Anda di halaman 1dari 25


Managing Change in Organizations
DMS - Assignment
Thanujah Muhunthan

Executive Summary

This report contain analysis on three different areas namely bureaucracy,

stakeholder management and change management.

Section 1 contain introduction to the organisation, including basic

introduction to the organisation, description about mission of the
organisation, strategic focus and continuous change and its impact.

Section 2 contains information on bureaucracy; more specifically this

chapter will provide information on the economic impact of bureaucracy ,
the strengths and weaknesses of the bureaucratic organization and
Various forms of the organizational development

Section 3 will contain the information about stakeholder management

which will provide details on the stakeholders who are affected by the
change and also provide a useful framework to deal with all types of
stakeholders appropriately.

Section 4 will contain the information on change management in IOM and

it will guide the organisation to stabilise the change in a better way.

Table of Contents


Introduction ......................................................................................4
Mission and strategic focus of IOM ………...........................................................5
IOM Change
process…………………………………………………………………………................ 6
Management………………………………………………………………………........... 8
Organizational development
………………………………………………………………… ......................................9
Stakeholder analysis........................................................................11
Stakeholders who will be impacted by the proposed structural
review ...........................................................................................................14
Change management........................................................................16
Appropriate models and plan of implementation process in IOM .....19
Implementing process of structural review in

Section 1

A brief introduction about the organization considered helps to understand
the issues discussed in this report such as change, bureaucratic
organizations and forms of organisational development.

The report covers the background and reason behind the change and to
what extent the change is necessary in the present economic context. As
mentioned in the executive summary the bureaucracy has been defined
and strengths and weaknesses of bureaucratic organizations are
discussed. The comparison between various forms of the organizational
development have been discussed and suitability to IOM has been

International Organisation for Migration

Established in 1951, IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in

the field of migration and works closely with governmental,
intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.

With 127 member states, a further 17 states holding observer status and
offices in over 100 countries, IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and
orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services
and advice to governments and migrants.

IOM works to help ensure the orderly and humane management of

migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to
assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to
provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including refugees
and internally displaced people.

The IOM Constitution recognizes the link between migration and

economic, social and cultural development, as well as to the right of
freedom of movement.

IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management:

• Migration and development

• Facilitating migration
• Regulating migration
• Forced migration.

IOM activities that cut across these areas include the promotion of
international migration law, policy debate and guidance, protection of
migrants' rights, migration health and the gender dimension of migration.


IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration

benefits migrants and society.
As the leading international organization for migration, IOM acts with its
partners in the international community to:

• Assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration

• Advance understanding of migration issues.
• Encourage social and economic development through migration.
• Uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.

IOM’s Strategic Focus

1. To provide secure, reliable, flexible and cost-effective services for

persons who require international migration assistance.
2. To enhance the humane and orderly management of migration and
the effective respect for the human rights of migrants in accordance
with international law.
3. To offer expert advice, research, technical cooperation and
operational assistance to States, intergovernmental and non-
governmental organizations and other stakeholders, in order to
build national capacities and facilitate international, regional and
bilateral cooperation on migration matters.
4. To contribute to the economic and social development of States
through research, dialogue, design and implementation of
migration-related programmes aimed at maximizing migration’s
5. To support States, migrants and communities in addressing the
challenges of irregular migration, including through research and
analysis into root causes, sharing information and spreading best
practices, as well as facilitating development-focused solutions.
6. To be a primary reference point for migration information, research,
best practices, data collection, compatibility and sharing.
7. To promote, facilitate and support regional and global debate and
dialogue on migration, including through the International Dialogue
on Migration, so as to advance understanding of the opportunities
and challenges it presents, the identification and development of
effective policies for addressing those challenges and to identify
comprehensive approaches and measures for advancing
international cooperation.
8. To assist States to facilitate the integration of migrants in their new
environment and to engage diasporas, including as development
9. To participate in coordinated humanitarian responses in the context
of inter-agency arrangements in this field and to provide migration
services in other emergency or post-crisis situations as appropriate

and as relates to the needs of individuals, thereby contributing to
their protection.1
10. To undertake programmes which facilitate the voluntary
return and reintegration of refugees, displaced persons, migrants
and other individuals in need of international migration services, in
cooperation with other relevant international organizations as
appropriate, and taking into account the needs and concerns of
local communities.
11. To assist States in the development and delivery of
programmes, studies and technical expertise on combating migrant
smuggling and trafficking in persons, in particular women and
children, in a manner consistent with international law.
12. To support the efforts of States in the area of labour
migration, in particular short term movements, and other types of
circular migration.

