidak nyata saat ini.)
If I had the money, I would buy a motorcycle.
This is called a hypothetical if clause because I dont have the money but I am imagining what I would do if I did.
Type 3
Type 3 is concerned with hypothetical discussion about the past.
If I had known you were sick, I would have made you some soup. (past perfect-modal past)
Here the implication is that I didnt know you were sick (and that you may no longer be sick).
If you had been here yesterday, you could have seen Pam. (past perfect-modal past)
It is clear in the example that you were not here yesterday.
Kata if sangat membantu untuk mengenali if clause, namun, tidak selalu digunakan.
Type 1: should
If you should get a letter from Greece, give me a call.
Should you get a letter from Greece, give me a call.
Type 2: were
If you were taller, you could reach the light.
Were you taller, you could reach the light.
Type 3
If I had agreed, Jim would have married me.
Had I agreed, Jim would have married me.
Unless, which has a meaning similar to if not, can also be used in conditional clauses.
If it doesnt rain, well go to the lake.
Unless it rains, well go to the lake.

Soal
1. Get me a glass of lemonade, if you to the kitchen.
a. go
c. went
b. will go
d. going
2. If I you, Id save some of your lottery winnings.
a. was
c. were
b. will be
d. be
3. If the chair break, Mr. Dow can fix it for us.
a. might
c. will
b. should
d. may
4. This sailboat go faster if there were more wind.
a. would
c. might
b. will
d. can
5. a tornado come, go to the basement immediately.
a. should
c. will
b. if
d.were
6. If Allen had come sooner, he could eaten dinner with us.
a. had
c. have
b. has
d. will
7. I wont lend you this money you promise to pay it back.
a. if
c. when
b. unless
d. whether
8. If the car been larger, we would have bought it.
a. had
c. have
b. has
d. could be
9. all agreed, Sara would have been given the scholarship.
a. we had
c. had we
b. had
d. we
10. Are you thinking about going to the Bahamas for the holidays?
No, but if I the time, I would definitely go.
a. have
c. have had
b. had
d. would have
Kunci Jawaban
1. A
6. C

2. C
7. B

3. B
8. A

4. A
9. C

5. A
10. B

CHAPTER IX
Parallel Structure
#) use parallel structure with coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or)

(same structure),

(same structure),

and
But
or

(same structure)

Examples:
I need to talk to the manager or the assistant manager.
He eats and sleeps only when he takes a vacation.
The exam that he gave was short but difficult.
They are not interested in what you say or what you do.
#) use parallel structure with paired conjunctions (both.and, either or, neither .. nor, and not only but also)

Both
Either
Neither
Not only

(same structure)

and
or
nor
but also

(same structure)

Examples:
I know both where you went and what you did.
He wants either to go by train or to go by plane.
#) use parallel structure with comparisons (-erthan, morethan)

Morethan
-er.than
(same structure)
lessthan
(same structure)
Examples:
Asas
My school is farther than
your school.
The sameas
Renting those apartments
costs about the same as leasing them.
Similarto
Soal
1. The committee decided to cancel its law suit, to approve the contract, and that it would adjourn the meeting.
A
B
C
D
2. Air travel is fast, safe, and it is convenient.
A B C
D
3. Rock music is not only popular in the United States but also abroad.
A
B C D
4. Every day the watchman would lock the doors, turning on the spot lights, and walk around the
A
B
C
D
building.
5. To control quality and making decisions about production are among the many responsibilities of an
A
B
C D
industrial engineer.

6. I suggest that the instructor react to the situation by changing the textbook instead of to modify the
A
objectives of the course.
D
7. The insurance program used to include not only employees but their families.
A
B
C
D
8. The six main parts of a business letter are the address, the inside address, the salutation, the body,
A
B
C
the closing, and signing your name.
D
9. The new electric typewriters are equipped not only with an element for foreign languages but also
A
a key for correcting errors automatically.
B
C
D
10. Please send me the smallest, most recently published, and less expensive dictionary that you have
A B
C
D
available.
Jawaban
1. D
2. D
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. D
9. B
10. D

B C

CHAPTER X
Direct and Indirect sentence (reported speech)
#) You want to tell someone else what Jesse said.
Direct
- Jesse said Im feeling ill.
Reported
- Jesse said (that) he was feeling ill.
#) When we used reported speech, we are usually talking about the past. So verbs usually change to the past in
reported speech.
Am/is was are were
have/has had will would
can could
Do/want/know etc. did/wanted/knew etc.
did did or had done
Other examples:
I want to go on holiday but I dont know where to go.
*Jesse said (that) he wanted to go on holiday but he didnt know where to go.
Jesse said I woke up feeling ill and so I stayed in bed.
*Jesse said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling ill and so he stayed (or had stayed) In bed.
#) If you are reporting something and you feel that it is still true, you do not need to change the tenses of the verb.
Example:
Direct
- Jesse said New York is bigger than London.
Reported Jesse said (that) New York is (or was) bigger than London.
#) must, might, could, would, should, and ought stay the same in reported speech. May in direct speech normally
changes to might in reported speech.
May (direct) might (reported)
#) say and tell
If you say who you are talking to, use tell:
Zack told me that he didnt like Thomas. (not Zack said me..)
Otherwise, use say:
Zack said (that) he didnt like Thomas. (not Zack told (that) he..)
#) We also use the infinitive (to do/to stay, etc) in reported speech. Especially for orders and requests)
Direct
Stay in bed for a few days, the doctor said to me.
Reported The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.
Direct Dont shout, I said to Gina
Reported I told Gina not to shout.
Soal
1. Direct Can you open the door for me? Linda asked.
Reported Linda asked me . the door for her.
a. to open
c. opening
b. open
d. opened
2. Jill said, Ann has bought a new car.
Jill said (that) Ann bought a new car.
a. has
b. had

