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Cement Types Acicular: Needle-like crystals, growing normal to the substrate. Crystals elongated parallel to the c-axis, exhibiting straight extinction. Terminations are pointed or chisel-shaped, twinning is common. Width < 10 um, length about 100 um and more. Often forming isopachous crusts. Predominantly aragonite, but also Mg-calcite. Marine phreatic. Pl. 31/2, Pl. 34/1 Fibrous: Fibrous crystals, growing normal to the substrate. Crystals show a significant length | elongation, usually parallel to the c-axis. Crystal shape is needle-like or columnar (length to width ratio > 6:1, width > 10 yn). Size commonly fine to medium crystalline. Often forming isopachous crusts; common in inter- and intraparticle pores. Aragonite or High-Mg calcite. Mostly marine- phreatic, but also meteoric-vadose and marine-vadose (columnar crystal shape). Syn.: Radial fibrous. PI. 2/4, Pl. 31/1-2, Pl. 32/1-4, Pl, 50/6. Botryoidal: Pore-filing cement made of individual and coalescent mamelons exhibiting discon. tinuous horizons, e.g. dust lines ranging in size from tens of microns to several centimeters. The cement consists of individual and compound fans, which in turn are composed of elongated euhedral fibers with a characteristic sweeping extinction in cross-polarized light. Aragonite. Usu- ally marine (common in cavities of reefs and steep seaward slopes), but also known from burial environments. Syn.: Spherulitic. Pl. 145/1-3. Radiaxial fibrous: Large, often cloudy and turbid, inclusion-rich calcite crystals with undulose extinction. Size medium to coarse crystalline. Sometimes extending several millimeters in length, usually about 30 to 300 um. Crystal lengthwidth ratio 1:3 to 1:10. Crystals show a patter of subcrystal units. Within each subcrystal that diverges away from the substrate an opposing pat tern of distally-convergent optic axes occurs, caused by a curvature of cleavage and twin lamet lae. Undulose extinction of subcrystals or subcrystal units are used in distinguishing three rad axial subtypes (see text). Often forming isopachous crusts. Phreatic-marine and burial, Pl. 27/2 PI. 34/2; Fig. 7.9, Dog tooth: Sharply pointed acute calcite crystals of elongated scalenohedral or rhombohedral form, growing normal and subnormal to the substrate (grain surtaces, atop earlier cements). | Crystals are a few tens to a few hundred micrometers long and have acute and sometimes | blunted terminations. Often meteoric and shallow-burial but also marine-phreatic and hydrother mal. Syn.: Bladed scalenohedral cement, bladed prismatic calcite cement, dentate cement, sealenohedral calcite cement. PI. 2/3, Pl. 31/5-6, Pl. 34/8. Bladed: Crystals that are not equidimensional and not fibrous. They correspond to elongate crystals somewhat wider than fibrous crystals (lengthiwidth ratio between 1.5:1 to 6:1) and ex hibiting broad flattened and pyramid-like terminations. Crystal size up to 10 wm in width and between less than 20 and more than 100 ym in length. Crystals increase in width along their length. Commonly forming thin isopachous fringes on grains. Usually High-Mg calcite but also aragonite. Marine-phreatic (abundant in shallow-marine settings) and marine-vadose. PI. 33/1 3, 5, 8; Pl, 34/7. Dripstone: Pendant cement characterized by distinct thickening of cement crusts beneath grains of under the roofs of intergranular and solution voids. The cement forms on droplets beneath grains after the bulk of the mobile water has drained out of the pores, leaving a thicker water fm at the lower surface of the grains, Forms typically gravitational, beard-like patterns. Predom nantly calcite. Formed below the zone of capillarity and above the water table within the mete oric-vadose zone (often associated with meniscus cement), but also in the meteoric-phreatic and sporadically in marine-vadose diagenetic environments (e.g. inter- and supratidal, and beach rocks: aragonitic dripstone cement). Syn.: Gravitational cement, microstalactitic cement, micro: stalacttic druse cement, stalactitic cement. Pl. 34/6, Pl. 126/1 Meniscus: Calcite cement precipitated in meniscus style at or near grain-to-grain contacts in pores containing both air and water. Exhibits a curved surface below grains. Resulting inter- granular pores have a rounded appearance due to the meniscus effect. Characteristically formed in the meteoric-vadose zone but may also occur in the phreatic-meteoric and the vadose-marine environment (beachrock). Pl. 14/1, Pl. 32/5-6, PI. 33/4, Pl. 126/1 Drusy: Void-tiling and pore-lining cement in intergranular and intraskeletal pores, molds and fractures, characterized by equant to elongated, anhedral to subhedral non-ferroan calcite crys tals. Size usually >10 um. Size increases toward the center of the void. Displays a characteristic | fabric (see Fig. 7.12). Near-surlace meteoric as well as burial environments. Syn.: Drusy calcite spar mosaic, drusy equant calcite mosaic. Pl. 10/2. 