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Alysa Scobee

Professor McKeever
October 20th, 2014
The Cowardly Lion as an Allusion
The vision and allusion of the Cowardly Lion tells the tale of trying to be brave, even in the
scariest of times when everything else is telling you to be cowardly. The Cowardly Lion roars loudly to
frighten other creatures, and also to disguise that he is afraid of himself. By travelling with Dorothy, he
hopes that the Wizard of Oz will give him courage to face the dangers of the world, even though he
proves himself many times by protecting his companions on their journey to Oz. As an example, the New
York Times in a 1993 article, Mr. Perot transformed a tale about fistfights during a union-certification
campaign (which the union won) into the 20th-century equivalent of the hay market riot. This smallminded appeal to jingoism not only batters facts, it also makes the U.S. look like the Cowardly Lion of
World politics. (Qtd. In Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 70). The Cowardly Lion is the prime example of
being cowardly, but you should ley someone who is supposedly of higher authority tell you to be brave,
you should learn to be brave on your own.

Icarus as an allusion
The allusion of Icarus tells the tale of Icarus and Daedalus, who flew on wings that Daedalus had
constructed, in an attempt to escape from Crete. In this Greek mythology, it says that Icarus flew too
close to the sun and melted the wax that held the wings in place, and fell to his death in the sea. Icarus
can be an allusion to someone who fails because of excessive ambition. As an example, in Happily Ever
After by Jenny Diski in 1991, He was Icarus now, and on the very verge of challenging gravity, or God,
depending on how one looked at it. (qtd. In Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 11). Icarus is an example of
ambition, such as flying too close to the sun to escape, and failing overall. It can also symbolize the fall
of someone who overreaches.

Lady Macbeth as an allusion

Used frequently to describe wives who appear to display a cold-blooded ruthlessness in
furthering their husbands career, Lady MacBeth is the allusion of ambition. In Shakespeares play
Macbeth, written in 1623, Lady Macbeth is ambitious for her husband to advance in social stature and
power, and urges him to kill King Duncan so that he will become king. One example, written by nick
Hornby High Fidelity, 1995, Why dont you get her to play in the shop? A personal appearance? Youve
never done those before. And youd probably sell a few of her tapes, and probably a couple extra
things besides. And you could get put into the Time Out gigs list. Ooer, Lady Macbeth. Calm down and
listen to the music. (qtd. In Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 11). Lady Macbeth is the prime example of
ambition, such as wanting her husband to kill the current king so that he can be king, and she queen, is
the aspiration for social status.

Banquo's Ghost as an allusion

Banquo's ghost is an allusion to appearing. In Shakespeare's Macbeth, written in 1623, the
Scottish generals Macbeth and Banquo meet three witches who prophesize that Macbeth will be king
and that Banquo's heirs will sit on the throne. Macbeth then murders the king and takes the crown, and
in an attempt to defeat the prophecy that the witches foretold, hires three murderers to kill Banquo and
his son. At the start of a banquet held by the Macbeths, the first murderer comes to inform Macbeth
that they have killed Banquo but Banquo's son, Fleance, escaped. On returning to the table, Macbeth
finds his place ia taken by Banquo's ghost. Terrified that none of the guests can see the ghost, and being
distressed, Lady Macbeth brings the banquet to a close. One quote that uses Banquo's ghost as an
allusion is in John Mortimer Rumpole's Return, written in 1980, "I was closeted with our head of
chambers who rose, on my arrival, with the air of a somewhat more heroic Macbeth who is forcing
himself to invite Banquo's ghost to take a seat, and would he care for a cigarette." (Qtd. in Delahunty,
Dignen, and Stock 16). Banquo's ghost is the prime allusion for appearing, quite literally out of nowhere,
to scare Macbeth because he had someone kill him out of fright that Banquo and his son would take the
throne. Was it really worth the trouble? Probably not, but Macbeth thought it wasm and that's why
Banquo's ghost appeared.

Vincent Van Gogh as an allusion

Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) serves as an allusion to an artist. Van Gogh was a Dutch postimpressionist painter who used bright colors (yellow especially) and thick, frenzied, swirling brushwork
gave his paintings passionate intensity. Among his best-known works are several studies of sunflowers
and landscapes such as A Starry Night, painted in 1889. Van Gogh suffered from depression, and after a
violent fight with Gauguin he cut off part of his own ear, and eventually committed suicide. One
example of Van Gogh used as an allusion is in John Banville, who wrote The Book of Evidence, in 1989, "I
went in search of Randolph. He wore a large lint pad pressed to the left side of his head, held in place by
a rakishly angled and none-too-clean bandage. ... He bore striking resemblance to poor, mad Vincent in
that self-portrait made after he had disfigured himself for love." (qtd. in Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock
27). Vincent Van Goghm although severly depressed, was a brilliant artist through his short years alive.
Making many works that are famous today, Van Gogh is the prime example of the allusion of an artist.