c. having
d. have
3. Yesterday: Angela said, Jill is ill.
Today, you see Jill is looking well. You say:Angela said you ill.
a. was
c. are
b. is
d. were
4. Please dont tell anyone what happened, Angela said to me.
Angela asked me anyone what (had) happened.
a. dont tell
c. to not tell
b. not to tell
d. not telling
5. Ann said, I am hungry.
Ann said that she hungry.
a. were
c. had
b. would
d. was
6. Tom said, I need my pen.
Tom said that he his pen.
a. needed
c. need
b. needs
d. will need
7. He said, I ought to work hard.
He said that he to work hard.
a. ought to
c. ought
b. oughted
d. is
8. Jessica said, I may use the money.
Jessica said (that) she use the money.
a. can
c. might
b. is
d. may
9. Dont wait for me if Im late, Ann said.
Ann said not to wait for her if she late.
a. is
c.were
b. was
d. will
10. Jim said,Im going away for a few days. Ill phone you when I get back.
Reported Jim said (that) he going away for a few days and phone me when he got back.
a. was, would
c. was, will
b. were, would
d. were, will
1. A 2. B
6. A 7. C

3. D
8. C

4. B
9. B

5. D
10. A

CHAPTER XI
Wish, as if/as though, would rather
#) Wish
We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be.
Present: Subject + wish + Subject + Verb2
I wish I knew Sues telephone number. (I dont know it)
Past: Subject + wish + Subject + had + verb3
I wish I had known that Ann was ill. I would have gone to see her. (I didnt know that she was ill, so I didnt
go to see her)
#) As if/as though
You can use as if to say how someone or something looks/sounds/feels etc.:
Examples:
The house looked as if nobody was living in it.
Tom sounded worried. Tom sounded as if he was worried.
Ann sounds as if shes got a cold.
You can also use as though:
Ann sounds as though shes got a cold.

#) would rather
a) would rather + bare infinitive (keinginan di masa sekarang atau di masa depan)
examples: - I would rather stay at home.
- I would rather not go out.
b) would rather + Subject + past tense (menginginkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu)
examples: - I would rather you went to the shop.
- I would rather she cooked.
Soal:
1. I would rather the offer.
a. to receive
c. receive
b. receiving
d. receives
2. Id rather you the car now.
a. fixed
c. will fix
b. fix
d. can fix
3. Ive just come back from holiday but I feel tired and depressed. I dont feel as if I had holiday.
a. had
c. had had
b. has
d. have
4. We took an umbrella because it as if it going to rain.
a. looked, was
c. looked, were
b. looks, was
d. looks, were
5. My room is too small.
I wish my room larger.
a. are
c. were
b. is
d. can be
6. She would rather the chance.

a. takes
b. took
7. I wish I him the key. He would have chased the car.
a. give
b. had given
8. Mira would rather an apple than an orange.
a. has
b. have
9. I dont like Michelle. He talks as if he everything.
a. knows
b. know
10. Its raining. I wish I my umbrella.
a. brought
b. bring
kunci Jawaban:
1. C
2. A
3. D
6. C
7. B
8. B

4. A
9. D

5. C
10. A

c. take
d. taking
c. gave
d. given
c. had
d. have had
c. knowing
d. knew
c. have bring
d. brings

CHAPTER XII
Phrasal Verbs

Dibawah ini adalah sebuah daftar yang berisi 200 phrasal verbs yang umum digunakan. Phrasal verbs adalah frasa
yang lazimnya terdiri atas dua kata yang memenuhi struktur verb + adverb atau verb + preposition. Satu phrasal
verbs bisa saja mempunyai lebih dari satu makna, tergantung konteksnya. Bebrapa phrasal verbs memelukan objek
langsung (someone/something), sementara yang lain tidak. Selain itu, beberapa phrasal verbs dapat dipisahkan
objek, sementara yang lain harus digunakan serangkai.
Verb

Meaning

Example

ask someone out

invite on a date

Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a


movie.

ask around

ask many people the same question

I asked around but nobody has seen my


wallet.

add up to something

equal

Your purchases add up to $205.32.

back something up

reverse

You'll have to back up your car so that I


can get out.

back someone up

support

My wife backed me up over my decision to


quit my job.

blow up

explode

The racing car blew up after it crashed into


the fence.

blow something up

add air

We have to blow 50 balloons up for the


party.

break down

stop functioning (vehicle, machine)

Our car broke down at the side of the


highway in the snowstorm.

break down

get upset

The woman broke down when the police


told her that her son had died.

break something down

divide into smaller parts

Our teacher broke the final project down


into three separate parts.

break in

force entry to a building

Somebody broke in last night and stole our


stereo.

break into something

enter forcibly

The firemen had to break into the room to


rescue the children.

break something in

wear something a few times so that it


doesn't look/feel new

I need to break these shoes in before we


run next week.

break in

interrupt

The TV station broke in to report the news

of the president's death.


break up

end a relationship

My boyfriend and I broke up before I


moved to America.

break up

start laughing (informal)

The kids just broke up as soon as the


clown started talking.

break out

escape

The prisoners broke out of jail when the


guards weren't looking.

break out in something

develop a skin condition

I broke out in a rash after our camping


trip.

bring someone down

make unhappy

This sad music is bringing me down.

bring someone up

raise a child

My grandparents brought me up after my


parents died.

bring something up

start talking about a subject

My mother walks out of the room when


my father brings up sports.

bring something up

vomit

He drank so much that he brought his


dinner up in the toilet.

call around

phone many different places/people

We called around but we weren't able to


find the car part we needed.

call someone back

return a phone call

I called the company back but the offices


were closed for the weekend.

call something off

cancel

Jason called the wedding off because he


wasn't in love with his fianc.

call on someone

ask for an answer or opinion

The professor called on me for question 1.

call on someone

visit someone

We called on you last night but you


weren't home.

call someone up

phone

Give me your phone number and I will call


you up when we are in town.

calm down

relax after being angry

You are still mad. You need to calm down


before you drive the car.

not like (formal)

I don't care for his behaviour.

catch up

get to the same point as someone else

You'll have to run faster than that if you


want to catch up with Marty.

