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MAJOR ASSIGNMENT

VULKANISIR BAN
AE4060 KELAIKAN UDARA

1. Abie Putawan/13610053 (abie.putawan@gmail.com)


2. Dibagus Aryoseto/13610068 (daryoseto@gmail.com)
3. Antonius Tyaswidyono/13610069 (tyasmoerti@gmail.com)

Program Studi Aeronotika dan Astronotika


Fakultas Teknik Mesin dan Dirgantara
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Desember 2014

DAFTAR ISI
1. Bab 1: Latar Belakang

2. Bab 2: Deskripsi Item


2.1.

Deskripsi

2.2.

Daftar perusahaan di luar negeri yang memiliki sertifikasi untuk produksi

2.3.

item/pekerjaan

Daftar Perusahaan dalam negeri yang memiliki potensi

3. Bab 3: Regulasi
3.1.

CASR

3.2.

Non-CASR

3.3.

TSO

3.4.

Aturan dari DKUPPU

4. Bab 4: Pengujian
4.1.

Jenis pengujian

4.2.

Tempat Pengujian

5. Bab 5: Kesimpulan

6. Daftar Pusaka

10

7. Lampiran

11

BAB 1
LATAR BELAKANG
Pemilihan tema vulkanisir ban untuk pembahasan ini adalah karena belum
adanya perusahaan ban di Indonesia yang bergerak di bidang vulkanisir ban pesawat,
sementara sebenarnya kemampuan untuk melakukan vulkanisir itu sendiri sudah ada
di banyak perusahaan. Selama ini proses vulkanisir ban pesawat selalu diserahkan ke
perusahaan di luar negeri, sementara di dalam negeri sendiri belum ada yang
mengerjakan. Ini sangat disayangkan mengingat Indonesia adalah negara ASEAN
dengan industri pesawat udara yang paling maju, namun belum bisa membuat
parts/mengerjakan parts sesederhana ban di dalam negeri. Kalau saja bisa, maka
akan terbuka lebih banyak lapangan pekerjaan, dan konten dalam negeri yang
dipasang pada pesawat buatan Indonesia akan lebih banyak. Dan kalau seandainya
perusahaan di dalam negeri bisa mengerjakan vulkanisir ban pesawat, keuntungan
yang bisa diperoleh sangat banyak mengingat banyak sekali maskapai-maskapai
penerbangan di Indonesia dengan frekuensi take-off/landing yang tinggi, yang pastinya
akan membutuhkan banyak suplai ban.

BAB 2
Deskripsi Item/Pekerjaan dan Produsen
2.1. Deskripsi
Vulkanisir ban (retread/recap/remold) adalah proses pembuatan ulang
(remanufacturing) untuk ban yang mulai botak untuk mengembalikan alur ban.
Vulkanisir biasanya dilakukan terhadap casing dari ban yang sudah terpakai
setelah diinspeksi dan direparasi. Proses vulkanisir biasanya mengawetkan
sekitar 90% material dari ban yang terpakai, dan biaya material yang digunakan
rata-rata sekitar 20% dari harga pembuatan ban baru.
Ada 2 proses utama untuk vulkanisir ban, mold cure dan pre-cure. Kedua
proses diawali dengan inspeksi terhadap ban, lalu diikuti metoda NDE (nondestructive examination) untuk menentukan lokasi kerusakan yang tidak terlihat
(hidden damage) dan serpihan-serpihan kecil yang tertanam. Beberapa casing
yang masih layak akan diperbaiki, sementara yang kerusakannya parah akan
dibuang. Untuk metoda pre-cure, tread strip yang sudah disiapkan ditempelkan
ke ban dengan lem, sementara untuk metoda mold cure, karet leleh mentah
diaplikasikan ke ban dan lalu ditempatkan ke dalam cetakan alur ban.
Di dalam dunia penerbangan, penggunaan ban yang divulkanisir sudah
menjadi hal yang umum. Ini disebabkan biaya pembuatan ban pesawat yang
tidak murah, sehingga banyak perusahaan lebih memilih untuk mengambil ban
yang sudah habis alurnya dan dikirim kepada perusahaan ban untuk
divulkanisir.

Gambar 2.1.: 2 jenis proses vulkanisir ban

2.2.Daftar perusahaan di luar negeri yang memiliki sertifikasi untuk produksi


item/pekerjaan
Company
Sky Blue Aviation
Desser Tire & Rubber Co., LLC
Dunlop Taikoo Aircraft Tires
Wilkerson Aircraft Tires

Bridgestone Aircraft Tires

Aero Wheel & Brake Service

Location
Palma de Mallorca, ESP
Montebello, CA, USA
Jinjiang, Fujian, CHN
Crewe, VA, USA
Port Elizabeth, RSA
Chonburi, THL
Hong Kong, CHN
Qingdao, CHN
Richlands, AUS
Kurume, Fukuoka, JPN
Frameries, BEL
Lanklaar, BEL
Puente San Miguel, ESP
Stargard, POL
Mayodan, NC, USA
Oxford, NC, USA
Abilene, TX, USA
Griffin, GA, USA
Long Beach, CA, USA
Muscatine, IA, USA
Muncie, IN, USA
Leon, MEX
Campinas, BRA
Mafra, BRA
Montebello, CA, USA

Works
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Aircraft Tire Retreading/Manufacturing
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Tires & Retreading Material
Tire Molds/Retreading Material
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Retreading Material
Tire Manufacturing
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Retreading Material
Tires & Retreading Material
Tires & Retreading Material
Aircraft Tire Retreading
Retreading Material
Retreading Material
Retreading Material
Retreading Material
Retreading Equipment
Retreading Molds
Retreading Material
Retreading Material/Equipment
Retreading Material
Aircraft Tire Retreading

