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DE-SUGGESTOPEDIA
De-suggestopedia is one of these humanistic methods developed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist educator Georgi Lozanov in 1979.
Although it was originally used as a general teaching method in Bulgaria later de-suggestopedia was
used for some adults who had the prejudice that they are unable to perform learning a foreign language
Language teaching is not just about teaching language, but it is also about helping students to
develop themselves as people.
According to him, the reason why we are inefficient is that we set up some psychological barriers to
learning such as the fear of being unable to perform or the fear that we will be limited or we will
fail.
We do not use the full mental power that we have.
The amount of capacity that we use is not more than five to ten per cent of its full capacity.
In order to make better use of our mental reserves, we have to de-suggest the limitations we think we
have
Encouragement of positive feelings are seen to be as important as their learning of a language
De-suggestopedia deals with the systematic study of non-rational or non-conscious influences that
human beings are constantly responding.
Within different mental states from sleeping state to anxious state of mind, Lozanov believes that most
learning takes place in a relaxed but focused state. This state might be called aware-alert state, and it
is claimed that this will lead to super-learning.
Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. For that reason classrooms where desuggestopedia is used should be bright, colorful and comfortable.
Students can learn from what is present in the environment, even if their attention is not directed to it
(peripheral learning). Posters hanging around the classroom might contain useful information.
Lozanov believes that de-suggestopedia can accelerate the learning 25 times in comparison with
conventional methods.
The teacher should recognize that learners bring certain psychological barriers with them to the
learning situation. S/he should attempt to de-suggest these barriers.
The teacher should give the students the impression that learning the target language will be easy
and enjoyable.
If students trust and respect the teacher's authority, they will accept and retain information
better. The teacher should speak confidently.
It is claimed that people make some associations between the fluency and accuracy of the
language they speak and their personality. If your language use is not satisfactory than this case
might undervalue your personality.
The students choose new names and identities. A new identity enhances students' feeling of
security and allows them to be more open. They feel less inhibited since their performance is really
that of a different person.
Special dialogs are used. In the left column the dialog is in the target language, and in the right column
it is in the native language translation.
Classical paintings are used throughout the dialog texts because fine arts provide positive suggestions
for the learners.
They play music. Songs are useful for 'freeing the speech muscles' and evoking positive emotions
The teacher reads the dialog with a musical accompaniment. S/he matches his/her voice to the rhythm
and intonation of the music.
Communication takes place on 'two planes': on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the
other are factors which influence the linguistic message.

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On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music
suggests that learning is easy and pleasant.
When there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced.
The teacher reads the script a second time as the students listen. This is done with different music. A
calm state, (as listening to a concert), is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers and for taking
advantage of learning potential.
For students, dramatization is valuable way of expressing themselves.
The teacher and students play a question-and answer game
QUESTIONS
What are the goals of teachers who use de-suggestopedia?
Teachers try to accelerate the learning process by de suggesting the psychological barriers learners
bring with them to the learning situation and using techniques to activate the 'para conscious' part of
the mind, just below the fully-conscious mind.
What is the role of the teacher?
The teacher is the authority in the classroom.
What is the role of the students?
The students must trust and respect the teacher.
Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, they can be more
spontaneous and less inhibited.
What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Classroom is bright and cheerful. There are posters displaying grammatical information about the
target language in order to take advantage of students peripheral learning.
Students select target language names and choose new occupations.
The texts are handouts containing lengthy dialogs (as many as 800 words) in the target language. Next
to the dialog is a translation in the students' native Language.
There are also some notes on vocabulary and grammar which correspond to bold- faced items in the
dialog.
The teacher presents the dialog during two concerts which forms the first major phase (the receptive
phase).
In the first concert (the active concert) the teacher reads the dialog, matching her voice to the rhythm
and pitch of the music.
In this way, the 'whole brain' (both the Left and the right hemispheres) of the students become
activated. The students follow the target Language dialog as the teacher reads it out loud. They also
check the translation.
During the second concert (the passive concert), the students listen calmly while the teacher reads the
dialog at a normal rate of speed.
For homework the students read over the dialog just before they go to sleep, and again when they get
up the next morning.
What follows is the second major phase (the activation phase), in which students engage in various
activities designed to help
them gain facility with the new material. The activities include dramatizations, games, songs, and
question-and-answer exercises.
What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?
The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students and with individuals from the
beginning.
What is the nature of student-student interaction?
When students have more control over the target language, they can initiate interaction among
themselves.

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How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
A great deal of attention is given to students feelings.
One of the fundamental principles of the method is that If students are relaxed and confident, language
learning will just come naturally.
How is language viewed?
Language is the first component of communication that takes place in two planes.
Plane 1: Linguistic code
Plane 2: The other factors that influence the linguistic message. (The way one dresses or the nonverbal
behavior one uses affects how one's linguistic message is interpreted)
How is culture viewed?
The view of culture is the everyday life of people who speak the language.
The use of the fine arts is also important
What areas of language are emphasized?
Vocabulary is emphasized.
Grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally.
It is believed that students will learn best if their conscious attention is focused not on the language
forms, but on using the language.
What language skills are emphasized?
Speaking communicatively is emphasized.
Students also read in the target language (for example, dialogs) and write (for example, imaginative
compositions).
What is the role of the students' native language?
Native language translation is used to clarify the meaning. The teacher also uses the native Language
in class when necessary.
As the course proceeds, the teacher uses the native language less and less.
How is evaluation accomplished?
Formal tests are never used, because such tests will threaten the relaxed atmosphere of the classroom.
Evaluation is conducted on students' normal in-class performance.
How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Errors are corrected gently with the teachers soft voice.
THE TECHNIQUES
Classroom set-up
We need a classroom environment which is bright and cheerful.
This can be accomplished by decorating the walls with scenes from a country where the target
language is spoken. Comfortable arm chairs, dim light, soft music are the other aspects of the
environment.
Peripheral learning
This is based upon the idea that we perceive much more in our environment than that to which we
consciously attend.
It is claimed that, by putting posters containing grammatical information about the target language on
the classroom walls, students will absorb the necessary facts effortlessly.
The teacher may or may not call attention to the posters.

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Positive suggestion
Teacher should help students break down the barriers to learning that they bring with them.
It is the teacher's responsibility to manage the suggestive factors in a learning situation.
Teachers can do this directly or indirectly.
Telling or persuading students that they will be successful is the example of direct way.
Using texts including stories of successful people is the example of indirect way.
Choose a new identity
The students choose a target language name and a new occupation. As the course continues, the
students
have an opportunity to develop a whole biography about their fictional selves.
Role play
Students are asked to pretend temporarily that they are someone else and to perform in the target
language as if they were that person.
First concert (active concert)
The two concerts are components of the receptive phase of the lesson.
The teacher first introduces the story then s/he calls students' attention to some particular grammatical
points.
Later, teacher reads the dialogue in L2, students follow.
Classical music is played.
After a few minutes, the teacher begins a slow, dramatic reading, synchronized in intonation with the
music. The teacher's voice rises and falls with the music.
Second concert (passive concert)
The students are asked to put their scripts aside. They simply listen as the teacher reads the dialog at a
normal rate of speed. The teacher is seated and reads with musical accompaniment.
Primary activation
The students playfully re-read the target language dialog out loud, as individuals or in groups. Students
try to read parts of the dialog in particular manners: sadly, angrily, and cheerfully.
Creative adaptation
The students engage in various activates such as singing, dancing, dramatizations, and games. In these
activities, students do not focus on the form of the linguistic message, just the communicative purpose.