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How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Patsy M.

Lightbown and Nina Spada

Supplementary Activity 1.1: Milestones of vocal/linguistic


development
Below is an alphabetical list of descriptors that characterize some of the things
children are able to do with language at different ages. In the Table below, match the
descriptors with the age ranges. Note that there are 18 descriptors and 12 age ranges,
so you will want to enter more than one descriptor on some lines.
t
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#BCCMFTSFQFUJUJWFDPOTPOBOUWPXFMTUSJOHT GPSFYBNQMF ba ba ba)


#BCCMFTXJUITFOUFODFJOUPOBUJPO GPSFYBNQMF ba BA ba ba!)
#FHJOTUPVTFHSBNNBUJDBMNPSQIFNFTBOEGVODUJPOXPSET
$PNCJOFTXPSETUPNBLFAUFMFHSBQIJDTFOUFODFT
$SJFTPOMZCFDBVTFPGEJTDPNGPSUPSIVOHFS
%JTDSJNJOBUFTBNPOHTJNJMBSMBOHVBHFTPVOET GPSFYBNQMF pa and ba)
)BTBWPDBCVMBSZPGBCPVUXPSET
)BTBWPDBCVMBSZPGTFWFSBMUIPVTBOEXPSET
,OPXTADBLFUIFFBUJTTJMMZCVUEPFTOULOPXXIZ
-FBSOTUPVTFEJFSFOUAWPJDFTXJUIEJFSFOUJOUFSMPDVUPST
-FBSOTUPVTFEJFSFOUMBOHVBHFSFHJTUFSTGPSEJFSFOUTPDJBMBDBEFNJD
situations
.BLFTDPPJOHTPVOET
.BLFTTPNFDPOTPOBOUWPXFMTPVOET
1SPEVDFTASTUXPSE
4IPXTMJUFSBDZCBTFENFUBMJOHVJTUJDBXBSFOFTT
4UBSUTUPBTLMPUTPGAXIZRVFTUJPOT
5BLFTJOUPBDDPVOUXIBUMJTUFOFSLOPXT GPSFYBNQMF POUIFUFMFQIPOF

6OEFSTUBOETBGFXXPSET

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

Age

Description of language development

Birth to 1 month

-Cries only because of discomfort or hunger


-Discriminates among similar language sounds (pa vs.ba)

1 to 3 months
--Makes cooing sounds

36 months

69 months

912 months

1218 months

1824 months

2436 months

34 years

-Babbles with sentence intonation (ba BA ba ba!)


-Makes some consonant-vowel sounds

-Babbles repetitive consonant-vowel strings (ba, ba,


ba)
-Understands a few words

-Produces 'first word'

-Has a vocabulary of about 50 words


-Combines words to make 'telegraphic sentences'
-Begins to understand grammatical morphemes and
functions
-Knows 'cake the eat' is silly but doesn't know why.
-Starts to ask lots of 'why' questions

46 years

-Learns to use different voices with different interlocutors


-Takes into account what listener knows (telephone)

68 years

-Shows literacy-based metalinguistic awareness


-Has a vocabulary of several thousand words

oZFBST

-Learns to use different language registers for different social/


academic situations

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

RachelBlythe
10/3/14
TASL501
SupplementalActivity3.1

Agoodlanguagelearner:

a.3
b.4
c.5
d.4
e.5
f.4
g.3
h.3
i.2
j.1
k.4
l.3

Thinkingintermsofyourexperienceasasecondlanguagelearnerorteacher:

1.
Thebooksaystherearesomanyvariables,anditishardtomeasurethemassomearenot
independentofoneanother.Ibelievebasedonthereading,motivation,willingnesstotakeriskand
attitudearemostlikelytobeassociatedwithsuccessinsecondlanguagelearning.Whenstudents
seethevalueinlearningasecondlanguageandhaveapositiveattitudeaboutsecondlanguage
learning,theywillfindwaystohavemorecontactwiththesecondlanguagesuchasattending
Deafeventsoutsidetheirclassroom.Motivationiswhatpushesthestudentspasttheirpotential
individuallimitationssuchastheiraptitudeprofiletheymayfacewhenlearningasecondlanguage
becausetheyWANTtolearnthelanguage.TheIQ,personality,andaptitudeseemtobeless
determinantofthesuccessinsecondlanguagelearning.Researchshowsthatsuccessdoesnot
alwaysfavorthosewhohaveahighIQandaptitudelevelandevenintrovertedstudentscan
succeedinmasteringasecondlanguage.Extrovertedstudentsmayhaveanadvantageinterms
ofperformancewhileintrovertedstudentsmayhaveanadvantageinthegrammaticalaccuracy.It
dependsonthesituationsandhowthecurriculumisdesignedtoenhancetheirstrengths.

2.
Givenadequateopportunityandgoodinstruction(e.g.astructuredinputinstruction),students
candevelopawillingnesstocommunicate(WTC)andreduceinhibitionsinlearningasecond
language.Agoodsupportiveclassroomenvironmentthatfocusesoncommunicationand
interactioncanincreasethemotivationtolearnthelanguage.Thepersonality,IQ,andaptitude
maybeinnateandunchangeablebutgiventherightopportunities,theacademicchallengescanbe

overcome.Itispossiblethatsomeindividualswithlowaptitudehappentohavemorecontactwith
thesecondlanguageandhaveahighersuccessratethanthosewithahigherIQandlower
contactwiththesecondlanguage.

3.

Personalitymaybeanimportantfactorintermsofacquiringlanguageinthecommunity
outsideoftheclassroom.Outgoingstudentswouldnotbeafraidtoreachoutandcommunicate
withnativeL2users,resultinginmorelanguageinputthanshystudents.Shystudentsmay
functionbetterinaclassroomwherethereisanemphasisonlearninggrammar.Thosewhohave
ahigheraptitudelevelmayhaveabetterabilitytoanalyzethelanguageanddowellwithinductive
instruction.Thechapterreportedthatregardlessofaptitudelevel,manylearnersbenefitfromthe
deductiveinstruction(p.82).Also,thesocialfactorsinthecommunitymayinfluencehowlearners
usethesecondlanguageduepowerdynamics.Somestudentsmayexcelinaclassroombecause
theyarelearningwiththeirpeersandonthesamelevelbutwhentheygooutinthecommunityto
interactwiththenativeL2users,theymaysuddenlylosethedesiretointeractoutof
embarrassmentformakingmistakesinfrontofnativeusers.

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada

Supplementary Activity 4.1: SLA theories crossword


1

5
6

7
8

9
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

(Crossword created by Paul Quinn)

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

ACROSS

DOWN

1 According to Michael Long,


facilitates second
language acquisition (SLA) by
making input more comprehensible.

2 The
hypothesis states that
learners do not acquire new second
language (L2) features until they
become aware of them in the input.

3 Vygotskys

4 UG theorists are less interested in


performance than in
.

6 A behaviourist-inspired teaching
method reliant upon learning
through imitation.
8 VanPatten argues that learners
cannot pay simultaneous attention
to
and meaning.
9 Ron
used crossword
puzzles to examine the role of
awareness in SLA.
10 Universal grammar.
11 Krashen believes that language
occurs through conscious
attention to form and rule learning.
12 The
model focuses on the
importance of cues.

feedback is thought
to play an important role in the
interaction hypothesis.

6 When learners are anxious, the


filter is hypothesized
to make input unavailable for
acquisition.
7 For Krashen, a learner
language by being exposed to it.
13 The comprehensible
hypothesis states that language
production pushes learners to
process language more deeply.

14 Connectionists believe that


the
of input and the
of co-occurrence are
important for SLA.
15 Immersion and content-based
instruction are examples of
language teaching.
16 Skill-learning theorists believe that
SLA occurs as declarative knowledge
becomes
knowledge.

