Anda di halaman 1dari 2

1. According to Holdaway's Model, what are the four steps of natural learning?

observation of demonstration, guided participation, unsupervised practice reenactment,

and performance
immersion, drill, practice, performance
demonstration, observation, independent participation, and unsupervised practice
observation of demonstration, guided practice, supervised practice, and performance
2. What is meant by approximation as it is applied to Cambourne's Model of natural
language learning?
Approximation is a subtle form of communication which children acquire from parents and
Approximation refers to caregivers' correction of early pronunciation and grammatical
Approximation is the relative age by which children develop natural language that mimics
adult language.
Approximation involves adult acceptance and celebration of children's efforts to speak.
3. Nativist theory maintains that boys and girls learn their language from within
themselves because
children only utter certain expressions that they have heard someone say
language development if dependent upon thought structure
language develops in the midst of social interaction and language use
language is innate
4. What has been neurobiologists' contribution to first language acquisition?
The language a child learns depends on the language that he or she hears spoken at
Language can be developed without conversation between caregivers and infants
The ability to learn language is dependent on the neurological development of the human
There are no specific areas in the brain devoted to language acquisition.
5. Beyond medical problems, what are the three factors identified in the textbook that
can alter the rate of normal language production?
nutrition, shelter, love
nature, nurture, climate
gender, socio-economics, cultural
nationality, religion, age
6. What has been linguist James Cummins' contribution to the theory of second
language acquisition?
the cognitive approach to second language acquisition

the context-embedded communication theory

the zone of proximal development theory
the natural approach to second language acquisition
7. According to Stephen Krashen, what is the major goal of the natural approach?
to teach the child to manipulate and understand cognitively-demanding context-reduced
reading development
development of higher order thinking skills
communication skills
8. Monitor hypothesis implies that
learning the rules only helps for self-correction but not for acquisition of language
language acquisition will increase when students have low levels of anxiety
genuine communication is preferable to formal learning of language rules
language acquisition develops from understanding messages somewhat beyond the
learner's present level of proficiency
9. The second-language acquisition program model that emphasizes both Vygotsky's
social interaction and Krashen's comprehensible input is
the total immersion program
the pull-out program
the multi-cultural program
the nature and nurture program
10. According to the authors of the textbook, what are the three broad groups of
diversity that deserve particular attention?
spatial, artistic, and pragmatic diversity
athletic, musical, and theatrical diversity
academic, cultural, and linguistic diversity
critical, economic, and social diversity