2.3. Daftar perusahaan dalam negeri yang memiliki potensi


Company
Vulkanisir Badak
PT. Sumatera Kartindo
PT. Gajah Tunggal

Location
Benowo, Surabaya, Jatim
Deli Serdang, Medan, Sumut
Jakarta

Works
Vulkanisir ban
Manufaktur bahan vulkanisir
Manufaktur ban dan material ban

BAB 3
Regulasi
Ban pesawat tidak dibuat oleh perusahaan pesawat itu sendiri, maka sertifikasi
yang diperlukan untuk bisa membuat ban pesawat harus mengacu pada regulasi yang
dapat berupa CASR, non-CASR dan atau Technical Standard Order.
3.1 CASR
Perihal ban diatur dalam CASR 23 part 733 dan CASR 25 part 733.
Untuk laporan ini, yang kami gunakan adalah CASR 25 part 733 yang mencakup
aturan yang lebih luas, yang akan dilampirkan di lampiran.
3.2 Non-CASR
Vulkanisir juga diatur dalam Advisory Circular no 145-4A tentang inspeksi,
vulkanisir, perbaikan, dan perubahan ban pesawat (Inspection, Retread, Repair, and
Alterations of Aircraft Tires). Di Indonesia, peraturan untuk perusahaan vulkanisir ban
mengacu pada Advisory Circular 145-4 yang diadopsi oleh DKUPPU dari FAA,
sementara Advisory Circular 145-4 sendiri sudah digantikan oleh AC145-4A di FAA.
Untuk Advisory Circular no 145-4A akan dilampirkan kemudian.
3.3 TSO
Dalam hal TSO ini kami menemukan TSO-C62d. Dalam TSO-C62d
Appendix 1 paragraf 7.0 (Requalification Tests) dijelaskan bahwa:
A tire shall be requalified unless it is shown that changes in materials, tire
design, or manufacturing process could not affect performance. Changes in material,
tire design, or manufacturing processes that affect performance or changes in the
number or location of tread ribs and grooves or increases in skid depth, made
subsequent to the tire qualification, must be substantiated by dynamometer tests in
accordance with paragraph 6.0
(Sebuah ban harus dikualifikasi ulang dengan pengecualian jika bisa dibuktikan
bahwa perubahan material, rancangan, atau proses manufaktur tidak mempengaruhi
performa.

Perubahan

material,

rancangan,

atau

proses

manufaktur

yang

mempengaruhi performa atau mengubah jumlah atau lokasi ribs dan cerukan pada alur

ban atau peningkatan skid depth, dibuat setelah kualifikasi ban, haruslah dibuktikan
dengan tes dinamometer sesuai dengan paragraf 6.0)

3.4. Aturan dari DKUPPU


Pada tahun 2007, DSKU (pendahulu DKUPPU) merilis surat keputusan
DSKU-2006-STD-2007 mengenai ketentuan penggunaan ban vulkanisir. Dalam
keputusan ini,

DSKU menyatakan bahwa

landing gear

depan

tidak

boleh

menggunakan ban vulkanisir, sementara untuk landing gear utama, hanya boleh
digunakan ulang sebanyak tiga kali vulkanisir sebelum diganti dengan ban baru. Meski
begitu, jika operator penerbangan mengalami kesulitan menemukan/mendapat stok
ban baru untuk roda depan, maka operator penerbangan yang ingin menggunakan ban
vulkanisir pada roda depan harus mengajukan permohonan ke DSKU dengan
melampirkan data laju penggantian ban selama 6 bulan terakhir dan nama pabrik yang
digunakan.

BAB 4
PENGUJIAN
4.1 jenis pengujian
Ban hasil vulkanisir harus dapat memenuhi dynamometer cycle test sebagai
demonstrasi dari performa terbang, dynamometer cycle test terdiri dari 50 takeoff
cycle, 8 taxi cycle di rated load. 2 taxi cycle di di 1.2 kali rated load. Dan 1 oveload take
off cycle pada 1.5 kali rated load. kondisi ban yang masih bagus tidak diperlukan
setelah ovelload take off cycle jika dilakukan terakhir. Namun jika overload take off
cycle tidak dilakukan terkahir, ban harus dalam kondisi baik ketika akhir dari cycle tes,
jika ban mengalami keausan yang wajar karena gesekan biasa itu tidak masalah.
ketika melaksanakan tes ini, harus menggunakan satu set ban saja. ban yang telah
divulkanisir.
Ban hasil vulkanisir juga harus sanggup menahan tekanan hidrostatis 3 kali
lipat dari tekanan normal ban selama 3 detik, ban yang digunakan untuk cycle tes bisa
digunakan bila dikehendaki. ketka terjadi slippage antara ban dan roda selama
pengujian harus tidak boleh merusak tube valve dari ban ber-tube. atau gas seal dari
ban tubeless.
Seharusnya ada uji thermal dan kimia namun sampai saat ini kami belum
menemukan jenis pengujian yang harus dilakukan.
4.2 tempat pengujian

Aero Wheel & Brake Service Corporation. 6900 Acco Street, Montebello, CA
90640. www.aerowbs.com

Lufthansa Technik Frankfurt. Airportring gate 23 Flughafen Frankfurt am Main.


60546 Frankfurt am Main

Balai Besar Bahan dan Barang Teknik (B4T)


Jl. Sangkuriang No. 14
Bandung 40135

BAB 5
Kesimpulan
Industri penerbangan indonesia saat ini tidak didukung oleh pemerintah dan
orang yang memiliki kemampuan, sehingga sulit untuk maju. padahal jika difokuskan
untuk membangun industri penerbangan, indonesia bisa menjadi negara dengan
industri penerbangan yang paling kuat di antara antara ASEAN. Perusahaan sendiri
juga harus mampu membuktikan kemampuan perusahaan itu dalam membuat produk
yang bisa memenuhi standar-standar dan regulasi yang sudah ditetapkan.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

AC145-4A

TSO C62c

TSO C62d

CASR 25.733

DSKU-2886-STD-2007

Aerowbs.com

www.b4t.go.id/fasilitas/laboratorium/lab-otomotif/

10

DEPARTEMEN PERHUBUNGAN
DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA
Jalan Medan Merdeka Barat No.8 Telepon : 3505136 . 3505137 Fax: 3505135.3505139
3507144

Jakarta 10110
Kotak Pos 1389
Jakarta 10013

Nomor
Lampiran
Perihal

: .V~\(V /2WlfO

!~TPlz007

Jakarta, l.. Hop:V11!Je(f


2a:J7

: Ketentuan Penggunaan Ban Vulkanisir


(Retread)