check in

arrive and register at a hotel or airport

We will get the hotel keys when we check

not
care
someone/something

for

in.
check out

leave a hotel

You have to check out of the hotel before


11:00 AM.

check someone/something
out

look at carefully, investigate

The company
employees.

check
someone/something

look at (informal)

Check out the crazy hair on that guy!

cheer up

become happier

She cheered up when she heard the good


news.

cheer someone up

make happier

I brought you some flowers to cheer you


up.

chip in

help

If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen


painted by noon.

clean something up

tidy, clean

Please clean up your bedroom before you


go outside.

come across something

find unexpectedly

I came across these old photos when I was


tidying the closet.

come apart

separate

The top and bottom come apart if you pull


hard enough.

become sick

My nephew came down with chicken pox


this weekend.

come forward

volunteer for a task or to give


evidence

The woman came forward with her


husband's finger prints.

come from somewhere

originate in

The art of origami comes from Asia.

rely on

I am counting on you to make dinner while


I am out.

cross something out

draw a line through

Please cross out your old address and


write your new one.

cut back on something

consume less

My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets


and fatty foods.

cut something down

make something fall to the ground

We had to cut the old tree in our yard


down after the storm.

cut in

interrupt

Your father cut in while I was dancing with


your uncle.

come
down
something

out

with

count
someone/something

on

checks

out

all

new

cut in

pull in too closely in front of another


vehicle

The bus driver got angry when that car cut


in.

cut in

start operating (of an engine or


electrical device)

The air conditioner cuts in when the


temperature gets to 22C.

cut something off

remove with something sharp

The doctors cut off his leg because it was


severely injured.

cut something off

stop providing

The phone company cut off our phone


because we didn't pay the bill.

cut someone off

take out of a will

My grandparents cut my father off when


he remarried.

cut something out

remove part of something (usually


with scissors and paper)

I cut this ad out of the newspaper.

do
someone/something
over

beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal)

He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done


over by a street gang.

do something over

do again (N.Amer.)

My teacher wants me to do my essay over


because she doesn't like my topic.

do away with something

discard

It's time to do away with all of these old


tax records.

do something up

fasten, close

Do your coat up before you go outside. It's


snowing!

dress up

wear nice clothing

It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress


up.

drop back

move back in a position/group

Andrea dropped back to third place when


she fell off her bike.

drop in/by/over

come without an appointment

I might drop in/by/over for tea some time


this week.

drop someone/something
off

take someone/something somewhere


and leave them/it there

I have to drop my sister off at work before


I come over.

drop out

quit a class, school etc

I dropped out of Science because it was


too difficult.

eat out

eat at a restaurant

I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat


out.

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

We ended up renting a movie instead of


going to the theatre.

fall apart

break into pieces

My new dress fell apart in the washing

machine.
fall down

fall to the ground

The picture that you hung up last night fell


down this morning.

fall out

separate from an interior

The money must have fallen out of my


pocket.

fall out

(of hair, teeth) become loose and


unattached

His hair started to fall out when he was


only 35.

figure something out

understand, find the answer

I need to figure out how to fit the piano


and the bookshelf in this room.

fill something in

to write information in blanks (Br.E.)

Please fill in the form with your name,


address, and phone number.

fill something out

to write
(N.Amer.)

The form must be filled out in capital


letters.

fill something up

fill to the top

I always fill the water jug up when it is


empty.

find out

discover

We don't know where he lives. How can


we find out?

find something out

discover

We tried to keep the time of the party a


secret, but Samantha found it out.

get something across/over

communicate, make understandable

I tried to get my point across/over to the


judge but she wouldn't listen.

get along/on

like each other

I was surprised how well my new girlfriend


and my sister got along/on.

get around

have mobility

My grandfather can get around fine in his


new wheelchair.

get away

go on a vacation

We worked so hard this year that we had


to get away for a week.

get away with something

do without being noticed or punished

Jason always gets away with cheating in


his maths tests.

get back

return

We got back from our vacation last week.

get something back

receive something you had before

Liz finally got her Science notes back from


my room-mate.

get back at someone

retaliate, take revenge

My sister got back at me for stealing her


shoes. She stole my favourite hat.

information

in

blanks

get back into something

become interested in something again

I finally got back into my novel and


finished it.

get on something

step onto a vehicle

We're going to freeze out here if you don't


let us get on the bus.

get over something

recover from an illness, loss, difficulty

I just got over the flu and now my sister


has it.

get over something

overcome a problem

The company will have to close if it can't


get over the new regulations.

get round to something

finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get


around to something)

I don't know when I am going to get round


to writing the thank you cards.

get together

meet (usually for social reasons)

Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend.

get up

get out of bed

I got up early today to study for my exam.

get up

stand

You should get up and give the elderly


man your seat.

give someone away

reveal hidden
someone

give someone away

take the bride to the altar

My father gave me away at my wedding.

give something away

ruin a secret

My little sister gave the surprise party


away by accident.

give something away

give something to someone for free

The library was giving away old books on


Friday.

give something back

return a borrowed item

I have to give these skates back to Franz


before his hockey game.

give in

reluctantly stop fighting or arguing

My boyfriend didn't want to go to the


ballet, but he finally gave in.

give something out

give to many people (usually at no


cost)

They were giving out free perfume


samples at the department store.

give something up

quit a habit

I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.

give up

stop trying

My maths homework was too difficult so I


gave up.

go after someone

follow someone

My brother tried to go after the thief in his


car.

go after something

try to achieve something

I went after my dream and now I am a


published writer.

information

about

His wife gave him away to the police.

go against someone

compete, oppose

We are going against the best soccer team


in the city tonight.

go ahead

start, proceed

Please go ahead and eat before the food


gets cold.

go back

return to a place

I have to go back home and get my lunch.

go out

leave home to go on a social event

We're going out for dinner tonight.

go out with someone

date

Jesse has been going out with Luke since


they met last winter.

go over something

review

Please go over your answers before you


submit your test.

go over

visit someone nearby

I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think


I'll go over for an hour or two.

