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Background: The rate of reaction between chemicals can be discerned by examination of

diagrams and a series of measurements to provide evidence of development.

Aim: How does changing the concentration of sulfuric acid affect the amount of time that
it takes for a potential reaction to five grams of granulated zinc to visually begin?
Hypothesis: I believe that the higher the concentration of acid, the faster the reaction will
take place and end, since this has been proven to be a general rule that concentration
affects the rate of reaction to completion, since with a higher concentration of molecules,
it is also more likely to collide with the zinc molecules and form a reaction, as per
collision theory.

Concentration of acid.


Amount of time required to

complete a reaction.




Initial Molarity.


Amount of materials used


This will be accomplished
by starting off with 1M of
sulfuric acid (20ml) and
gradually replacing the acid
with water (i.e. 2ml per
This will be measured by
using a timer. When the
experiment has finished, the
timer will be turned off and
the results recorded.
The room will be kept at a
constant temperature by the
air-conditioning, at its usual
24 degrees Celsius, but it is
also an important factor in
the experiment.
Keeping the initial
concentration of the sulfuric
acid the same is important,
because if the wrong
concentration is used, it will
make the data unreliable.
Changing the amount of
acid (different for each test),
water (different for each
test) or zinc (five grams)
will lead to a different result
instead of a reliable test.

- Sulfuric acid, 1M, 150ml

- Granulated zinc, 60g
- Water, 90ml
- Flask, 1
- Cork or bung, 1
- Measuring cylinder, 2
- Timer, 1
1. Add five grams of zinc to the flask.
2. Pour the sulfuric acid into a measuring flask over the sink.
3. Add twenty milileters of the concentrated acid to the flask holding the zinc, and put the
cork in the flask.
4. Start the timer.
5. Stop the timer after the first bubble disturbs the surface of the solution, and record the
6. Following the experiment, discard the remains into the appropriate area.
7. Add another five grams of zinc to the flask.
8. Add five milileters of water to the flask, then add fifteen milileters of acid.
9. Start the timer, wait until the first bubble visibly disturbs the surface of the solution,
then stop the timer and record.
10. Following the discard of the materials after the experiment, add five grams of zinc to
the flask.
11. Add ten milileters of water, and then ten milileters of acid.
12. Start the timer, wait until the first bubble visibly disturbs the surface of the solution,
then stop the timer and record.
13. After the experiment is over and the product has been put away safely, add five grams
of zinc.
14. Add fifteen milileters of water, and five milileters of acid.
15. Start the timer, wait until the first bubble visibly disturbs the surface of the solution,
then stop the timer and record.
16. Repeat the entire experiment two more times for reliable results.
Table One: Raw Data
Amount of water

Amount of acid


Trial One

Trial Two (min)


I was able to calculate the molarity by a formula that I had inside of my book;
Msol = (MH2SO4 x VH2SO4)/Vsol.
Or the molarity of the solution is equal to the molarity of sulfuric acid times the volume of suliuci

acid divided by the volume of the entire solution.

Table Two: Averages

Amount of water

Amount of acid (ml) Molarity (M)

Averages (min)




Graph One: Averages regarding the molarity.

Y= -0.0625x + 2.3
Conclusion: Due to the higher concentration of acid, the rate of reaction was sped up by
the use of more sulfuric acid molecules having the ability to interact with the zinc
molecules. However, while my hypothesis was proven correct, there was also an
interesting trend with the second test conducted, the trial that used fifteen milliliters of

acid and five milliliters of water. Interestingly, one of the trials was a lot shorter, which
pulled the average very close to the average of the first test. Other than that discrepancy,
all of the other averages came together to mostly stay on a straight line. To be completely
honest though, none of my tests were completely controlled, and therefore are not
completely reliable, especially since they often had an incorrect amount of zinc and it
relied on a qualitative speculation for the experiment to be complete. Not only that, but it
also had several unforeseeable difficulties, namely pouring my materials into an incorrect
flask in trial 1(3), the first test run that had 0.5M, one of the pieces of zinc fell out and
was later added in trial 1(4), the only test that had a molarity of 0.25, and one test
accidentally became 25ml when I filled one flask up with 20ml of acid instead of 15ml,
which was test 2(2), the final test to use 0.75M; none of which I deleted from the record
or repeated due to time constraints. I also did not manage to complete my final trial.
Therefore my data is not completely valid.
Validity of hypothesis:
My hypothesis was correct, since collision theory states that a higher concentration of
sulfuric acid is likely to have more collisions with the same amount of zinc than a lower
concentration would. Knowing this, I specifically used this knowledge to have the
outcome of a correct hypothesis.
The results seem to be reliable since I conducted another set of tests, though I didnt get
to the last one. Also, most of my data says near the trendline, and the measuring
instruments were accurate (up until I had to switch to Adens scale because of time
constraints). I also think that everyone basically used the same method of pouring the
acid in and pulling it away as it fills up, especially since Alex was the one pointing it out
to me because I tended to overshoot when trying to get an exact amount of acid or water.
I couldnt control the exact amount of zinc, I could only try and get close.
What I did wrong;

Why this is a problem;

I did not have exactly five

grams of zinc for any test.

My data is compromised
due to a control variable
being jeopardized.
The data was compromised
yet again and I could not
tell how close the result
actually was to five grams.
This affects how reliable the
data is, because there is no
average and some tests have
a large discrepancy between
both, and a third piece of

I used Adens scale for

some of the later tests,
which was not as specific.
Not all of the tests were

What I could do to improve

next time;
Use a powdered reactant
instead of a granulated one.
Request a scale for my use
next time.
Edit experiment ahead of
time so fourteen minutes
arent spent staring at a
barely bubbling flask.

data would be beneficial.