Kepada
Yth: Operator Penerbangan
Pemegang AOC 121 dan 135
di
INDONESIA

1. Setelah mempertimbangkan :
a. Kejadian kegagalan ban pesawat terbang telah sangat jauh berkurang sejak
dilaksanakannya
ketentuan
pada
Edaran
Keselamatan
Nomor
AU/1353/DSKU/02/2006 tanggal 16 Maret 2006 perihal Pencegahan Kegagalan
Ban pada Pesawat Udara yang melarang penggunaan ban roda pendarat depan
(nose landing gear tire) dengan ban vulkanisir (retread), yakni ha.'1lsR-O, dan
membatasi ban roda pendarat utama (main landing gear tire) dengan ban
vulkanisir (retread) sampai yang ketiga (R-3).
b. Dengan adanya pembatasan terhadap ban roda pendarat depan hanya boleh R-O,
teIjadi kesulitan yang dialami operator penerbangan dalam menjamin kontinyuitas
ketersediaan kebutuhan ban barn untuk tahun-tahun mendatang karena
keterbatasan kapasitas produksi sehingga akan bisa mengakibatkan
ketidaktersediaan dipasar.
2. Sehubungan dengan butir 1a dan 1b diatas, maka DSKU akan mempertimbangkan
kemungkinan penggunaan ban vulkanisir pada roda pendarat depan sampai
maksimum R-3 dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut :
a. Operator penerbangan yang ingin menggunakan ban vulkanisir pada roda pendarat
depan harns mengajukan permohonan ke DSKU dengan melampirkan data-data
laju penggantian ban selama 6 bulan terakhir dan nama pabrik ban yang
digunakan. Petunjuk tentang ban vulkanisir sesuai Advisory Circular Nomor 1454.
b. Ijin penggunaan ban vulkanisir bagi ban roda pendarat depan hanya akan diberikan
setelah DSKU melakukan evaluasi terhadap data-data tersebut dengan
mempertimbangkan juga hasil surveilance inspektor DSKU terhadap kineIja
operator bersangkutan selama ini.
3. Pembatasan penggunaan ban roda pendarat utama dengan ban vulkanisir sampai
dengan vulkanisir yang ketiga (R-3) masih berlaku.

4. DSKU mengingatkan kembali kepada para operator penerbangan agar selalu


melakukan inspeksi ban dan menjaga tekanan ban secara benar sesuai ketentuan
Manual Perawatan pabrik serta mengoperasikan pesawat terbang diground secara
sempuma. Demikian juga bagi otoritas bandara agar selalu menjaga kebersihan area
operasi pesawat di landasan. Praktek perawatan dan pengoperasian pesawat terbang
untuk mencapai kinerja keselamatan ban yang baik terdapat pada DGCA Advisory
<;ircular 20-97" Aircraft Tire Maintenance and Operational Practices" serta petujukpetunjuk pabrik.
5. DSKU menyarankan. agar operator penerbangan mempunyai Retread Reliability
Program yang memonitor in-service reliability terhadap ban-ban yang divulkanisir.
Secara umum Retread Reliability Program meliputi : pengumpulan data secara
kontinyu, analisa data bulanan, rencana tanggapan koreksi (corrective action plan)
yang diperlukan serta implementasinya untuk perbaikan kinerja, dan penetapan
standard kinerja yaitu jumlah penggantian retread ban per jumlah siklus pendaratan
(removal o/retreaded tiresllanding cycles).
6. Dengan adanya surat ketentuan penggunaan ban vulkanisir ini maka Surat Edaran
Keselamatan Nomor AU/1353/DSKU/02/2006 dinyatakall tidak berlaku. Ketentuan
penggunaan ban vulkanisir dalam surat ini akan dipertimbangkan kembali apabila
ada perkembangan lebih lanjut dikemudian hari.
SI KELAIKAN UDARA

,ISHASmUAN

. 120141107
Tembusan Yth.:
- Direktur Iendral Perhubungan Udara

--

,--

--

Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Aircraft Certification Service
Washington, DC

TSO-C62d
Date: 9/7/90

Technical Standard Order


Subject: TSO-C62d, TIRES

a. Applicability.
(1) Minimum Performance Standard. This Technical Standard Order (TSO)
prescribes the minimum performance standard that tires excluding tailwheel tires must meet to
be identified with the applicable TSO marking. Tires that are to be so identified and that are
manufactured on or after December 31, 1979, must meet the requirements of the document titled
Federal Aviation Administration Standard for Aircraft Tires dated December 31, 1979,
September 12, 1984, or September 7, 1990 (Appendix 1).
b. Marking. In lieu of the marking requirements of Federal Aviation Regulations Part
21, Section 21.607(d), each tire must be legibly and permanently marked at least with the
following:
(1 ) Brand name and the name or registered trademark of the manufacturer
responsible for compliance.
(2) Speed rating, load rating, size, skid depth, serial number, date, manufacturers
part number and plant code, and nonretreadable, if appropriate.
(3) Applicable TSO number.
c. Data Requirements.
(1) In addition to 21.605, the manufacturer shall furnish the manager, Aircraft
Certification Office (ACO) having geographical purview of the manufacturers facilities, one
copy each of the following technical data: tire speed rating, load rating, rated inflation pressure,
size, width, outside diameter, mold skid depth, nominal loaded radius at rated load and inflation
pressure, and permissible tolerance on the nominal loaded radius; the actual loaded radius of the
test tire at rated load, and inflation pressure, weight, and static unbalance; wheel rim designation;
manufacturers tire part number; and, for a high-speed tire, a load deflection curve at loads up to

DISTRIBUTION: ZVS-326; A-W(IR)-3; A-X(CD)-4; A-FFS-1,2,7,8(LTD); A-X(FS)-3;


AVN-1(2 cys); A-FAC-0(MAX)