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada

Supplementary Activity 6.3: Comparing teaching approaches


The following activity is adapted from one developed by Mela Sarkar.
Each of the four statements below represents the perspective of an imaginary teacher
who is using one of the approaches to teaching described in Chapter 6. After you
have read the statements, answer the following questions for each one:
1 What is this teaching approach called in Chapter 6?
2 What SLA perspective (from Chapter 4) is this teaching approach closely
linkedwith?
3 List three things in the statement that helped you answer question 2.
4 Which features of this teaching approach would you use in your own classroom?
Why?
5 Are there features of this teaching approach that you would not use? Why not?

Teacher A
When I teach a second language, I work very hard on correct pronunciation from the
beginning. I am careful to provide a clear, accurate model for the students to follow,
and I listen to them carefully and correct mistakes as they occur, so the students dont
form bad pronunciation habits. That applies to grammar, too. We work with short
dialogues that the students memorize and practise in pairs. Then they perform them
for the class. Of course Im lavish with my praise for correct L2 production. We also
spend a lot of time on careful sentence drill, so the students can learn useful words
and phrases in context. I dont talk much about grammar rules in class, although
the students can look those up in their books if they want to. I basically expect the
students to figure out the rules from the dialogues and other examples they hear from
me or in the language lab. We build up fluency and accuracy at the same time, step by
step. Group or pair work is hard to control, so I dont do it. I want to hear what the
students are saying, so I can correct it. After all, what am I paid for?

Teacher B
My approach to second language teaching gives the learners a lot of freedom.
Perhaps it would be better to call them acquirers I dont want them to learn
language, I want them to acquire it! In other words, I want them to feel as natural
and comfortable in their second language as they do in their first. That wont happen
if theyre always worrying about some rule that they might be breaking. We never,
never talk about grammar rules. I just make sure that the students hear and read lots
How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

of interesting language material at a level they can understand and relate to. When
something gets too easy, we move on to something new and a bit more difficult. I
keep classroom activities fun and engagingI think people learn better if theyre
relaxed and having a good time. When the students are talking, they make mistakes,
of coursethat cant be helped. I NEVER correct them. That would just make them
feel stressed and anxious; then theyd stop feeling that practising was fun. But I do
supply lots of examples of how to say things right. And they really listen!

Teacher C
Its not that hard to learn a second languagebut you have to work at it. And you
have to work at it with other people who are attacking the same task. So I think
of myself as a facilitator rather than a teacher. I set up activities that the students
work on in pairs or groupsand please dont think that its not a lot of work to
come up with good activity ideas and to structure them properly! I have to take
the students age and level of proficiency into consideration; I have to know about
their interests, so I can make the material relevant to them. Although I use a lot of
authentic material, of course its important to adapt what the students will hear and
read so theyll be able to understand it. And on the rare occasions when Im talking
to the whole class, Im careful to modify my language so its not too difficult for
them. I teach them how to do that for each other, tooslow down, use short, simple
sentences; use gestures and other non-verbal cues; think of alternative ways to say
things if youre not being understood. Its all in the negotiating!

Teacher D
I think second language learners have to be aware of the structures and vocabulary
of the second language in order to be able to learn them. The thing is, though, they
have to notice language features because they are interested in what they are trying
to understand or say. It wont do a thing for them if Im always trying to hammer
grammar rules into them. No, the best way for me to help my students is to supply
lots and lots of second language material for them to process on their own. I can make
the conditions optimalreduce stress, try not to make them anxious by correcting
them all the time, make the material interesting, and so forth. But ultimately second
language learners have to see for themselves which features of the new language are
important. Then, after they notice those features, learning will happen naturally
when they see them or try to use them again. Sometimes, if I see that students are
having difficulty with something, I try to help them figure it out by talking about
how the language works. Or if they keep making a mistake in using something that I
know theyve already noticed, I might remind them by pointing it out to them as they
are speaking or writing. But I realize that learners cant be rushed. Learning a new
language takes time. So we do lots of different kinds of activities, using language that
is challenging but not frustrating for them.
How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