IOM Change process- The background for change in today’s

economic context.

At the beginning of his term, the Director General set himself three clear
priorities for action;

(a) the enhancement of member state ownership in the organization

(b) the reinforcement of collaborative partnerships and

(c) the strengthening of staff development.

Under the third point, the DG has introduced several initiatives to help
him assess and understand the needs and expectations of IOM staff,
including regional meetings/consultations, a global staff satisfaction
survey and an independent review by an external consultant. One of the
more consistent messages emerging out of these initiatives is the need
for a review of organizational structures to ensure that IOM has the
capacity to continue to full fill its mandate in the light of evolving internal
and external circumstances.

In April 2009, after a series of implemented initiatives aimed at collecting

feedback from all levels of IOM staff as well as IOM Member States, the
Director General reached a solid and reliable basis to move forward with
conducting a review with a view to making necessary changes to the
structure of the organization. In light of this, the Structure Review Team
was formed with the mandate to provide the Director General with
recommendations on the future IOM organizational structure keeping the
following two key aspects in mind:

(a) Consolidation of structures and resources in the Field, and

(b) Coherence of structures in Headquarters.

The SRT functions independently and is composed of IOM staff members
representing diversity in areas of experience, expertise, cultural
sensitivity and regional perspective.

One of IOM's core strengths is its decentralized field-based structure.

While it is not the aim of the SRT to re-centralize IOM activities, the team
recognizes the need for the current decentralized structure to be clarified,
streamlined and strengthened.

This framework illustrates the relationship between the vision, mission

and strategy of the organization and the organizational structure, skills,
processes and resources required to deliver on that vision, mission and

The present economical context shows the depreciation of values of

currencies in third world countries and collapse of industries and
companies. Now the global economy has started recover again and
emerging with profitable results of the businesses. As far as IOM is
concerned regardless of the global trend in economy the organization has
a necessity of utilizing the resources economically, efficiently and
effectively in order to ensure value for money of the donor funding and
even to secure potential donations. The consolidation of structures and
resources in field and coherence of structures in head quarters leads to
avoid duplication of resource utilization and addresses the following issues
(a) More effective strategy formulation, policy planning and
(b) More clearly defined roles and responsibilities of administrative units,
(c) increased accountability at both corporate and individual levels,
(d) Stronger internal communication and better mechanisms to capture
and manage IOM's institutional knowledge and experience, and
(e) Enhanced capacity to cooperate with and build partnerships with
relevant international institutions including for resource mobilization.

In order to achieve the cooperates strategic objectives more efficiently

and effectively with value for money the organisation is planning to have
a continuously improved change of its management style and
organisational structure.

The management believes that this will provide better value for the
donor’s funding and provide best possible service for its beneficiaries. On
the other hand this will improve transparency, openness, accountability

Section 2

Bureaucratic management
The industrial revolution that started in the late eighteenth century, lead
to the demise of small local craft workshops in villages and to the growth
of large centralized factories in towns. These 'new forms of working'
created immense challenges for the ways in which work was organized
and managed.
As mentioned above the present structure of IOM is decentralised
however bound and controlled by laid down policies and procedures which
are some how ensures the uniformity and consistence applies in
implementation of plans and projects including in general administration
and resource management. Structurally IOM has a Tall and matrix
structure which has many divisions communication layers and need for
more coordination amongst various divisions. The cross functional nature
of various divisions collectively requires a communication string which is
time consuming and causes delay in response. The rigidity caused by this
nature demands a delegation of power and coherence nature of head
quarters and field level structures.