TSO-C62d

9/7/90

1.5 times load rating and a summary of the load-speed-time parameters used in the dynamometer
tests. As used in this section, the term high-speed tire means a tire tested at a speed greater
than 120 miles per hour (mph).
(2) The manufacturer shall furnish the applicable maintenance and repair
instructions to the regional office identified in paragraph c.(1) of this section. The maintenance
data provided by the manufacturer must include inspection criteria for the tire to determine
eligibility for used tires of the same part number to be continued in service. Special
nondestructive inspection techniques and retreading procedures, if applicable, must be included
in the maintenance information along with any special repair methods applicable to the tire.
(3) The manufacturer shall furnish either on complete set of design drawings for
the tire or a photograph of the tire cross section to the regional office identified in paragraph
c.(1) of this section. The manufacturer shall also furnish details of design changes (if the tire is
being requalified).
d. Data to be Furnished with Manufactured Units. The existence of TSO approval does
not automatically constitute authority to install and use the article on an aircraft. A note with the
following statement must be included:
The conditions and tests required for TSO approval of this article are minimum
performance standards. It is the responsibility of those desiring to install the
article on or within a specific type or class of aircraft to determine that the aircraft
operating conditions are within the TSO standards.
If not within the TSO standards, the article may be installed only if further
evaluation by the user/installer documents an acceptable installation that is
approved by the Administrator.
If within the TSO standards, the article may be installed only if the user/installer
documents an acceptable installation that is approved by the Administrator.
e. Previously Approved Articles.
(1) Notwithstanding 21.603(a) and (b) and the provisions of any specific
previous TSO approval, after December 31, 1982, no person may identify or mark a tire having a
speed rating above 160 mph with TSO numbers TSO-C62, TSO-C62a, or TSO-C62b. Further , a
tire having a special rating above 160 mph approved prior to December 31, 1979, may not be
manufactured under the provisions of its original approval.
(2) A tire, except for those specified in paragraph e.(1) of this section, may
continue to be manufactured under the provision of its original approval.
f. Availability of Reference Documents. Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21, Subpart
O, and Advisory Circular 20-110, Index of Aviation Technical Standard Orders, may be

Page 2

9/7/90

TSO-C62d

reviewed at the Federal Aviation Administration Headquarters, Aircraft Certification Service,


Aircraft Engineering Division (AIR-100), and at all ACOs.

/S/ John K. McGrath


Acting Manager, Aircraft
Engineering Division, AIR-100
Aircraft Certification Service

Page 3

9/7/90

TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1. FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION STANDARD FOR AIRCRAFT


TIRES DATED SEPTEMBER 7, 1990
1.0 Purpose. This document contains minimum performance standards for new and requalified
aircraft tires, excluding tailwheel tires, that are to be identified as meeting the standards of
TSO-C62d.
2.0 Scope. These minimum performance standards apply to aircraft tires having speed and load
ratings that are established on the basis of the speeds and loads to which the tires have been
tested.
3.0 Material requirement. Materials must be suitable for the purpose intended. The suitability
of the materials must be determined on the basis of satisfactory service experience or
substantiating dynamometer tests.
4.0 Design and construction.
4.1 Unbalance. The moment (M) of static unbalance in inch-ounces may not be greater
than the value determined using the formula, moment (M) = 0.025D2, rounded off to the next
lower whole number: where D = maximum outside diameter of the tire in inches.
4.2 Balance marker. A balance marker, consisting of a red dot, must be affixed on the
sidewall of the tire immediately above the bead to indicate the lightweight point of the tire. The
dot must remain for any period of storage plus the original tread life of the tire.
4.3 Overpressure. The tire shall withstand for at least 3 seconds a pressure of at least 4.0
times the rated inflation pressure (as specified in paragraph 5.2) at ambient temperature.
4.4 Temperature.
4.4.1 Ambient. It shall be substantiated by applicable tests or shown by analysis
that the physical properties of the tire materials have not been degraded by exposure of the tire to
the temperature extremes of not higher than -40F and not lower that +160F for a period of not
less than 24 hours at each extreme.
4.4.2 Wheel rim heat. It must be substantiated by the applicable tests or shown
by analysis that the physical properties of the tire materials have not been degraded by exposure
of the tire to a wheel-bead seat temperature of not lower that 300F for at least 1 hour, except
that low-speed tires or nose-wheel tires may be tested or analyzed at the highest wheel-bead seat
temperatures expected to be encountered during normal operations.
4.5 Tread design. Moved. (See paragraph 7.0)
4.6 Slippage. A tire tested in accordance with the dynamometer tests provided in
paragraph 6.0 may not slip on the wheel rim during the first five dynamometer cycles. Slippage

Page 1

TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

9/7/90

that subsequently occurs may neither damage the gas seal of the tire bead of a tubeless tire nor
otherwise damage the tube or valve.
4.7 Leakage. After an initial 12-hour minimum stabilization period, the tire must be
capable of retaining inflation pressure with a loss of pressure not exceeding 5 percent in 24 hours
from the initial pressure equal to the rated inflation pressure.
5.0 Ratings.
5.1 Load ratings. The load ratings of tires shall be established. The applicable
dynamometer test in paragraph 6.0 must be performed at the selected rated load.
5.1.1 Load rating (helicopter tires). Airplane tires qualified in accordance with
provisions of this standard may also be used on helicopters. In such cases, the maximum static
load rating may be increased by 1.5 with a corresponding increase in rated inflation pressure
without any additional qualification testing.
5.2 Rated inflation pressure. The rated inflation pressure shall be established at an
identified ambient temperature on the basis of the rated load as established under paragraph 5.1.
5.3 Loaded radius. The loaded radius is defined as the distance from the axle centerline
to a flat surface for a tire initially inflated to the rated inflation pressure and then loaded to its
rated load against the flat surface. The nominal loaded radius, the allowable tolerance on the
nominal loaded radius, and the actual loaded radius for the test tire shall be identified.
6.0 Dynamometer test requirements. The tire may not fail the applicable dynamometer tests
specified herein or have any signs of structural deterioration other than normal expected tread
wear except as provided in paragraph 6.3.3.3.
6.1 General. The following conditions apply to both low-speed and high-speed tires
when these tires are subjected to the applicable dynamometer tests:
6.1.1 Tire test load. Unless otherwise specified herein for a particular test, the
tire must be forced against the dynamometer flywheel at not less than the rated load of the tire
during the entire roll distance of the test.
6.1.2 Test inflation pressure. The test inflation pressure must be the pressure
required at an identified ambient temperature to obtain the same loaded radius against the
flywheel of the dynamometer at the loaded radius for a flat surface as defined in paragraph 5.3.
Adjustments to the test inflation pressure may not be made to compensate for increases created
by temperature rises occurring during the tests.
6.1.3 Test specimen. A single tire specimen must be used in the applicable
dynamometer tests specified herein.