SupplementalActivity6.3

TeacherA(RachelBlythe)

1.GetItRightFromTheBeginning
2.AudiolingualApproach(Behaviorism)
3.Correctpronunciation,memorize,accuracyclearlyindicatedthe
approachmentionedabove.
4.IwouldusepracticedrillforsomelanguagefeaturessuchasNMS(raising
youreyebrowsforyes/noquestions).
5.Iwouldnotdorepetitionbecausethereisnocommunicationvalueinit,andit
doesntencouragestudentstothinkontheirown.

TeacherB(DanielPfaff)
Question#1WhatisthisteachingapproachcalledinChapter6?
AnswerGetitrightintheend

Question#2WhatSLAperspective(fromChapter4)inthisteachingapproach
closelylinkedwith?
AnswerInteractionHypothesis

Question#3Listthreethingsinthestatementthathelpedyouanswerquestion
2.
Answer
1. Feelasnaturalandcomfortableintheirsecondlanguageastheydointheir
first.
2. Nevertalkaboutgrammarrules,andallowstudentstobreakrulesand
makemistakes.
3. Supplylotsofexamplesofhowtosaythingsright,andtheyreallylisten.

Question#4Whatfeaturesofthisteachingapproachwouldyouuseinyour
ownclassroom?

AnswerThisapproachismuchmoreofnaturalapproachIbelieve,andI
alreadyhavebeenusingthisapproachinmyclasswheneverwediscussthingsoff
topicfromlessons.

Question#5Aretherefeaturesofthisteachingapproachthatyouwouldnot
use?Whynot?
AnswerIwouldntsitbackandnevergivefeedbackorcorrection.Istrongly
believetobepartofstudentslearningprocessing.Illdomoreofconstructive
feedbackandempowerstudentstodoselfassessment.Itsimportant.

TeacherC(NataliePaluso)

1. LetsTalkunderTaskBasedLanguageTeaching(TBLT)basedon
importanceofaccessbothcomprehensibleinputandconversational
interactionssuchasnegotiationofmeaningtogainmutualunderstanding.
ThisismoreoflearnerscenteredsinceIfocusongroups/pairsactivities
whileIfacilitatetheactivities.
2. SLAPerspective:InteractionHypothesisiscloselylinkedtoLetsTalk
underTBLT.
3. Thethreethingsare:Modifiedinteraction,negotiationofmeaning,and
noticinghypothesis
4. WithTBLT,Iwoulddohandsonactivitiesrelatedtoconversationals
simulationsespeciallywithinteractionhypothesiswhenASLstudentshas
attainedASLandbeabletouserules/patternstoedittomakechanges
andpolishtocorrectproductioninASLsentences.IftheASLstudentsdo
notunderstand,thennegotiationofmeaningcomesinplaytoclarify
throughconversationsuntilbothpartiesreachmutualunderstanding.
Noticinghypothesiswilloccurduringinteractionifnoticedlanguage
featureinASL.
5. TherearenofeaturesthatIwouldnotusebecauseIfeltthatallfeaturesI
havementionedaboveareeffectivesinceitislearnercenteredanditis
worthtousethosefeaturestopushthelearnerslimitsintheirsecond
languageability.


TeacherD(NancyJeanEubanks)

1. ListenandRead
2. Krashen/NoticingHypothesis(Innatist)
3. Thefollowingstatementshelpedmeanswertheprecedingquestion.
Learnersmustbeawareofthestructuresandvocabulary,lotsofsecond
languageinputmaterials,andlearnersmustseeforthemselves.
4. Iwouldusethefollowingfeaturesfromthismethod:avarietyof
materials,eliminatestressfromtheenvironment,trytomakethematerials
andclassinterestinganduselanguagethatischallenging,butnot
frustrating.
5. Iwouldprovidesomecorrectivefeedback,morethanwhatthismethod
proposes.