7.8. Cement types. Part | Cement types Granular: Calcite cement consisting of relatively equidimensional pore-filing small crystals. Common in interparticle pores, generally without distinct substrate control. Formed in meteoric- vadose, meteoric-phreatic and burial environments. Can also originate from recrystallization of pre-existing cements. Pl. 10/2 Blocky: Calcite cement consisting of medium to coarse-grained crystals without a preferred orientation. Characterized by variously sized crystals (tens of microns to several millimeters), often showing distinct crystal boundaries. Xenotopic and hypidiotopic crystal fabrics common, High-Mg calcite or Low-Mg calcite. Typically in meteoric (meteoric phreatic and vadose) and burial environments; rare in marine hardgrounds and reets. Precipitated after the dissolution of aragonite cements or grains or as late diagenetic cement filing remaining pore space. Blocky textures can also originate from recrystallization of pre-existing cements. Pl. 20/1, Pl. 28/2, Pl. 34/1 ‘Syntaxial calcite overgrowth cement: Substrate-controlled overgrowth around a host grain made by a single crystal (usually High-Mg calcitic echinoderm fragments). Overgrowth often in crystallographic lattice continuity with the host grain. Echinoderm overgrowth is often zoned. Color differences between the skeletal grain and the overgrowth cement can be conspicuous, Overgrowth cements from near-surface marine, vadose-marine and meteoric-phreatic environ- ments are inclusion-rich and cloudy, in contrast to clear overgrowth from deep burial environ- ments Syn.: Grain overgrowth cement, syntaxial echinoderm cement, syntaxial cement rim, syntaxial overgrowth rim cement. Pl. 31/3-4, Pl. 34/9-4, PI.144/5; Fig. 7.10. Peloidal microcrystalline cement: Characterized by a peloidal (or pelleted) fabric composed of tiny peloids (size <100 um) within a microcrystalline calcite matrix. The peloids consist of mmicrite-sized crystals bearing a radiating halo. Shallow-marine. Common in modern and ancient reefs. Possible interpretations: Chemical and/or microbially induced precipitation (Sect. 4.2.2) PL8S Microcrystalline or micrite cement: Micron-sized curved rhombic crystals. Forms thin coat- ings around grains, lines intraskeletal pores, fils pores completely or constructs bridges be: tween grains (contributing to meniscus cement). Mg-calcite. Micritic cement fringes should be distinguished trom micrite envelopes (Sect. 4.2.3). Otten associated with peloidal cements, Pl. 31/ 3-4, Pl, 32/1-4, Pl, 33/2, Cement types. Part 2. (Cement rims around grains (symmetrical cements) Cs Isopachous: Characterized by single ‘or multiple cement rims growing with equal thickness around grains. The bladed, or microcrystalline crystals. Thickness of the rim within the range of tens of microns to several millimeters. Common in marine-phreatic and marine- vadose environments. Circumgranular: Characterized by a cement rim around grains, consisting of equidimensional crystals forming the first generation of pore-tining cements. The rim is commonly thinner than isopachous cement rims. Meteoric phreatic environment (Cement rims restricted to the underside of grains and void roots (asymmetrical cements) Gravitational: Pendant beard-like ce- iments (A) beneath grains. Often asso- ciated with bridging cements (B, me- niscus cement) which connect adjacent grains. Gravitational and bridging ce- ments (crossing pores and connecting are irregularly distributed and absent in many pores. Mete- oric-vadose, meteoric-phreatic and marine-vadose environ- ments, Large cement structures exhibiting geometrical patterns Crusts: Milimeter- to centimeter thick crusts consisting of calcite cements (f- brous, radiaxial fibrous, microcrystal- line) growing on extended substrates (eg. pore walls, hardgrounds, shells). Cement crusts may Consist of one or more growth zones and may display inter- nal differentiations (e.g. alternating crusts formed by fibrous or radiaxial cements and festooned cellular crusts). Marine and meteoric environments. Chevron crusts, characterized by V- and inverted V-shape patterns, may sometimes be ‘caused by neomorphic processes. ‘Splays: Fan-like structure consist- ing of fibrous outward spreading we calcite crystals. The structures may ‘occur isolated or within marine cement crusts. Botryoids: Complex structures ‘consisting of various dome-shaped = = hemispheres built by radiating fi- brous calcite (originally aragonite) crystals and crystal fans. Formed on free surfaces as well as in marine cavities. Drusy mosaic: Characterized by ore-filing calcite crystals increas: % oe with compromise boundaries (plane intererystalline boundaries generated by two crystals grow: Pore-tiling cement mosaics ing in size toward the center of in- terpanticle pores or voids. Crystals ing alongside each other). Burial and near-surface meteoric environments. Equant mosaic: Characterized by small pore-fling calcite crystals of approximately equal size. Subhe- ral and anhedral crystals with well developed boundary faces. Granular mosaic: Characterized by small pore-filing calcite crystals without a preferred orientation and rno substrate control. Meteor: dose, meteoric-phreatic and burial environments. Syntaxial echinoderm over- growth: Fabric characterized by the dominance of syntaxial calcite ce- ment, formed as overgrowth usually on echinoderm skeletal grains within the sediment. In many places in op- tical continuity with a substrate of the same mineralogy.Vadose, meteoric-phreatic, and burial en- vironments, Fig. 7.12. Cement fabri