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2014 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFIC ATE EXAMINATION

Mathematics General 2
FORMULAE AND DATA SHEET
Financial Mathematics
Simple interest

P
r
n

Data Analysis
Mean of a sample

I = Prn

x=

sum of scores
number of scores

is initial amount
is interest rate per period, expressed as
a decimal
is number of periods

z-score
For any score

x,
z=

Compound interest

A = P (1 + r )
A
P
r
n

x
s

is final amount
is initial amount

is mean
is standard deviation

Outlier(s)

is interest rate per period, expressed as


a decimal
is number of compounding periods

score(s) less than

r
n

FV

(1 + r )

score(s) more than

FV = PV (1 + r )

QL
QU
IQR

is interest rate per period, expressed as


a decimal
is number of compounding periods

r
x
y

is amount of depreciation per period


is number of periods

standard deviation of y scores


standard deviation of x scores

is correlation coefficient

x scores
is mean of y scores

is mean of

Normal distribution

S is salvage value of asset after n periods


V0 is initial value of asset
r is depreciation rate per period, expressed as

3240

is interquartile range

y-intercept = y (gradient x )

n periods

Declining-balance method of depreciation

is upper quartile

gradient = r

is initial value of asset

S = V0 (1 r )

is lower quartile

y = gradient x + y-intercept

S = V0 Dn

is salvage value of asset after

QU + 1.5 IQR

Least-squares line of best fit

Straight-line method of depreciation

S
V0
D
n

QL 1.5 IQR

or

Present value and future value

PV =

xx
s

a decimal
is number of periods

approximately 68% of scores have


z-scores between 1 and 1

approximately 95% of scores have


z-scores between 2 and 2

approximately 99.7% of scores have


z-scores between 3 and 3

Spherical Geometry
Circumference of a circle

C = 2p r or C = p D

r
D

Surface Area
Sphere

is radius

A = 4p r 2
is radius

is diameter
Closed cylinder

q
2p r
360

Arc length of a circle

l=

r
q

r
h

is radius
is perpendicular height

is radius

Volume

is number of degrees in central angle


Prism or cylinder

Radius of Earth
(taken as)

V = Ah

6400 km
A
h

Time differences
For calculation of time differences using longitude:
15

A = 2p r 2 + 2p rh

= 1 hour time difference

is area of base
is perpendicular height

Pyramid or cone

V=

Area
Circle

A = pr2

A=

is perpendicular height

Volume and capacity

q
pr2
360

Approximation Using Simpsons Rule


Area

is number of degrees in central angle

A = R2 r 2

h
df
dm
dl

is radius of outer circle


is radius of inner circle

h
(a + b )
2
h
AL
AM
AR

Area of land and catchment areas


unit conversion: 1

ha = 10 000 m

is first measurement
is middle measurement
is last measurement

h is perpendicular height
a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides

h
d + 4 dm + dl
3 f

is distance between successive measurements

Volume

Trapezium

A=

m3 = 1000 L

unit conversion: 1

is radius

Annulus

R
r

is area of base

is radius

Sector

r
q

A
h

1
Ah
3

h
A + 4 AM + AR
3 L

is distance between successive measurements


is area of left end
is area of middle
is area of right end

Trigonometric Ratios

Blood Alcohol Content Estimates


BACmale =

hypotenuse

opposite
side

q
adjacent side
sin q =

opposite side
hypotenuse

cos q =

adjacent side
hypotenuse

tan q =

or

BACfemale =

Distance, Speed and Time

opposite side
adjacent side

D = ST, S =

Area of a triangle
In

average speed =

r ABC,

a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C

The probability of an event where outcomes are equally


likely is given by:

P(event) =

r ABC,

c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C

or

cos C =

a +b c
2ab
2

Gradient

1 byte = 8 bits
10

bytes

20

bytes

1 megabyte = 2

number of favourable outcomes


total number of outcomes
Straight Lines

m=

Units of Memory and File Size


1 kilobyte = 2

total distance travelled


total time taken

Probability of an Event

1
ab sin C
2

Cosine rule
In

D
D
, T=
T
S


stopping distance = reaction-time + braking
distance distance

r ABC,

A=

10N 7.5H
5.5M

N is number of standard drinks consumed


H is number of hours of drinking
M is persons mass in kilograms

Sine rule
In

10N 7.5H
6.8M

vertical change in position


horizontal change in position

Gradientintercept form

y = mx + b

= 1024 bytes

m
b

= 1024 kilobytes

1 gigabyte = 230 bytes = 1024 megabytes


1 terabyte = 240 bytes = 1024 gigabytes

is gradient
is y-intercept

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Board of Studies NSW 2014