Page 2

9/7/90

TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

6.2 Low-speed tire. A tire operating at ground speeds of 120 mph or less must withstand
200 landing cycles on a dynamometer at the following test temperature and kinetic energy and
using either test method A or test method B.
6.2.1 Test temperature. The temperature of the gas contained in the tire or of the
carcass measured at the hottest point of the tire may not be lower than 105F at the start of at
least 90 percent of the test cycles. For the remaining 10 percent of the test cycles, the contained
gas or carcass temperature may not be lower than 80F at the start of each cycle. Rolling the tire
on the flywheel is acceptable for obtaining the minimum starting temperature.
6.2.2 Kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the flywheel to be absorbed by the
tire must be calculated as follows:
K.E. = CWV2 = 162.7W = Kinetic energy in foot-pounds.
where:
C = 0.0113
W = Load rating of the tire in pounds, and
V = 120 mph.
6.2.3 Test method A - variable mass flywheel. The total number of dynamometer
landings must be divided into two equal parts having speed ranges shown below. If the exact
number of flywheel plates cannot be used to obtain the calculated kinetic energy value of proper
flywheel width, a greater number of plates must be selected and the dynamometer speed adjusted
to obtain the required kinetic energy.
6.2.3.1 Low-speed landings. In the first series of 100 landings, the
maximum landing speed is 90 mph and the minimum unlanding speed is 0 mph. The landing
speed must be adjusted so that 56 percent of the kinetic energy calculated under paragraph 6.2.2
will be absorbed by the tire. If the adjusted landing speed is calculated to be less than 80 mph,
the following must be done: the landing speed must be determined by adding 28 percent of the
kinetic energy calculated under paragraph 6.2.2 to the flywheel kinetic energy at 64 mph, and the
unlanding speed must be determined by subtracting 28 percent of the kinetic energy calculated
under paragraph 6.2.2 from the flywheel kinetic energy at 64 mph.
6.2.3.2 High-speed landings. In the second series of 100 landings, the
minimum landing speed is 120 mph and the nominal unlanding speed is 90 mph. The unlanding
speed must be adjusted as necessary so that 44 percent of the kinetic energy calculated under
paragraph 6.2.2 will be absorbed by the tire.

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6.2.4 Test method B - fixed mass flywheel. The total number of dynamometer landings must be
divided into two equal parts having speed ranges indicated below. Each landing must be made
in a time period, T, calculated so that the tire will absorb the kinetic energy determined under
paragraph 6.2.2. The time period must be calculated using the equation:
Tc

KEc
KEW ( UL ) KEW ( LL ) KEW ( UL ) KEW ( LL)

TL( UL ) TL ( LL ) TW ( UL ) TW ( LL)

For the 90 mph to 0 mph test, the equation reduces to:


Tc

KEc
KEW ( UL ) KEW ( UL )

TL ( UL) TW ( UL )

Where:
Tc
KEc
KEw
TL
Tw
(UL)
(LL)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Calculated time, in seconds, for the tire to absorb the required kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy, in foot pounds, the tire is required to absord during each landing cycle.
Kinetic energy, in foot pounds, of the flywheel at given speed.
Coast down time, in seconds, with rated tire load on flywheel.
Coast down time, in seconds, with no tire load on flywheel.
Subscript for upper speed limit.
Subscript for lower speed limit.

6.2.4.1 Low- speed landings. In the first series of 100 landings, the tire
must be landed against the flywheel with the flywheel having a peripheral speed of not less than
90 mph. The flywheel deceleration must be constant from 90 mph to 0 mph in the time Tc.
6.2.4.2 High-speed landings. In the second series of 100 landings, the tire
must be landed against the flywheel with the flywheel having a peripheral speed of not less than
120 mph. The flywheel deceleration must be constant from 120 mph to 90 mph in the time Tc.
6.3 High-speed tire. Except as provided in the alternate test, a tire operating at ground
speeds greater than 120 mph must be tested on a dynamometer in accordance with paragraph
6.3.3. The curves to be used as a basis for these tests shall be established in accordance with
paragraph 6.3.3.2. The load at the start of each test must be equal to the rated load of the tire.
Alternate tests involving a landing sequence for a tire operating at ground speeds greater than
120 mph and not over 160 mph are set forth in paragraph 6.3.4.
6.3.1 Test temperature. The temperature of the gas contained in the tire or of the
carcass measured at the hottest point of the tire may not be lower than 120F at the start of at
least 90 percent of the test cycles specified in paragraph 6.3.3.4 and at least 105F at the start of
the overload test (6.3.3.3) and of at least 90 percent of the test cycles specified in paragraphs

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TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

6.3.3.2 and 6.3.4. For the remaining 10 percent of each group of cycles, the contained gas or
carcass temperature may not be lower than 80F at the start of each cycle. Rolling the tire on the
dynamometer is acceptable for obtaining the minimum starting temperature.
6.3.2 Dynamometer test speeds. Applicable dynamometer test speeds for
corresponding maximum ground speeds are as follows:
Maximum Ground Speed of
Aircraft, mph
Over
Not Over
120
160
160
190
190
210
210
225
225
235
235
245

Speed Rating of Tire,


mph
160
190
210
225
235
245

Minimum
Dynamometer Speed at
S2, mph
160
190
210
225
235
245

For ground speeds over 245 mph, the tire must be tested to the maximum applicable load-speedtime requirements and appropriately identified with the proper speed rating.
6.3.3 Dynamometer cycles. The test tire must withstand 50 takeoff cycles, 1
overload takeoff cycle, and 10 taxi cycles described below. The sequence of the cycles is
optional.
6.3.3.1 Symbol definitions. The numerical values which are used for the
following symbols must be determined from the applicable aircraft load-speed-time data:
L0
L1
L2
RD
S0
S1
S2
T0
T1
T2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Tire load at start of takeoff, pounds (not less than rated load).
Tire load at rotation, pounds.
Zero tire load (liftoff)
Roll distance, feet.
Zero tire speed.
Tire speed at rotation, mph
Tire speed at liftoff, mph (not less than speed rating).
Start of takeoff.
Time to rotation, seconds.
Time to liftoff, seconds.

6.3.3.2 Takeoff cycles. For these cycles the loads, speeds, and distance
must conform to either Figure 1 or Figure 2. Figure 1 defines a test cycle that is generally
applicable to any aircraft. If Figure 2 is used to define the test cycle, the loads, speeds, and
distance must be selected based on the most critical takeoff conditions established by the
applicant.
6.3.3.3 Overload takeoff cycle. The cycle must duplicate the takeoff
cycles specified under paragraph 6.3.3.2 except that the tire load through the cycle must be

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Appendix 1

9/7/90

increased by a factor of at least 1.5. Upon completion of the overload takeoff cycle, the tire must
be capable of retaining inflation pressure with the loss of pressure not exceeding 10 percent in 24
hours from the initial test pressure. Good condition of the tire tread is not required after
completion of this test cycle.
6.3.3.4 Taxi cycles. The tire must withstand at least 10 taxi cycles on a
dynamometer under the following test conditions:
Number of Test
Cycles

Minimum Tire Load,


lbs.