Strengths of Bureaucratic organizations are as follows,

-Higher level of consistency maintained in decisions and implementation
of projects. The control exerted by the head quarters or top level
management ensures that the systems and delivery of services to the
beneficiaries are in line with the laid down procedures.
-The major and important final decisions made by top management,
considering various perspectives of organization as a whole avoiding sub
optimisation of divisional performances. In this aspect the powers and
interests of various stakeholders also taken care in delivering the final out
-Better cost control and management- as a not for profit perspective the
IOM enjoys the better management of resources by centrally managed
resource management office which consists of accounting, budgeting, and
treasury management units. Even though it controls the speed of the
resource disbursement of donor funds it ensures that the funds are
utilised for the correct purpose in the correct way at the correct time.

Weaknesses of Bureaucratic organizations are as follows,

-The higher level of bureaucracy leads to lack of innovation and
development in the organization, which leads to loss of competitive
advantage in certain circumstances such as where the organisation have
to keep on improving to maintain the position in the market. In the case of
IOM the innovative thinking of migration management thematic concept
development will help the organization to maintain and build the higher
reputation and goodwill amongst the donors as the leading migration
management intergovernmental organization.
-The higher the structure and communication ladder impedes the speed of
communication and decision making, which leads to loss of bids and

proposals submissions to various donor governments and speed of
response in emergency situations. As a result the image of the
organization in the field level will get tarnished as labelled as slow
-The motivation of employees drops because of the lower level of
delegation of duties and responsibilities and lower empowerment. The
rule and regulations will control the organizational responsiveness in field
contexts which has its own constrains with regard to local political, legal,
economical, migration systems and existing local players in the industry.

Briefly speaking, in this report we are discussing not persons but systems
of social organization. We do not mean that the post-office clerk is inferior
to anybody else. What must be realized is only that the strait jacket of
bureaucratic organization paralyzes the individual's initiative, while within
the capitalist market society an innovator still has a chance to succeed.

Organizational development
“Organization Development is an effort planned, organization-wide, and
managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health
through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes,' using
behavioural-science knowledge.”
- Beckhard, “Organization development: Strategies and Models”, Reading,
MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969, p. 9.

Today's organizations operate in a rapidly changing environment.

Consequently, one of the most important assets for an organization is the
ability to manage change -- and for people to remain healthy and
authentic. Consider the following definition of OD:

“Organization Development is the attempt to influence the members of an

organization to expand their candidness with each other about their views
of the organization and their experience in it, and to take greater
responsibility for their own actions as organization members. The
assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these
objectives simultaneously, they are likely to discover new ways of working
together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own
and their shared (organizational) goals. And that when this does not
happen, such activity helps them to understand why and to make
meaningful choices about what to do in light of this understanding.”
- Neilsen, “Becoming an OD Practitioner”, Englewood Cliffs, CA: Prentice-
Hall, 1984, pp. 2-3.

The necessity arises for organizational development to maintain the

organizations presence in the present context, which is fast changing,
dynamic, complex environment effectively. According to the

environmental impacts the strategies formulated by the organization
should be compatible to maximise the outcome of those strategies. There
are various forms of organizational development such as planned and
structured organizational development, Emergent organizational
development and opportunistic organizational development.

Planned and structures development involves setting the objectives of the

development in advance, conduct a environmental analysis which
identifies strengths, weaknesses , opportunities and threats prevails in
the environment, the political climate of the host country, the economic
considerations, law enforcement and rules and regulations of the country
and industry, technological availability and access to skills and
knowledge, the competitive nature of the industry and the entry barriers
assessment etc , strategic options assessed for feasibility , acceptability
and suitability , strategic choice made and implement the change for the
development. This gives the advantage of informed decision making and
planned predicted outcomes of the change. However it has the main
drawback of time consuming and reactive nature of the organizational
development, which results in delayed response to the environmental
changes and demands.

The emergent organizational development is that an organization

responds and adjusts its strategies and objectives according to the
prevailing environmental conditions and the changes concern will be
incremental, rather than step by step or drastic nature. This has the
advantage of going along with the external changes where the
organization does not contradicts with the externalities and adopts the
changes which ever necessary. However the main draw back of this is the
out come is unpredictable and the direction the organization develops
cannot be planned in advance. But this is outweighed by the advantages
of immediate response to the environmental changes such as faster
market entry decisions, speeder modifications of marketing mix, even for
the non profit organizations speculating the market change and acting
accordingly will help absorbing more and more donor funding
opportunities and moving on to new sectors.