Beauty and the Beast as an allusion

Beauty and the Beast serves as an allusion to female beauty. Beauty and the Beast is the title of
a fairy tale in which a beautiful, young woman, Beauty, is forced to live with a beast, and ugly monster,
in order to save her father's life. Beauty, starting to pity and love the beast, consents to marry him. Her
love frees the beast from the enchantment he is under and is restored to an handsome prince. Any
couple who widely contrasts in physical attractiveness can be described as Beauty and the Beast. An
example, James Baldwin writes in Another Country, "Therefore, she looked even younger than he was,
almost like a very young girl; and the effect of this was to make Ellis, who was so much shore than she,
look older than he was, and more corrupt. Theu became an odd and unprecedented beaty and the

beast. (qtd. in Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 33-34). Beauty and the Beast is an example of female
beauty, because even the prettiest of women, can marry men who are very unattractive and vice versa.

Brutus as an allusion
Marcus Junius Brutus is the example of betrayal to a good friend. Brutus (85-42 BC) was a
Roman senator who, with Cassius, was a leader of the conspirators who assassinated Julius Caesar in AD
44. Caesar's dying words as he was stabbed by his friend was, "Et tu, Brute?" (You too, Brutus?). Brutus
soon commits suicide after being defeated by Antony and Octavian at Philippi. An example, written by
John Dunning in The Bookman's Wake, 1995, "I heard the woman yell, 'Gaston, get out here!' and then a
man appeared and engulfed them both with bearlike arms. I had a sinking feeling as i watched them, like
Brutus might've felt just before he stabbed Caesar." (qtd. in Delahuntym Dignen, and Stock 40-41).
Brutus is the prime example of betrayal, by fearing your best friend has too much power, killing him
would be the only way to save your country.

Bedlam as an allusion
Bedlam is an allusion for chaos and disorder. It was also the popular name of the hospital of St.
Mary of Bethlehem in London, founded as priory un 1247 at Bishopgate and by the 14th century a
mental hospital. In 1675, a new hospital was built in Moorfields, and this in turn was replaced by a
building in the Lambeth road in 1815 (now the Imperial War mueseum) and transferred to Beckenham
in Keny in 1931. The word 'Bedlam' now denotes a state of wild disorder or noisy uproar. An example,
written by Mark Twain in The Innocents Abroad, 1869, "There was a muleteer to every donkey and a
dozen volunteers beside, and they banged the donkeys with their goad-sticks, and pricked them with
their spinesm and shouted something that sounded like 'Sekki-yah!' and kept a din and a racket that was
worse than Bedlam itself." (qtd. in Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 52).

Beethoven as an allusion
Beethoven serves as an example to music. Born in 1770 and dying in 1827, Ludwig Von
Beethoven was a German composer born in Bonn. His music is said to have bridged classic and romantic
tradition. He started to become deaf in 1802 and became completely death in 1817, his music output
was prodigious. As an example, Amy Tan writes in Two Kinds, 1989, "I soon found out why Old Chong
had retired from teaching piano. He was deaf. 'Like Beethoven!' he shouted to me. 'We're both listening
only in our head!' (qtd. in Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 270). Tan implies that the piano teacher and
Beethoven are much the same: being deaf.

Eleusinian Mysteries as an allusion

Eleusinian Mysteries serves as allusion to mystery. These were the most fampus of the
'mysteries', or religious ceremonies, of Ancient Greece. These were held at the city of Eleusis near
Athens, and dedicated to the corn goddess Demeter and her daughter Persephone, and were thought to

celebrate the annual cycle of death and rebirth in nature, Such mysteries and mystery religions were
secret forms of worshipping, and available to people who had been specially initiated, As an example,
Louis De Bernieres writes in Captain Corelli's Mandolin, 1994, "Been playing golf? I thought so.
Wonderful game, so fascinating, such a challenge, as much intellectual as physical, i understand. I wish I
had time for it myself. One feels so much at sea when talk turns to mashie-niblicks, cleeks, and midirons. Quite the eleusinian mystery.' (qtd. in Delahunty, Dignen, and Stock 273). Bernieres implies that
the game of gold in the protagonists point of view is an eleusinian mystery when fellow people get
together and talk about it.

Works Cited
Delahunty, Andrew, Sheila Dignen, and Penny Stock. The Oxford Dictionary of Allusions. New York:
Oxford UP, 2001. Print.