Minimum Speed,
mph

Minimum Roll Distance,


ft.

8
2

Rated Load.
1.2 times rated load.

40
40

35,000
35,000

6.3.4 Alternative dynamometer tests. For a tire with a speed rating of 160 mph,
test cycles which simulate landing may be used in lieu of the takeoff cycles specified in
paragraphs 6.3.3.2 and 6.3.3.3. The tire must withstand 100 test cycles at rated load in
accordance with paragraph 6.3.4.1 followed by 100 test cycles at rated load in accordance with
paragraph 6.3.4.2.
6.3.4.1 Low-speed landings. In the first series of 100 landings, the test
procedures for low-speed landings established under paragraph 6.2.3 or 6.2.4, as appropriate,
must be followed.
6.3.4.2 High-speed landings. In the second series of 100 landings, the test
procedures for low-speed landings established under paragraph 6.2.3 or 6.2.4, as appropriate,
must be followed, except that the tire must be landed against the flywheel rotating at a speed of
160 mph with the rated load applied for the duration of the test. The unlanding speed must be
adjusted as necessary so that 44 percent of the kinetic energy, as calculated in paragraph 6.2.2, is
absorbed by the tire during the series of tests.
7.0 Requalification tests. A tire shall be requalified unless it is shown that changes in materials,
tire design, or manufacturing processes could not affect performance. Changes in material, tire
design, or manufacturing processes that affect performance or changes in number or location of
tread ribs and grooves or increases in skid depth, made subsequent to the tire qualification, must
be substantiated by dynamometer tests in accordance with paragraph 6.0. Requalification in
accordance with paragraph 6.0 of a given load rated tire required as a result of a tread design or
material change will automatically qualify the same changes in a lesser load rated tire of the
same size, speed rating, and skid depth provided -7.1 The lesser load rated tire has been qualified to the applicable requirements specified
in this standard; and
7.2 The ratio of qualification testing load to rated load for the lesser load rated tire does
not exceed the same ratio for the higher load rated tire at any given test condition.

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TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

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TSO-C62d
Appendix 1

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Advisory
Circular
Subject: Inspection, Retread,
Repair, and Alterations of
Aircraft Tires

Date: 7/10/06
AC No: 145-4A
Initiated by: AFS-309

1. PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the development,
qualification, and approval of bias and radial aircraft tire retreads, their repair and process
specifications, and the use of special nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques. This material
is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation. It describes
acceptable means, but not the only means, for developing specifications to be submitted to the
proper Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) office for approval. The FAA will consider other
methods of demonstrating compliance that an applicant may elect to present. Terms such as
shall and must are used only in the sense of ensuring applicability of this particular method
of compliance when the methods of compliance described in this document are used.
2. CANCELLATION. AC 145-4, Inspection, Retread, Repair, and Alterations of Aircraft
Tires, dated September 27, 1982, is canceled.
3. RELATED REGULATIONS AND REFERENCES (current editions).
a. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
(1) Part 21, Subpart O, Technical Standard Order Authorizations.
(2) Part 23, Airworthiness Standards: Normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter
category airplanes.
(3) Part 25, Airworthiness Standards: Transport category airplanes.
(4) Part 27, Airworthiness Standards: Normal category rotorcraft.
(5) Part 29, Airworthiness Standards: Transport category rotorcraft.
(6) Part 43, Maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration.
(7) Part 145, Repair stations.
b. AC. AC 20-97, Aircraft Tire Maintenance and Operational Practices.

AC 145-4A

7/10/06

c. Technical Standard Order (TSO). TSO-C62, Tires.


d. Industry Documents.
(1) ARP 4834, Aircraft Tire Retreading PracticeBias and Radial.
(2) AS 4833, Aircraft New Tire StandardBias and Radial.
(3) TRA, Tire and Rim Association Aircraft Yearbook.
(4) ETRTO, European Tire and Rim Technical Organization Standards Manual.
4. DEFINITIONS.
a. Retreading. The term retreading refers to the methods of restoring a worn tire by
renewing the tread area or by renewing the tread area plus one or both sidewalls. Repairs are
included in the tire retreading process.
b. Specification. Documents approved by the Administrator containing information for
performing specialized maintenance, such as retreading of tires.
NOTE: Repair stations with limited ratings for specialized services are required
under part 145, 145.61(c) to include a specification on their operations
specifications.
c. Retread Level (R-Level) Escalation. R-level escalation is the process used to verify that
a population of retreaded tires is suitable for an additional service life.
d. Load Rating. Load rating is the maximum permissible load at a specific inflation
pressure. The rated load combined with the rated inflation pressure will be used when selecting
tires for application to an aircraft and for testing to the performance requirements of this
document.
e. Ply Rating. This term is used to identify the maximum recommended load rating and
inflation pressure for a specified tire. It is an index of tire strength.
f. Speed Rating. The speed rating is the maximum takeoff speed to which the tire has been
tested.
g. Bias Tire. A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords extend to the beads and are laid at
alternate angles substantially less than 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread.
h. Radial Tire. A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords extend to the beads and are laid
substantially at 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread, the casing being stabilized by an
essentially inextensible circumferential belt.
i. Casing. The casing is the structural part of the tire.
j. Compatible Casing. A compatible casing for retreading is one capable of passing all
retreader acceptance criteria for that size, ply rating, and speed rating.
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AC 145-4A

