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Handover Types

Presented By:

Nouman Ali, Mohsin


Ehsan, Mohsin Ashraf
RF Department
Internee

What is Handover?

As the MS1 moves, it is quite possible that it reaches to


the edge of the cell, this is a point at which the Radio
signals are too weak to continue the call.
There is probably another cell neighboring onto this cell,
but this cell uses different frequency and knows nothing
about MS1.
The mechanism which allows mobile to move from current
cell to neighboring cell is called handovers.

Why we need Handover?

To keep a continuous communication with a


moving MS.
To reduce the call drop rate.

Intra BSC HO Process

First current MS send the measurement reports to BTS


in uplink, RX Quality, RX Level, BSIC, DTX used or not
in serving cell.
BTS (original cell) will forward this measurement report
to BSC.
BSC will send the Channel activation command to the
BTS (Target cell).
BTS (Target cell) will send the channel activation
acknowledgment message to the BSC.
BSC sends the HO command to the BTS (original cell).
BTS (Target Cell) will forward this message to the MS on
FACCH.
MS will send the HO Access Command to the BTS
(Original Cell) on FACCH.

Intra BSC HO Process

BTS (Original cell) forwards the HO complete message


to the BSC.
BSC will release the connection from BTS (Original cell)
and connect BTS (Target Cell)

Network Elements Involved in HO


Process

MS Responsible for measurement report of the


serving cell and neighboring cells.
BTS Responsible for monitoring of uplink received
level and quality of each served MS.
BSC Processing the measurement report and making
handover judgment.
MSC Participating in the confirmation of target cell in
inter-BSC handover.

Handover Types

PBGT Handover
Rx Level Handover (UL and DL)
Rx Quality Handover (UL and DL)
TA Handover
Direct Retry Handover

PBGT Handover

PBGT handover algorithm is based on path loss. It seeks


a cell with lower path loss and meeting certain system
requirements, and judges whether its necessary to
perform handover.

When there is a difference of 4dBm between serving and


neighboring cells, then serving cell gives handover to the
neighboring cell, it means that the PBGT HO threshold is
set to 68 and the reference point is 64.
The reference value for Urban Ares is 68 & for the Rural
areas is 70 to 72.
Reducing PBGT HO Threshold makes the PBGT
handover more accessible. If the PBGT HO Threshold is
set to an excessively smaller value, ping-pong handover
may easily occur.

Cell B

Rx Level of Cell B is 56 dBm

Cell A

Rx Level of Cell A is 60 dBm

RX Level HO

If downlink level is worse then HO Thresholds


Lev DL parameter, then an immediate level
handover takes place. This parameter is set to
95dBm as default.
If uplink level is worse then HO Thresholds Lev
UL parameter, then an immediate level
handover takes place. This parameter is set to
105dBm as default.

RX Quality HO

If downlink quality is worse then HO Thresholds


Quality DL parameter, then an immediate quality
handover takes place.
If uplink quality is worse then HO Thresholds
Quality UL parameter, then an immediate quality
handover takes place.
Default RX Quality threshold value is 3.2%-6.4%
for both UL and DL.

Directed Retry HO

When no TCH is available in the serving cell,


TCH can be allocated in an adjacent cell.
It is basically handover from SDCCH to TCH.

TA HO
This is performed on the basis of a
distance of a mobile from BTS.
This parameter is set to 63 as default

TA=63