go without something

suffer lack or deprivation

When I was young, we went without


winter boots.

grow apart

stop being friends over time

My best friend and I grew apart after she


changed schools.

grow back

regrow

My roses grew back this summer.

grow up

become an adult

When Jack grows up he wants to be a


fireman.

grow out of something

get too big for

Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes


because she has grown out of her old
ones.

grow into something

grow big enough to fit

This bike is too big for him now, but he


should grow into it by next year.

hand something down

give something used to someone else

I handed my old comic books down to my


little cousin.

hand something in

submit

I have to hand in my essay by Friday.

hand something out

to distribute to a group of people

We will hand out the invitations at the


door.

hand something over

give (usually unwillingly)

The police asked the man to hand over his


wallet and his weapons.

hang in

stay positive (N.Amer., informal)

Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job


very soon.

hang on

wait a short time (informal)

Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!

hang out

spend time relaxing (informal)

Instead of going to the party we are just


going to hang out at my place.

hang up

end a phone call

He didn't say goodbye before he hung up.

hold someone/something
back

prevent from doing/going

I had to hold my dog back because there


was a cat in the park.

hold something back

hide an emotion

Jamie held back his


grandfather's funeral.

hold on

wait a short time

Please hold on while I transfer you to the


Sales Department.

hold
onto
someone/something

hold firmly using your hands or arms

Hold onto your hat because it's very windy


outside.

hold
someone/somethingup

rob

A man in a black mask held the bank up


this morning.

keep on doing something

continue doing

Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a


boil.

keep something
someone

not tell

We kept our relationship from our parents


for two years.

keep someone/something
out

stop from entering

Try to keep the wet dog out of the living


room.

keep something up

continue at the same rate

If you keep those results up you will get


into a great college.

let someone down

fail to support or help, disappoint

I need you to be on time. Don't let me


down this time.

let someone in

allow to enter

Can you let the cat in before you go to


school?

look
after
someone/something

take care of

I have to look after my sick grandmother.

look down on someone

think less of, consider inferior

Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your


dad has looked down on me.

try to find

I'm looking for a red dress for the


wedding.

look forward to something

be excited about the future

I'm looking forward to the Christmas


break.

look into something

investigate

We are going to look into the price of


snowboards today.

look
someone/something

from

for

tears

at

his

look out

be careful, vigilant, and take notice

Look out! That car's going to hit you!

be especially vigilant for

Don't forget to look out for snakes on the


hiking trail.

look something over

check, examine

Can you look over my essay for spelling


mistakes?

look something up

search and find information in a


reference book or database

We can look her phone number up on the


Internet.

look up to someone

have a lot of respect for

My little sister has always looked up to


me.

make something up

invent, lie about something

Josie made up a story about about why we


were late.

make up

forgive each other

We were angry last night, but we made up


at breakfast.

make someone up

apply cosmetics to

My sisters made me up for my graduation


party.

mix something up

confuse two or more things

I mixed up the twins' names again!

pass away

die

His uncle passed away last night after a


long illness.

pass out

faint

It was so hot in the church that an elderly


lady passed out.

pass something out

give the same thing to many people

The professor passed the textbooks out


before class.

pass something up

decline (usually something good)

I passed up the job because I am afraid of


change.

pay someone back

return owed money

Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you


back on Friday.

pay for something

be punished for doing something bad

That bully will pay for being mean to my


little brother.

pick something out

choose

I picked out three sweaters for you to try


on.

point someone/something
out

indicate with your finger

I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs


by.

put something down

put what you are holding on a surface


or floor

You can put the groceries down on the


kitchen counter.

look
out
someone/something

for

put someone down

insult, make someone feel stupid

The students put the substitute teacher


down because his pants were too short.

put something off

postpone

We are putting off our trip until January


because of the hurricane.

put something out

extinguish

The neighbours put the fire out before the


firemen arrived.

put something together

assemble

I have to put the crib together before the


baby arrives.

put
up
with
someone/something

tolerate

I don't think I can put up with three small


children in the car.

put something on

put clothing/accessories on your body

Don't forget to put on your new earrings


for the party.

meet unexpectedly

I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.

run
over
someone/something

drive a vehicle over a person or thing

I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the


driveway.

run
something

rehearse, review

Let's run over/through these lines one


more time before the show.

run away

leave unexpectedly, escape

The child ran away from home and has


been missing for three days.

run out

have none left

We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash


my hair with soap.

send something back

return (usually by mail)

My letter got sent back to me because I


used the wrong stamp.

set something up

arrange, organize

Our boss set a meeting up with the


president of the company.

set someone up

trick, trap

The police set up the car thief by using a


hidden camera.

shop around

compare prices

I want to shop around a little before I


decide on these boots.

show off

act extra special for people watching


(usually boastfully)

He always shows off on his skateboard

sleep over

stay somewhere
(informal)

You should sleep over tonight if the


weather is too bad to drive home.

sort something out

organize, resolve a problem

run
someone/something

into

over/through

for

the

night

We need to sort the bills out before the

first of the month.


stick to something

continue doing something,


yourself to one particular thing

limit

You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.

switch something off

stop the energy flow, turn off

The light's too bright. Could you switch it


off.

switch something on

start the energy flow, turn on

We heard the news as soon as we


switched on the car radio.

take after someone

resemble a family member

I take after my mother. We are both


impatient.

take something apart

purposely break into pieces

He took the car brakes apart and found


the problem.

take something back

return an item

I have to take our new TV back because it


doesn't work.

take off

start to fly

My plane takes off in five minutes.

take something off

remove something (usually clothing)

Take off your socks and shoes and come in


the lake!

take something out

remove from a place or thing

Can you take the garbage out to the street


for me?

take someone out

pay for someone to go somewhere


with you

My grandparents took us out for dinner


and a movie.

tear something up

rip into pieces

I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and


gave them back to him.

think back

remember (often + to, sometimes +


on)

When I think back on my youth, I wish I


had studied harder.

think something over

consider

I'll have to think this job offer over before I


make my final decision.