k. Skid Depth. The distance between the tread surface and the deepest groove as measured
in the mold.
l. Maximum Outside Diameter (D0). For the bias tire, it is the maximum new (ungrown)
diameter along the centerline of the tire as denoted in TRA and ETRTO. For the radial tire, it is
the maximum new (ungrown) diameter of its bias tire equivalent.
5. BACKGROUND. In parallel with the introduction and installation of new radial tire designs
on the U.S. civil aircraft fleet, the FAA initiated a project to update appropriate safety standards
and advisory support material. This includes revisions to TSO-C62, AC 145-4, and AC 20-97.
The retreaders quality and escalation plans are based in part on the manner in which the airline
operator maintains the retread tire in service. The long term integrity and reliability of the
retread tire is significantly influenced by the inflation pressure schedule, the frequency of tire
pressure checks, and the identification of tire removal conditions that may impact the continued
airworthiness of the tire. This revision will ensure that repair stations which retread bias and/or
radial tires, and aircraft operators who use these tires, have proper guidance which assures the
continued performance of a tire through testing, as originally approved under the TSO (and
requirements under part 43, 43.13), and provides the basis for the development of a
specification covering the inspection, retread, and repair of tires, as set forth under part 145.
6. SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS.
a. Title 14 CFR Requirements.
(1) Repair Station. A repair station that is certificated to retread aircraft tires is
required by 145.61(c). to perform that work in accordance with a specification approved by the
FAA or in accordance with an operators manual as outlined in 43.13(c).
(2) Operator. A holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an operator with a
14 CFR part 125 operating certificate may adopt a retreading agencys approved specification
and include it as a part of its manual as outlined in 14 CFR part 121, 125, or 135.
b. Specification Requirements. The retreader of bias or radial aircraft tires is required to
establish maintenance and repair practices, including special nondestructive inspection
techniques and retreading procedures. These practices could be techniques defined, developed,
and validated by the retreader and approved by the FAA or from information provided by the tire
manufacturer. The minimum requirements and issues to be addressed for a specification that
would be developed and submitted for FAA approval by a repair station and retreader are
identified within this document.
c. Applicability. For retreading bias and radial aircraft tires manufactured under TSO-C62,
a specification and requirements defined here shall be developed and complied with by the repair
station and retreader for all repaired and retreaded tires after the effective date of this AC. Bias
tires that were manufactured to prior TSO standards may be repaired in accordance with
maintenance instructions identified under AC 145-4, dated September 27, 1982. However,
further escalation of these existing tires should comply with the escalation of these requirements.

7. MARKING.
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AC 145-4A

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a. Retread Identification. The following minimum information must appear in permanent


markings between the wearing surface and the edge of the newly applied rubber.
(1) The retreaders name or registered trademark.
(2) The retread plant identification code.
(3) The month and year the retread was performed.
(4) The letter R followed by the number of times the casing has been retreaded.
b. Casing Identification. Retread processing may destroy some or all of the casing
identification. The following information must be restored if removed during retreading:
(1) Airworthiness compliance markings (only restore at the direction of the original
casing manufacturer);
(2) Size and load rating;
(3) Casing manufacturers name or trademark;
(4) Ply rating;
(5) Casing manufacturers plant code;
(6) Date of manufacture;
(7) Serial number;
(8) Speed rating;
(9) Casing manufacturers part number; and
(10) Tire type. Tires requiring a tube in their operation shall be marked with the words
Tube Type.
c. Regrading Procedure.
(1) The ply rating, load rating, and/or speed rating on either the casing or the retread may
be decreased without approval. All performance and qualification parameters under the new
rating must be met.
(2) If the ply rating, load rating, and speed rating markings of the casing do not agree
with the retread qualification status, they must be buffed off and the correct markings applied.
(3) The casing manufacturers part number must not be altered without the original
casing manufacturers approval.
(4) Any upgrading in the speed rating or load rating, or any change in the tire size from
the qualified new tire size will be considered a new product.
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AC 145-4A

d. Marking Maximum Cut Limit Repairs. Casings containing maximum allowable cut
limit repairs in the tread area should be identified with a sidewall brand in line with the repair.
The guidelines and conditions under which this brand is applied should be specified in the
retreaders specification.
8. CASING SELECTION. The new tire casing must be approved by the FAA. Unless
otherwise restricted by the tire manufacturer or FAA, any eligible tire may be retreaded provided
it meets the inspection and defect limitation criteria, and has met the R-level escalation
inspection and test criteria established in the FAA-certificated repair station and the retreaders
FAA-approved specification.
a. Inspection. The following are commonly available NDI techniques that should be used
when necessary and as specified in this document.
(1) Visual. All tires should be visually inspected in the tread, sidewall, bead, and liner
areas for conditions that need repair or which require that the tire be scrapped.
(2) Air Injection. Tubeless tires may be air injected with a dry filtered gas (e.g., air or
nitrogen) to inspect the casing for proper venting, separations, bead and liner condition, etc.
(3) NDI. Holography, shearography, ultrasonic, X-ray, and other NDI methods should
be used as necessary and where applicable.
b. Disposition of Tire Casings.
(1) Acceptable Casings. Tires which meet the acceptable limits for repair listed in the
FAA-approved retreaders specification may be repaired/retreaded and returned to service.
(2) Unacceptable Casings. Tires that fail the acceptable limits for repair listed in the
retreaders specification should be rejected from further aircraft use. Casings not returned to the
customer should have all airworthiness compliance markings removed. Removal of the serial
number is at the discretion of the retreader. Further, the casing should be marked in a
conspicuous manner indicating the casing is not suitable for aircraft use.
9. REPAIR PROCESS. Repairs are permitted if the anomaly (i.e., damage or fatigue) does not
exceed limitations specified by the tire manufacturer or the rejection criteria identified in the
repair station and retreaders specification, as approved by the FAA. Maximum permissible
repairs identified in the process specification shall be validated by tests and/or analysis for FAA
approval before returning to service. The specification shall include each of the repair types for
bias and radial tires, as identified in the Appendix 1, and additional repairs identified by the
retreader.
10. RETREADING PROCESS. The retreading process includes removal of old material,
renewing the tread area, and curing and bonding of the new material to the casing. A retreading
process identified by the repair station and retreader must be provided in the specification for
approval by the FAA. Provisions should be included that assure that the retreaded tire weight
will not exceed the maximum allowable weight (where it has been determined by the landing
gear or airframe requirements established by the aircraft manufacturer).