The opportunistic behaviour involves the faster decision made to exploit

the opportunities arises and outweigh the threats by speculative
movements of the organization, such as penetrating pricing strategy in
anew market where the organization seeking for market development, for
non profit organization speedy response to the emergency situations and
mass and quality responsiveness. The advantage of this type includes
grabbing the opportunities arising in the organizational context , create,
maintain image and secure potential donor funding. The only draw back is

the decisions might create out comes with negative impacts and tarnish
the image and financial position of the organization.

Section 3

Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people

use to win support from others. It helps them ensure that their projects
succeed where others fail.

Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify the key people who
have to be won over. IOM then use Stakeholder Planning to build the
support that helps IOM succeed.

The benefits of using a stakeholder-based approach are that:

• IOM can use the opinions of the most powerful stakeholders to shape
projects at an early stage. Not only does this make it more likely
that they will support IOM, their input can also improve the quality
of project

• Gaining support from powerful stakeholders can help IOM to win

more resources - this makes it more likely that projects will be

• By communicating with stakeholders early and frequently, IOM can

ensure that they fully understand what IOM are doing and
understand the benefits of project - this means they can support
IOM actively when necessary

• IOM can anticipate what people's reaction to project may be, and
build into plan the actions that will win people's support.

How to use the tool:

The first step in Stakeholder Analysis is to identify who stakeholders are.

The next step is to work out their power, influence and interest, so IOM
know who IOM should focus on. The final step is to develop a good
understanding of the most important stakeholders so that IOM know how
they are likely to respond, and so that IOM can work out how to win their
support - IOM can record this analysis on a stakeholder map.

After IOM have used this tool and created a stakeholder map, IOM can use
the stakeholder planning tool to plan how IOM will communicate with each

The steps of Stakeholder Analysis are explained below:

1. Identifying Stakeholders:

The first step in stakeholder analysis is to brainstorm who stakeholders

are. As part of this, think of all the people who are affected by work, who
have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or
unsuccessful conclusion.

The items below show some of the people who might be stakeholders in
job or in projects:

• The public
• Employees
• Management
• Donors
• Beneficiaries
• The press
• Analysts

Remember that although stakeholders may be both organizations and

people, ultimately IOM must communicate with people. Make sure that
IOM identify the correct individual stakeholders within a stakeholder

2. Prioritize Stakeholders:

IOM may now have a long list of people and organizations that are
affected by work. Some of these may have the power either to block or
advance. Some may be interested in what IOM are doing, others may not

Map out stakeholders on a Power/Interest Grid on our free template as

shown in figure 1, and classify them by their power over work and by their
interest in work.

Figure 1

Someone's position on the grid shows IOM the actions IOM have to take
with them:

• High power, interested people: these are the people IOM must
fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy.

• High power, less interested people: put enough work in with

these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they
become bored with message.

• Low power, interested people: keep these people adequately

informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are
arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of

• Low power, less interested people: again, monitor these people,

but do not bore them with excessive communication.

3. Understanding key stakeholders:

IOM now need to know more about key stakeholders. IOM need to know
how they are likely to feel about and react to project. IOM also need to

know how best to engage them in project and how best to communicate
with them.
Key questions that can help IOM understand stakeholders are:

• What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of

work? Is it positive or negative?

• What motivates them most of all?

• What information do they want from IOM?

• How do they want to receive information from IOM? What is the best
way of communicating message to them?

• What is their current opinion of work? Is it based on good


• Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their

opinion of IOM? Do some of these influencers therefore become
important stakeholders in their own right?

• If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to
support project?

• If IOM don't think IOM will be able to win them around, how will IOM
manage their opposition?

• Who else might be influenced by their opinions? Do these people

become stakeholders in their own right?

A very good way of answering these questions is to talk to stakeholders

directly - people are often quite open about their views, and asking
people's opinions is often the first step in building a successful
relationship with them.

IOM can summarize the understanding IOM have gained on the

stakeholder map, so that IOM can easily see which stakeholders are
expected to be blockers or critics, and which stakeholders are likely to be
advocates and supporters or project. A good way of doing this is by color
coding: showing advocates and supporters in green, blockers and critics in
red, and others who are neutral in orange.