throw something away

dispose of

We threw our old furniture away when we


won the lottery.

turn something down

decrease the volume or strength


(heat, light etc)

Please turn the TV down while the guests


are here.

turn something down

refuse

I turned the job down because I don't


want to move.

turn something off

stop the energy flow, switch off

Your mother wants you to turn the TV off


and come for dinner.

turn something on

start the energy, switch on

It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights


on.

turn something up

increase the volume or strength (heat,


light etc)

Can you turn the music up? This is my


favourite song.

turn up

appear suddenly

Our cat turned up after we put posters up


all over the neighbourhood.

try something on

sample clothing

I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't


think they will fit.

try something out

test

I am going to try this new brand of


detergent out.

use something up

finish the supply

The kids used all of the toothpaste up so


we need to buy some more.

wake up

stop sleeping

We have to wake up early for work on


Monday.

warm someone/something
up

increase the temperature

You can warm your feet up in front of the


fireplace.

warm up

prepare body for exercise

I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I


go for a run.

wear off

fade away

Most of my make-up wore off before I got


to the party.

work out

exercise

I work out at the gym three times a week.

work out

be successful

Our plan worked out fine.

work something out

make a calculation

We have to work out the total cost before


we buy the house.

Contoh Soal:
1. I told every guest to their shoes before entering my house
a. take on
c. try on
b. take off
d. try out
answer: B
2.

Sometimes its hard to all the hard subjects.


a. keep in
c. keep on with
b. keep up
d keep up with
answer: B

Latihan Soal:
A Night Out
Dave's a funny chap! He never wants to (1)
in the evenings, but when he does, he never wants to go home
again!
Last Thursday was a typical example. I phoned him and asked if he wanted to go out to our local pub for a quick
drink. At first, he said that he didn't want to - he would rather (2)
and watch the telly. But after about 10
minutes, I managed to persuade him to come to the pub.
Well, we had a nice evening, and the 'quick drink' turned into a longer drink; the more Dave and I drank, the more
we wanted to drink. The pub closed at 11 o'clock, so we had to (3)
then, but Dave wanted to (4)
and
persuaded me that we should go to the nightclub in town to continue our 'conversation'. There weren't many
people in the nightclub, but that didn't stop us from having a good time! I finally (5)
home at 5 o'clock in
the morning, feeling very happy, tired, and drunk.
The way my head felt on Friday morning (or, to be more accurate, Friday afternoon!), I had to agree with our
friends who say that Dave and I are a bad influence on each other!
go out / stay out / stay in / drink up / get back
Choose the correct phrase to fill in the blanks:
1.

a. go out
b. stay out
c. stay in
d. go in

2. a. go out
b. stay out
c. stay in
d. go in

3.

a. drink in
b. drink up

c. drink out
d. drink on

4.

a. go out
b. stay out

c. stay in
d. go in

5.

a. get out
b. get in

c. get on
d. get back

6. On my way to the campus. I a friend whom I had not met for years.
a. Ran off
c. Ran down
b. Ran over
d. Ran into
7. The heat by a pile of paint rags is not able to escape as fast as it is made.
a. give off
c. given off
b. given in
d. give in
8. If you have time, please the trash. Put it near the gate outside.
a. take on
c. take off
b. take in
d. take out

CHAPTER XIII
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Countable Nouns
Countable nouns are mudah dikenali. Yang termasuk countable nouns adalah kata benda yang dapat dihitung.
Contohnya: "pen". Kita dapat menghitung banyaknya pulpen. Contoh yang lain sebagai berikut:
dog, cat, animal, man, person, bottle, box, litre, coin, note, dollar, cup, plate, fork, table, chair, suitcase, bag
Countable nouns bisa berbentuk singular atau plural:
My dog is playing. (singular)
My dogs are hungry. (plural)
Kita dapat menggunakan indefinite article a/an dengan countable nouns:
A dog is an animal.
Ketika bentuknya singular, kita harus menggunakan kata a/the/my/this sebelumnya:
I want an orange. (bukan I want orange.)
Where is my bottle? (bukan Where is bottle?)
Ketika bentuknya plural, kata itu dapat berdiri sendiri:
I like oranges.
Bottles can break.
Kita dapat menggunakan some, any, few, every, all, dan many dengan countable nouns:
I've got some dollars.
Have you got any pens?
I've got a few dollars.
I haven't got many pens.
All dogs go to heaven.
Every book is a source of knowledge.
"People" termasuk dapat dihitung. "People" adalah bentuk jamak atau plural dari "person":
There is one person here.
There are three people here.
Uncountable Nouns
Uncountable nouns adalah benda atau zat, konsep, dan sebagainya yang tidak dapat dibagi menjadi elemenelemen terpisah. Kita tidak dapat menghitung hal tersebut. Sebagai contoh, kita tidak dapat menghitung
"milk". Kita dapat menghitung "bottles of milk" atau "litres of milk", tapi kita tidak dapat menghitung milk
itu sendiri.
Dibawah ini contoh lain dari uncountable nouns:
music, art, love, happiness, advice, information, news, furniture, luggage, rice, sugar, butter, water
electricity, gas, power, money, currency
Biasanya uncountable nouns diperlakukan sebagai kata yang singular. Kita menggunakan singular
verb/predikat tunggal. Contohnya:
This news is very important.
Your luggage looks heavy.
Kita tidak menggunakan indefinite article a/an dengan uncountable nouns. Kita tidak dapat mengatakan "an
information" atau "a music". Tetapi kita harus mengatakan:

a piece of news
a bottle of water
a grain of rice
Kita dapat menggunakan some dan any dengan uncountable nouns:
I've got some money.
Have you got any rice?
Kita juga dapat menggunakan little, all, dan much dengan uncountable nouns:
I've got a little money.
All the love in the world is here.
I haven't got much rice.
Countable and Uncountable
Terkadang, kata benda yang sama dapat menjadi countable maupun uncountable, biasanya dengan adanya
penggantian makna.
Countable

Uncountable

There are two hairs in my coffee!

hair

I don't have much hair.