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AC 145-4A

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11. QUALIFICATION TESTING.


a. General.
(1) The test procedures described herein are intended to ensure compatibility between
the original tire casing and newly applied retread. This qualification test is required with the first
(R-1) application of a new tread and as otherwise specified in this AC. The retread should not
fail the applicable dynamometer tests specified herein nor have any signs of structural
deterioration other than normal expected tread wear except when the overload takeoff cycle is
run last (see paragraph 11b below). Casings selected for retread tests should have at least
80 percent of their new molded tire skid depth removed by wear (i.e., worn by aircraft usage).
(2) Design and construction differences between radial tires of different manufacturers
dictate that retread dynamometer testing be conducted on one sample of each manufacturers
radial tire casing at the first (R-1) application of a new tread. Qualification of bias tire retreads
on a single manufacturers casing qualifies the retread on other manufacturers compatible
casings of the same size, ply rating and speed rating.
b. Dynamometer Test Cycles. The retread test tire shall satisfactorily withstand
61-dynamometer cycles as specified in TSO-C62 , as a demonstration of overall performance.
The 61-dynamometer cycles shall consist of 50-takeoff cycles, 8-taxi cycles at rated load, 2-taxi
cycles at 1.2 times rated load, and 1-overload takeoff cycle starting at 1.5 times rated load. Good
condition of the tire tread is not required after completion of the overload takeoff cycle if it is run
last. The sequence of the cycles is optional. However, if the overload takeoff cycle is not run
last, the tire must not show detectable signs of deterioration after the cycle completion, other
than normal expected tread surface abrasion. A single tire specimen must be used to complete
these cycles.
c. Requalification Tests. A retread tire that has been altered, and which has changes in
materials, design and/or manufacturing processes that could adversely affect the performance and
reliability of the tire, shall be requalified to the dynamometer tests described in paragraph 11b
regardless of the escalation level. Examples of such changes include, but are not limited to,
changes in tread construction, such as the number or composition of tread reinforcing and/or
protector plies, tread compound formulation, number and location of tread grooves, and increases
in skid depth and/or tread gauge. Requalification by similarity, as discussed in paragraphs (1) and
(2) below, applies to all bias tires that are compatible with the new tread design and/or material
change. However, requalification by similarity for radial tires only applies to tires of comparable
design by a single manufacturer. Requalification by similarity is not allowed for radial tires from
different manufacturers.
(1) Requalification by Similarity (Based on Load Rating). Requalification of a given
load rated retreaded tire required as a result of a tread design or material change will
automatically qualify the same changes in a lesser load rated retreaded tire of the same size,
speed rating, and skid depth provided the lesser load rated retreaded tire has been qualified to the
applicable requirements specified in this standard.

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AC 145-4A

(2) Requalification by Similarity (Blanket Change). Requalification of any change


that affects multiple sizes may be made by similarity providing that:
(a) Five representative sizes, including tires of the highest load, speed rating, and
angular velocity, have been qualified to the minimum performance standard with the change.
(b) The data in support of the change in the listed sizes should be submitted to and
approved by the appropriate FAA office.
d. Overpressure. A retreaded tire, processed in a manner similar to the example tested on
the dynamometer, shall successfully withstand a hydrostatic pressure of three times its rated
pressure for 3 seconds without failure. The tire used to do the dynamometer qualification testing
may be used if desired.
e. Tire/Rim Slippage. Slippage of the tire on the rim during dynamometer testing must
not damage the tube valve of tube type tires, or the gas seal of the tire bead of tubeless tires.
12. RETREAD TIRE DIMENSIONS. The tire dimensional envelope for a given tire size
should be within industry accepted practices (e.g., TRA or ETRTO guidelines). When inflated
to its rated inflation pressure and allowed to stretch for 12 hours, the tire should not exceed a
grown tire dimensional envelope.
13. RETREAD BALANCE. All tires must be tested for static unbalance.
a. Auxiliary Tires.
(1) The moment of static unbalance (M) for auxiliary tires shall not be greater than the
value determined by Eq. 1.
Equation 1.

M = 0.025 D02

(2) Computed Eq. 1 values must be rounded off to the next lower whole number where
M is in inch/ounces and D0 is the standardized maximum outside diameter in inches. Tires
outside the limits must be corrected for balance before entering service.
b. Main Tires.
(1) The moment of M for main tires shall not be greater than the value determined by
Eq. 2.
Equation 2.

M = 0.035 D02

(2) Computed Eq. 2 values must be rounded off to the next lower whole number where
M is in inch/ounces and D0 is the standardized maximum outside diameter in inches. Tires
outside the limits must be corrected for balance before entering service.
14. INFLATION RETENTION. The pressure retention of the tire must be confirmed in
accordance with TSO-C62.
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AC 145-4A

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15. RETREAD ESCALATION.


a. The wide variation in tire operating environments, which affects the individual casing
life, makes it inadvisable to arbitrarily specify the maximum number of times a tire should be
retreaded. The number of times a tire can be retreaded should be controlled by an inspection and
test system based on the retreaders reliability program and the use of nondestructive
interferometric (shearography) tire inspection. This procedure is applicable to both bias and
radial ply tires.
b. Following successful qualification of retreaded tires at the first retread level by size/ply
rating/speed rating, and before entering into service tires of the first or subsequent R-levels, each
part number should be escalated in accordance with the retread manufacturer's escalation plan.
Each plan should be submitted to and approved by the FAA.
16. RETREAD RELIABILITY SYSTEM.
a. The Retread Reliability Program should monitor the in-service reliability of the retreaded
aircraft tires. The reliability control system, to be consistent with the requirements of the aircraft
it supports, should consist of a means to recognize a repetitive in-service issue, determine what
plan of action would be needed to address this issue, and follow up on the action taken to remedy
the issue.
b. The corrective action taken depends on the results of the data collection and analysis.
The corrective action should result in the identified tire issue being reduced within a reasonable
timeframe.

Original signed by Carol Giles for


James J. Ballough
Director, Flight Standards Service

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AC 145-4A
Appendix 1
APPENDIX 1. PROCESS SPECIFICATION
REPAIR GUIDELINES AND FATIGUE ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS

As qualification for returning a repaired tire into service, each retreader must define and
validate the maximum repair limits for the retreaded tire. These repair limits must be included in
the specification developed by the repair station and retreader for FAA approval. As a
minimum, the allowable damage criteria should be identified for following tire areas (if
applicable) and any other tire region where damage can affect the continued tire airworthiness:

Tread area

Sidewall

Bead area

Bead seal

Bead face and bead heel

Bead toe

Chafer strip

Innerliner

Areas with exposed cord

To ensure the continued airworthiness of aging casings, each retreader must define and
validate a process to assess casing fatigue as part of the retread escalation process. The process
to assess fatigue may include static and dynamic tire testing, material testing, and special NDI as
described in paragraph 7a(3), and analysis. The process specification should identify the tires
most critical fatigue zone(s), the test method(s) to be applied, and the fatigue limits requiring the
actions defined in paragraph 15.

Page 1 (and 2)