Stakeholders who will be impacted by the proposed structural


Donors- The main donors of IOM who are various governments and
clusters of countries such as European union, European commission of
humanitarian office and other private donors. These sector of

stakeholders are more concern about the fund disbursements and
implementation of projects in fair manner without waste of resources and
for the right purposes. By the structural review it is ensured that there is
no over consumption of resources with regard to administration of project
implementations and project development.

Governments- The host Governments of the project implementation and

beneficiary sector in the areas of capacity building of migration
management systems, border management trainings, counter trafficking
awareness creation, labour migration initiatives and assistance to
internally displaced people in emergency and refugee assistance. Since
the donations of most of the donors are specifically channelled to certain
host communities , it is vital to IOM to act a the Intergovernmental
organization in connecting the relationships of various governments and

Beneficiaries- This consists of people who are internally displaced,

affected communities by natural disasters, wars and political crisis,
vulnerable population for lower income generation and lack of livelihood
competencies, and even the benefitting governments.

Host communities- The communities which the affected population is part

of. It is benefitted by and affected by the IOM project implementation of
infrastructure development and community livelihood and capacity

Structural review enhances the ability and capacity of the staff structure
in effective and efficient delivery of services to the target beneficiaries.

Employees and staff of IOM in various levels of management and

operations in head quarters and field level- Structural review impacts this
category in positive as well as negatively. Positively it empowers certain
levels and creates a more flexible authorization matrix, more delegation
of duties and job enrichment results in high motivation and commitment,
which beneficial to the organization. Negatively it affects the staff and top
management who preserved and held high rank powers and decision
making authorities by forcing them in rotate their responsibilities and
reduction of responsibilities through delegation of duties but the
accountability still remains the same since the duties are supervised or
overseen by them. This slightly affects the motivation and moral of them.

Section 4

Change management

Here are some rules for effective management of change. Managing

organizational change will be more successful if IOM apply these simple
principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if IOM
use the same approach where relevant.

Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive

implementation, and above all, consultation with, and involvement of, the
people affected by the changes. If IOM force change on people normally
problems arise. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable.

These aspects are especially relevant to managing personal change.

Before starting organizational change, has to clarify: What do we want to
achieve with this change, why, and how will we know that the change has
been achieved? Who is affected by this change, and how will they react to
it? How much of this change can we achieve ourselves, and what parts of
the change do we need help with? These aspects also relate strongly to
the management of personal as well as organizational change.

Do not sell change to people as a way of accelerating 'agreement' and

implementation. 'Selling' change to people is not a sustainable strategy
for success, unless IOM aim a failure in future when IOM least expect it.
When people listen to a management high-up 'selling' them a change,
decent diligent folk will generally smile and appear to accede, but quietly
to them, they're thinking,
Instead, change needs to be understood and managed in a way that
people can cope effectively with it. Change can be unsettling, so the
manager logically needs to be a settling influence.
Check that people affected by the change agree with, or at least
understand, the need for change, and have a chance to decide how the
change will be managed, and to be involved in the planning and
implementation of the change.
Use face-to-face communications to handle sensitive aspects of
organisational change management (see Mehrabian's research on
conveying meaning and understanding). Encourage managers to
communicate face-to-face with their people too if they are helping IOM
manage an organizational change. Email and written notices are
extremely weak at conveying and developing understanding.
If IOM think that IOM need to make a change quickly, probe the reasons -
is the urgency real? Will the effects of agreeing a more sensible time-
frame really be more disastrous than presiding over a disastrous change?