There are two lights in our bedroom.

light

Close the curtain. There's too much light!

Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise.

noise

It's difficult to work when there is too much noise.

Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper)

paper

I want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper?

Our house has seven rooms.

room

Is there room for me to sit here?

We had a great time at the party.

time

Have you got time for a coffee?

Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works.

work

I have no money. I need work!

Contoh Soal:
1. Not from South Africa, although most of the worlds supply originates there. (USM STAN, 2008)
a. every gold comes
c. all gold comes
b. all gold come
d. every gold come
jawaban: c
2. When you board on a plane, you have to go through inspection where they
a. inspect a luggage
c. inspect luggages
b. inspect an luggage
d. inspect your luggage
jawaban: d
Latihan Soal:
1. like to go to the beach in Summer.
a. Every people
b. All people
2. You must take before sleep. You have a bad cold.
a. your medicines
b. your the medicine
3. . Is running out. Please hurry!

c. Many people
d. All person
c. your medicine
d. your every medicine

a. Time
b. A time
4. Sorry, but can I borrow ? I think I lost my purse.
a. a money
b. some money

c. Every time
d. Many times
c. few money
d. all money

5. This week, our lecturer gave us . that is to make on Politics.


a. some homework, paper
c. some homework, a paper
b. a homework, a paper
d. a homework, paper

CHAPTER XIV
Conjunctions
Conjunctions atau konjungsi berfungsi menghubungkan kata dengan kelompok kata dalam satu kalimat atau
menghubungkan kaimat dengan kalimat yang lain. Beberapa diantaranya sebagai berikut
1. Therefore = karena itu
UI is a famous university in Indonesia. Therefore many students want to study there.
2. After all = bagaimanapun juga
We have to be thankful for what we have now. After all, there are more people less fortunate than us.
3. All the same = namun demikian
The new government has given them a new market. All the same, some of them keep selling at the dirty
place.
4. Consequently = akibatnya
His father died 4 years ago. Consequently, he cant study in university.
5. For = since = because = as = karena
Everybody is looking for him because he is the only person who knows where the key is.
6. In order that/in order to = supaya
We must study hard in order that we can pass the exam/in order to pass the exam.
7. In case = kalau-kalau
Youd better take an umbrella in case it rains.
8. Otherwise = jika tidak
Please study hard otherwise youll fail the exam.
9. Nevertheless = however = namun/akan tetapi
She is poor. Nevertheless, she is happy.
10. Although/though/even though/in spite of/despite = walaupun/-menyatakan hubungan pertentangan
Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday.
I couldnt sleep despite being very tired.
The house isnt very nice. I like the garden though.
Even though I was really tired, I couldnt sleep.
11. Unless = kecuali jika/-menyatakan syarat
Ill see you tomorrow unless I have to work late.
12. As long as/providing/provided = hanya jika/tetapi hanya jika/-menyatakan syarat
You can borrow my car as long as you promise not to drive too fast.
Travelling by car is convenient provided/providing (that) you have somewhere to park.
13. During/for = selama
I fell asleep during the film.
We watched television for two hours last night.
14. While = sementara
I fell asleep while I was watching the film.
Contoh Soal:
1. You should take some extra money something unexpected happens.
a. unless
c. in case
b. although
d. therefore
jawaban: C

2. Learning to play a musical instrument often motivates a child to be disciplined and focused; it can impart a
feeling of social worth. (USM STAN, 2008)
a. because
c. and
b. so
d. moreover
jawaban: d
Latihan Soal:
1. I didnt get the job I had the necessary qualifications. The expression that cannot be used to complete the
sentence is
a. even though
c. despite the fact that
b. although
d. while
2. the weather is good, were going to have a picnic.
a. providing
c. however
b. although
d. while
3. Among the students, Fandi is the shortest one; , he is the fastest Sprinter in Surabaya.
a. moreover
c. however
b. otherwise
d. in order to
4. I repeatedly apologized for what happened, she wouldnt forgive me.
a. but
c. nevertheless
b. however
d. therefore
5. We should have the results of your blood test within a few days; I am going to start you on a preliminary
treatment program.
a. meanwhile
c. otherwise
b. however
d. therefore
6. I was so scared I was also curious about the old lady.
a. and
c. however
b. but
d. instead
7. Mr. Prasetyo is a noted economist
a. as well as an effective lecturer
b. and too efficient lecture
c. but he gives a good lecture
d. however he gives a lecture very well also

CHAPTER XV
Parallel Verbs
Biasanya sebuah subject memiliki dua kata benda yang dihubungkan oleh kata and. Kedua kata benda itu
harus parallel dengan bentuk sebagai berikut:
Contoh:
James makes his bed and cleans up his room every morning.
V
and V
Makes
and cleans = parallel verbs
Contoh lainnya:
- Ann is cooking dinner and (is)* talking on the phone at the same time.
- I will stay home and (will)* study tonight.
- I am going to stay home and (am going to)* study tonight.
* auxiliary verb atau helping verb tidak perlu diulang ketika kedua kata kerja dihubungkan oleh kata and.
Contoh Soal:
1. Anne can eat and TV at the same time.
a. watches
c. watched
b. watch
d. watching
jawaban: B
2. Some people concentrate better when the are studying or reading and to music at the same time.
a. listen
c. to listen
b. listened
d. listening
jawaban: D
Latihan Soal:
1. We should not discriminate between and the rich
a. poor people
c. a poor person
b. poor
d. the poor
2. Due to the increase in the price of fossil fuels, cooking is a trial for the poor and .
a. maintain a healthy life is a problem.
b. maintaining a healthy life becomes a problem,
c. maintain life is healthy,
d. maintaining a healthy life does becomes a problem.
3. I wish I could work hard, get a good pay, and.
a. take care of my family at the same time.
b. taking care of my family at the same time.
c. take care of my family is the same time.
d. taking care of my family at once.
4. She hopes that she can become a good mother and .
a. raising successful children.
c. raised successful children.
b. raised successful children.
d. raise successful children.
5. his motto for life is work hard and
a. play hardly
b. plays hardly
c. play hard
d. played hard

