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Important Vocabulary

Speed vs Velocity
Acceleration
Graphs of Motion
Momentum

Important Vocabulary

Position-location

of an object
Distance-how far an object has traveled,
regardless of direction
Displacement-change in position in relation to
starting point, including direction
Speed-distance per unit time
Velocity-displacement per unit time
Acceleration-change in velocity per unit time
Momentum-mass times velocity of a moving
object

The position of any object must be given


with respect to some reference point.

Movement
is said to have occurred when
the position of an object has changed from
where it was when it started.

A displacement of -3.5 m implies movement of


3.5 m in the negative direction. (or left)
A displacement of +3.5 m implies movement of
3.5 m in the positive direction. (or right)
+

In motion,
the displacement direction
is often given
as positive, +, or negative, -.

I traveled to my house about 25 miles


away and then traveled back. My total
distance traveled was 50 miles, but what
was my displacement?

My displacement was zero, because I ended up


back where I started.

Speed
Speed is a measure of the distance traveled
per unit time.
Speed is always positive

Standard units for speed are m/s


The formula for calculating speed is:
Speed = Distance
Time

Clue words for speed: how fast,


m/s, distance per time
Units for speed: m/s

Velocity
Velocity is

the distance per unit time, also

The difference between speed and velocity is that velocity takes into account the direction
Velocity can be + or

Standard units for velocity are m/s


Velocity includes which direction you are traveling!
Formula for calculating velocity:
Velocity = Displacement
Time

Velocity is speed with direction.


The sign of the velocity indicates
the direction of movement.
A positive sign indicates movement
in the positive direction.(or right)
+

A negative sign indicates movement


in the negative direction.(or left)
-

Average speed and average velocity are


generally not equivalent because total distance
and total displacement are generally not the same.
When would they have the same magnitudes?

Speed and Velocity


Average speed

total distance
time

total displacement
Average velocity
time

s
t

Is it possible to move with constant


speed but not constant velocity?
Time =
1 min 18 sec

Start
= 500 m
Finish

500 m
6.4 ms
78 s
0m
0 ms
average velocity
78 s
average speed

Yes. (Cruising at 55 mph around


a corner changing direction =
changing velocity)
Is it possible to move with constant
velocity but not constant speed?
No. (A change in speed would
cause a change in velocity.)

Acceleration
Acceleration

is the change in velocity (not


speed) per unit time
Units for acceleration are: m/s2

Formula for calculating acceleration is:


Acceleration = v or Final Velocity Beginning Velocity
t

Change in Time

Clue words: change in velocity, m/s2

Acceleration
change in velocity
time
v
a
t

Average acceleration

Positive acceleration means increasing


velocity accelerating or speeding up

Negative acceleration means


decreasing velocity or
decelerating or slowing down

Graphs of Motion
There

are three types of motion graphs


that you need to be familiar with and
understand:

1. Position vs time
2. Velocity vs time

General Info about Graphs

All graphs must have a title at the top of the graph

All axes must be labeled to be complete


Axis label includes both the quantity and the units for
example, a y axis complete label: position, (m)
Graphs turned in for class should also include the data
table
For lab data, you need to draw a best fit line unless otherwise
instructed on the individual lab. A best fit line doesnt necessarily
go through all the points on the graph, but is the line that goes
through the majority of points.

Position vs Time

x axis is the time the object has been in motion

y axis is the position of the object in motion


change in position is the distance traveled
the slope of the line is the velocity of the object. Slope is:
slope

rise y position

run x
time

Remember that velocity is:


velocity

displacement position

time
time

Velocity vs Time Graphs

x axis is the time the object has been in motion


y axis is the velocity of the object
the slope of the line is the acceleration of the object.
Slope is:
rise y velocity

slope

run

time

remember that acceleration is:

velocity v
a

time
t

Which had the


greatest velocity?
a. Distance 3m
time 1s=3m/s
b. Distance 2m
time 2s= 1m/s
c. Distance 1m
time 3s=0.33m/s

Momentum
Momentum

velocity

is the mass of an object times its

Momentums formula:
momentum

p mv

Velocity

mass

Momentum gives us a way to evaluate how mass


interacts with velocity
Law of conservation of momentum says that the total
momentum of a system before and after a collision is the
same

Both mass and velocity must be considered


when changing an objects motion.

More force is needed to stop a train


moving than to stop a car, even though they
both have the same speed.
More force is needed to stop a
baseball thrown at 85mph than to stop a
baseball thrown at 35 mph.

Momentum
Momentum

has direction

The stopping distance of an object like a


car is related to its momentum.
When two objects collide they transfer their
momentums to each other--momentum lost by
one object is gained by another when they
collide.