Quick change prevents proper consultation and involvement, which leads
to difficulties that take time to resolve.
For complex changes, refer to the process of project management, and
ensure that IOM augment this with consultative communications to agree
and gain support for the reasons for the change. Involving and informing
people also creates opportunities for others to participate in planning and
implementing the changes, which lightens burden, spreads the
organizational load, and creates a sense of ownership and familiarity
among the people affected.
See also the excellent free decision-making template, designed by Sharon
Drew Morgen, with facilitative questions for personal and organizational
innovation and change.
To understand more about people's personalities, and how different
people react differently to change, see the personality styles section.
For organizational change that entails new actions, objectives and
processes for a group or team of people, use workshops to achieve
understanding, involvement, plans, measurable aims, actions and
commitment. Encourage management team to use workshops with their
people too if they are helping IOM to manage the change.
IOM should even apply these principles to very tough change like making
people redundant, closures and integrating merged or acquired
organizations. Bad news needs even more careful management than
routine change. Hiding behind memos and middle managers will make
matters worse. Consulting with people, and helping them to understand
does not weaken position - it strengthens it. Leaders who fail to consult
and involve their people in managing bad news are perceived as weak
and lacking in integrity. Treat people with humanity and respect and they
will reciprocate.
Be mindful that the chief insecurity of most staff is change itself. See the
process of personal change theory to see how people react to change.
Senior managers and directors responsible for managing organizational
change do not, as a rule, fear change - they generally thrive on it. So
remember that people do not relish change, they find it deeply disturbing
and threatening. People’s fear of change is as great as own fear of

Responsibility for managing change

The employee does not have a responsibility to manage change - the

employee's responsibility is no other than to do their best, which is
different for every person and depends on a wide variety of factors
(health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc).
Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives
of the organisation - they must manage the change in a way that
employees can cope with it. The manager has a responsibility to

facilitate and enable change, and all that is implied within that
statement, especially to understand the situation from an objective
standpoint (to 'step back', and be non-judgemental), and then to help
people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively
according to employees' own situations and capabilities.
Increasingly the manager's role is to interpret, communicate and enable -
not to instruct and impose, which nobody really responds to well.

Change must involve the people - change must not be imposed

upon the people

Be wary of expressions like 'mindset change', and 'changing people's

mindsets' or 'changing attitudes', because this language often indicates a
tendency towards imposed or enforced change (theory x), and it implies
strongly that the organization believes that its people currently have the
'wrong' mindset, which is never, ever, the case. If people are not
approaching their tasks or the organization effectively, then the
organization has the wrong mindset, not the people.
Change such as new structures, policies, targets, acquisitions, disposals,
re-locations, etc., all create new systems and environments, which need
to be explained to people as early as possible, so that people's
involvement in validating and refining the changes themselves can be
Whenever an organization imposes new things on people there will be
difficulties. Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication
are the important factors.
Workshops are very useful processes to develop collective understanding,
approaches, policies, methods, systems, ideas, etc. See the section on
workshops on the website.
Staffs surveys are a helpful way to repair damage and mistrust among
staff - provided IOM allow people to complete them anonymously, and
provided IOM publish and act on the findings.
Management training, empathy and facilitative capability are priority
areas - managers are crucial to the change process - they must enable
and facilitate, not merely convey and implement policy from above, which
does not work.
IOM cannot impose change - people and teams need to be empowered to
find their own solutions and responses, with facilitation and support from
managers, and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and
executives. Management and leadership style and behaviour are more
important than clever process and policy. Employees need to be able to
trust the organization.
The leader must agree and work with these ideas, or change is likely to be
very painful, and the best people will be lost in the process.

Change management principles

1. At all times involve and agree support from people within system
(system = environment, processes, culture, relationships,
behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational).
2. Understand where IOM/the organisation is at the moment.
3. Understand where IOM want to be, when, why, and what the
measures will be for having got there.
4. Plan development towards above No.3 in appropriate achievable
measurable stages.
5. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from
people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible.

Appropriate models and plan of implementation process in IOM

Change can be implemented through various models such as Business
process re-engineering (BPR), Hope and Hope theory of competition in
third wave, Learning organization approach (LOA), the Kaizen approach,
de-layering, downsizing etc.
BPR is fundamental reconsideration and radical rethinking of
organizational processes. BPR is one of the fundamental steps undertaken
prior to ERP implementation. Business process reengineering analyses
and suggests the structural changes. This is regarded to be very
important because it helps in knowing how the organization should be
customized in order to become ERP friendly.
Business process reengineering is taken to conduct feasibility study and
other restructuring exercises. Nothing can be done to prevent change.
The best way to manage change is to adopt it.

Time and again it has been proved that imposing change of any
magnitude all on a sudden is not the proper way. There needs to be a
proper method to bring about it. Business process reengineering is one
scientific study that helps organizations largely to analyse the viability of
not only ERP but any other dynamic change.