EROR RECOGNITION
1. Writers like William Shakespeare and Edgar Allan Poe are not only prolific but too interesting.
A
B
C
D
2. In spite Nellies fear of heights, She decided to fly with a group of her classmates to the
A
B
C
Bahamas during the spring recess.
D
3. Let Nancy and her to make all the plants for the party, and you and I will provide
A
B
C
the refreshments and entertainment.
D
4. Louie got his sister read his class assignment, and then asked her to write the report
A
B
for him because he did not have enough time.
C
D
5. After rising the flag to commemorate the holiday, the mayor gave a long speech.
A
B
C
D
6. Maribel has registered for both the afternoon anthropology class as well as the evening
A
B
C
sociology lecture.
D
7. Dr. Hawkin, which is the professor for this class, will be absent this week because of illness.
A
B
C
D
8. This class has canceled because too few students had registered before registration closed.
A
B
C
D
9. After she had bought himself a new automobile, she sold her bicycle.
A
B
C
D
10. George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasnt neither.
A
B
C
D
11. After John had eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.
A
B
C
D
12. Because Sam and Marry had done all the work theirselves, they were unwilling to give the
A
B
C
D
resulst to Jane.
13. These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we will return
A
B
C
D
later.
14. Many theories on conversing the purity of water has been proposed, but not one has been
A
B
C
as widely accepted at this one.
D
15. Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students lost the
A
B
C
D
opportunity to lease the apartment.
16. The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the proposal.
A
B
C
D
17. After to take the medication, the patient became drowsy and more manageable.
A
B
C
D
18. It has been a long time since we have talked to John, isnt it?
A
B
C
D

19. Peter and Tom plays tennis every afternoon with Marry and me.
A
B
C
D
20. He was drink a cup of coffee when the telephone rang.
A
B
C
D
21. We called yesterday our friends in Boston to tell them about the reunion that we are planning.
A
B
C
D
22. Please give me a few coffee and some donuts if you have any left.
A
B
C
D
23. The work performed by these officers are not worth our paying them any longer.
A
B
C
D
24. He isnt driving to the convention in March, and neither they are.
A
B
C
D
25. Because they have moved away, they hardly never go to the beach anymore.
A
B
C
D
26. If I am rich, I want to buy Bali island.
A
B
C
D
27. The president went fishing after he has finished with the conferences.
A
B
C
D
28. Those homework that your teacher assigned is due on Tuesday unless you have made prior
A
B
C
D
arrangements to turn it in late.
29. My cousin attends an university in the Midwest which specializes in astronomy.
A
B
C
D
30. Because they have moved away, they hardly never go to the beach anymore.
A
B
C
D

Reading
Reading adalah pokok bahasan yang cakupannya luas. Namun bagian reading dalam USM STAN sebenarnya tidak
susah, asal tahu apa maksud soal dan bagaimana cara menetukan jawabannya. Biasanya, soal-soal Reading
mencakup hal-hal sebagai berikut:
-

Title identification (menentukan judul)


Identifying the main idea (menentukan ide pokok/gagasan/inti dari sebuah tulisan)
Expressions and meanings and their usage (menentukan arti dan maksud dari sebuah kata, istilah atau
gaya bahasa tertentu)
Finding contextual answers according to the passage (menjawab pertanyaan sesuai konteks berdasarkan
isi dan maksud sebuah wancana atau tulisan)
True or false (menentukan kebenaran atau kesalahan suatu pernyataan)

Jenis Teks
Mengetahui jenis teks membantu kita dalam menjawab soal, misalnya dalam menentukan judul, ide pokok, dan
maksud yang ingin disampaikan. Jenis-jenis teks secara umum sebaagai berikut:
1.

Recount: Menceritakan kembali suatu peristiwa dengan tujuan sekadar memberitahu atau menghibur
pembaca.
2. Report: Mendeskripsikan sesuatu hal dengan apa adanya, berdasarkan fenomena alami, buatan manusia,
ataupun sosial di dalam lingkungan kita.
3. Discussion: Memaparkan sekurang-kurangnya dua pendapat mengenai suatu isu/masalah.
4. Explanation: Menjelaskan proses-proses yang ada terkait pembuatan atau pelaksanaan dalam
fenomena/kejadian alami atau sosial budaya.
5. Narrative: Menceritakan suatu hal dengan tujuan menghibur. Hal-hal yang diceritakan bersifat
problematic, dengan urutan kejadian tertentu yang berujung pada konflik atau krisis yang diakhiri
resolusi.
6. Procedure: Mendeskripsikan bagaimana sesuatu terjadi lewat rangkaian kejadian atau langkah-langkah
tertentu.
7. Description: Mendeskripsikan seseorang, tempat tertentu, atau hal tertentu.
8. Review: Kritik/Ulasan tentang suatu karya atau acara untuk khalayak ramai. Review juga menunjukkan
bagaimana suatu karya termasuk film, acara televise, buku, drama, opera, pameran, konser, daan
pertunjukkan balet. Exposition (Analitical): Persuades the reader or listener that something is the case.
9. Exposition (Hortatory): karangan yang berusaha meyakinkan pembaca, yang berisi argument-argumen
tentang suatu masalah.
10. News Item: Menginformasikan kepadaa pembaca tentang kejadian tertentu yang dianggap penting untuk
diberitakan.
11. Anecdote: Karangan yang bertujuan untuk menceritakan kejadian yang unik, lucu, atau luar biasa.
Contoh Soal:
People express their personalities in their clothes, their cars, and their homes. A study shows that our diets are
also an expression of our personalities. Perhaps we dont choose foods only for taste and nutrition. We might
choose them because they tell people something about us. For example, some people eat mainly gourmet foods,

