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Alyson Smoot

1/6/15
Period 4A
Pig Lab Questions
C. Respiratory System and Endocrine System
1. Why is it necessary for the trachea to have rings of cartilage in its walls?
It is necessary for the trachea to have rings of cartilage in its wall for the structure, shape
and function.
2. What is the purpose of the hormone thyroxine, which is produced by the thyroid
gland?
Development and growth is the purpose of the hormone thyroxine, and this is produced
by the thyroid gland.
3. Why do the lungs have a large number of blood vessels?
The lungs have a large number of blood vessels because there is more surface area, so
more oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers.
4. Explain what must happen for the lungs to expand, allowing you to inhale.
Pressure change inside chest cavity, the diaphragm contracts and changing the pressure
then filling the lungs with air.
5. Why is it necessary to close the opening of a puncture wound in the chest?
It is necessary to close the opening of a puncture wound in the chest, so there isnt any
unnecessary bleeding and so microbes doesnt enter the body.
D. Circulatory System
1. What is the purpose of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart in mammals?
The purpose of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart in mammals is to protect the
organs, and it contains pericardial fluids which reduces frictions.
2. Why do arteries have an interior ring of smooth muscle?
Arteries have an interior ring of smooth muscle so it can expand and contract so it can
make blood flow.
3. Which arteries sometimes become blocked in a human and are then bypassed
by using veins from the patient's legs?
Coronary arteries are the one that sometimes become blocked in a human and are the
bypassed by using veins from the patients legs.
4. What are the two major veins of the pig's heart that return deoxygenated blood
from the body?
Superior and inferior venacavae are the two major veins of the pigs heart that returns
deoxygenated blood from the body.
5. Why is pulmonary circulation bypassed in the unborn fetal pig, and how is it
bypassed?
Pulmonary circulation bypassed in the unborn fetal pig because it is still and it lives off
the mothers body.

E. Digestive System
1. What are the main functions of the liver in mammals?
The main functions of the liver in mammals are to filter blood and produce bile.
2. What is the stomach muscle that controls the passage of food into the small
intestine?
The pyloric sphincter is the stomach muscle that controls the passage of food into the
small intestine.
3. What is the purpose of the villi and microvilli of the small intestine?
The purpose of the villi and microvilli of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients and
whatever the body might need to survive.
4. What is the primary function of the large intestine?
The primary function of the large intestine is part of the digestion system, water is
absorbed and remaining waste is store there.
5. What is the purpose of rugae in the stomach lining, and what glands are found
between them?
The purpose of rugae in the stomach lining is in digestion and they are muscles and they
contract like any other normal muscle. The glands found between them are the secrete
acidic digestive fluids.
F. Urogenital System
1. If a mammal drinks large amounts of saltwater, what will this do to its urinary
output?
The urinary output will retain because the water is being pulled in all the wrong places,
the body will be dehydrated so the amount of urinary output will decrease, if the
mammals drink large amounts of saltwater.
2. Why is there an advantage for female pigs to have long uterine horns and a small
uterine body, whereas in humans the situation is reversed?
There is an advantage for female pigs to have long uterine horns and a small uterine
bodys because it allows the female pig to hold more litters.
3. Why is it important for the testes in pigs and other mammals to completely
descend into the scrotum?
It is important for the testes in the pigs and other mammals to completely descend into
the scrotum because it needs to maintain a certain temperature required to store the sperm
properly.
4. Explain the function of the nephrons in the pigs kidneys.
The nephron makes up the kidneys and they filter liquids, which are the functions of the
nephrons in the pigs kidneys.
5. What is the unique difference between female egg production and male sperm
production in mammals?
The unique different between female egg production and male sperm production in
mammals is that egg production occurs at young age and sperm production occurs all the
time.