such as caviar and lobster, and they only eat in expensive restaurants (never in cafeterias or snack bars). They
might want to tell the world that they know about the better things in life.
Human beings can eat many different kinds of food, but some people choose not to eat meat. These vegetarians
often have more in common than just their diet. Their personalities might be similar, too. For example, vegetarians
in the United States may be creative people, and they might not enjoy competitive sports or jobs. They worry
about the health of the world, and they probably dont believe in war.
Some people eat mostly fast-food. One study shows that many fat-food eaters have a lot I common with each
other, but they are very much different from vegetarians. They are competitive and good at business. They are also
in a hurry. Many fast-food eaters might not agree with this description of their personalities, but its a common
picture of them.
Some people also believe that people of the same astrological sign, have similar food personalities. Arians (born
under the sign of Aries, between March 21 and April 19) usually like spicy food, with a lot of onions and pepper.
People with the sign of Taurus (April 20 to May 20) prefer healthful fruits and vegetables, but they often eat too
much. Sgittarians (November 22 to December 21) like ethnic foods from many different countries. Aquarians
(January 20 to February 18 ) can eat as much meat and fish as they want, but sugar and cholesterol are sometimes
problems for them.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Whats the suitable title for the text?


a. Types of Food
b. How a the Personality of a Vegetarian is Connected with Their Food
c. Food Personalities
d. Food and the Zodiac
According to the text, it is possible that people choose their foods because
a. They tell the person what interests them.
b. They tell them whats tasty and nutritious.
c. They are an alternative to clothes and cars
d. They tell people something about those who eat them.
Whats the main idea of paragraph two?
a. Vegetarians are people who dont eat meat.
b. There are many vegetarians in the US who dont enjoy competitive sports and jobs.
c. Vegetarians in the US dont believe in war.
d. Vegetarians are not only similar in their diet, but theyre also similar in personality.
The word their in paragraph three line four refers to..
a. fast food
c. description
b. vegetarians
d. fast food eaters
The word ethnic in paragraph four has the closest meaning to the word
a. traditional
c. old-fashioned
b. national
d. tribal
Which is true according to the text?
a. Some people choose not to eat meat because they dislike competitive sports or jobs.
b. Fat food eaters have a lot in common with vegetarians.
rd
c. People born on the 23 of April are said to like healthful fruits and vegetables.
d. Sugar and cholesterol are objects of no concern to Aquarians.

Jawaban:
1. C
2. D
3. D

4.
5.
6.

D
A
C

Latihan Soal:
Neither a Borrower nor a Lender Be
Both borrowers and lenders in the sub-prime mortgage market are wishing they had listened to the old saying:
neither a borrower nor a lender be.
Last year people with poor credit ratings borrowed $605 billion in mortgages, a figure that is about 20% of the
home-loan market. It includes people who cannot afford to meet the mortgage payments on expensive homes
they have bought, and low-income buyers. In some cases, the latter could not even meet the first payment.
Lenders include banks like HSBC, which may have lost almost $7 billion.
Both sides can be blamed. Lenders, after the 2-3 percentage point premium they could charge, offered loans,
known as 'liar loans', with no down payments and without any income verification to people with bad credit
histories. They believed that rising house prices would cover them in the event of default. Borrowers ignored the
fact that interest rates would rise after an initial period.
One result is that default rates on these sub-prime mortgages reached 14% last year- a record. The problems in
this market also threaten to spread to the rest of the mortgage market, which would reduce the flow of credit
available to the shrinking numbers of consumers still interested in buying property.
So, the housing market will remain weak; borrowers with weak credit histories will find the credit window closed;
people with adjustable-rate mortgages will have to spend less so they can meet their increased payments; tighter
lending standards and falling home prices will reduce consumers' ability to tap the equity in their homes.
But as long as the labor market remains strong, which it has done despite job losses in housing-related industries,
and as long as real incomes continue to go up, consumers might complain, but they are unlikely to go on a buyers'
strike on a scale that will make this slowdown become a recession. Therefore, we should not be too worried, but,
at the same time, we should be a bit cautious and watch closely how things develop.
1. Sub-prime mortgage loans were offered
a. only to low income families.
b. to people who wanted to by very expensive houses.
c. to people with poor credit histories.
d. to people with sufficient credit.
2. Who believed that rising house prices would cover them in the event of a default?
a. borrowers
b. lenders
c. both
d. none of the above
3. Borrowers have been caught out
a. because they lied when applying for the loan.

b. because house prices have risen.


c. because house prices have declined
d. because interest rates rise after a while.
4. According to the text, people with adjustable-rate mortgages
a. will not be able to get credit.
b. will buy new houses
c. will have to economize
d. have weak credit histories.
5. The writer is
a. a bit concerned about the housing market.
b. very worried about the housing market.
c. not worried about the housing market.
d. not concerned about the housing market.
The four young faces on which the firelight shone brightened at the cheerful words, but darkened again as
Jo said sadly, We havent got Father, and shall not have him for a long time. She did not say perhaps never, but
each silently added it, thinking of Father far away, where the fighting was.
Nobody spoke for a minute; then Meg said in an altered tone, You know the reason Mother proposed not
having presents this Christmas was because it is going to be a hard winter for everyone; and she thinks we ought
not to spend money for pleasure, when our men are suffering so in the army. We cant do much, but we can make
our little sacrifices, and ought to do it gladly. But Im afraid I dont. And Meg shook her head, as she thought of all
the pretty things she wanted.
6. What is the purpose of the text?
a. To give information on a certain topic
b. To describe a particular event
c. To tell a story
d. To give a point of view on a specific subject
7. Which statement is true according to the text?
a. The four people mentioned are happy because it is Christmas.
b. The father has passed away
c. The four people mentioned are mourning because a lot of gentlemen are at war.
d. The four young people are worried about their father who is at war.
8. How does Meg feel about the situation that Christmas?
a. willing
c. angry
b. regretful
d. bored
9. Which word has the closest meaning to the word altered (paragraph two) in the text?
b. change
d. monotone
c. similar
e. indifferent
10. Who does our refer to? ( paragraph two, line three)
a. the mother
b. the four people
c. the four people and the mother
d. all those whose male families are at war