IOM could adopt this model where it has an excessive concentration of

unstructured communication flow and seeking for gradual, incremental
improvements. By this delegation of duties, empowerment as a result
faster decision making less wastage of resources such as time will


Hope and Hope (1997) outline 10 key management issues for the third

-Cease to focus on downsizing.
-Learn to think 'outside the box' and be innovative.
-Trust and empower management teams to think and act strategically.
-Develop core competences and avoid rigidities.
-Create alliances and economic webs with suppliers and customers to
lever economic value.

2.Customer value
-Value propositions are of three sorts:
-Product leadership (technical content and speed to market)
-Operational excellence (low-cost, high-quality, service)
-Customer intimacy (customisation, relationships)
-Select, pursue and retain customers that can match the value proposition
put forward by the firm.

3.Knowledge management
-There are three sources of knowledge assets:
-Human capital and competences of staff
-Internally stored data and information system capability
-Market and externally related such as customer loyalty, brands and
network relationships
-Management must retain and leverage this knowledge to gain
competitive advantage.

4.Business organization
-Move from hierarchies to networks and emphasise processes and teams.
-Recognise the organisation as a social structure (i.e. not as a machine)
and keep people informed and motivated.

5.Market focus
-Cease to pursue volumes to increase profits.
-Identify the worthwhile and profitable customers.
-Firm's capital is relationship with the customer.

6.Management accounting
-Acquire know how to analyse product, customer and service profitability.

-Use accounting to help improve processes.
-Move to more relevant accounting systems.

7.Measurement and control

-Avoid the tendency for budgets to constrain innovation and flexibility.
-Strike a new balance between control and empowerment.
-Implement a new strategic measurement system.
8.Shareholder value
-Equity prices depend on future returns.
-These returns depend on human and not physical assets now.
-Develop measures of human capital for appraisal and reporting.

-Move beyond seeing productivity as return to fixed capital assets.
-Create right culture, recruit right staff, provide information, empower and
allow them to share in the benefits.

-Recognise the failings of the second-wave model:
-Emphasis on productivity of physical capital
-Seeing staff as costs to be minimised
-Rigid command and control styles of management
-Profit through cost-cutting and volume increases
-Manage change to third-wave model.
-Query the value of 'second-wave' management education.

By adopting this theoretical model IOM addresses the above discussed 10

management issues and improves the strategic fit in to its organizational
John Kotter's highly regarded books 'Leading Change' (1995) and the
follow-up 'The Heart Of Change' (2002) describe a helpful model for
understanding and managing change. Each stage acknowledges a key
principle identified by Kotter relating to people's response and approach
to change, in which people see, feel and then change.
Kotter's eight step change model can be summarised as:

1. Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and

2. Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right
emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.
3. Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and
strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to
drive service and efficiency.
4. Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible,
communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to
people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work
for IOM rather than against.

5. Empower actions - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback
and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress
and achievements.
6. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-
size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current
stages before starting new ones.
7. Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence -
ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight
achieved and future milestones.
8. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via
recruitment, promotion, and new change leaders. Weave change
into culture.

The above process such as BPR and Kotter’s eight step change model can
be adopted by IOM in order to manage change with minimal resistance
provided that each stakeholder group gets addressed accordingly. By
addressing the key management issues in change management and to
compete in third wave IOM can ensure the delivery of its services
according to the specifications of the donor preferences, Value for money,
budgetary control, and benefit to the society and the host communities
along with satisfying the Governments.
Implementing process of structural review in IOM.
Step 1- Making people to move-which has been already addressed and
started by the headquarters by the Director general via collecting
feedback and suggestions from All IOM managers and staff.

Step 2- Build a guiding team- the formation of Structure review team of

IOM consist of officials from various levels and capacities and from various
parts of the world.

Step 3- Formation vision and objectives- Consolidation of structures and

resources in the field and increased coherence and integration among the
structures in HQ.

Step 4- Communicate and involve people- implement as buy in rather

than selling off the strategy.

Step 5- Empower actions- obstacles removed and constructive feed backs

encouraged by rewarding and recognition.

Step 6-Set short term targets comprises of parts of strategic plan of this

Step 7-Encourage ongoing change and progress reporting and highlight

achieved milestones.

Step 8-Embed change in to culture of IOM.


The change needs addressed in the section 1 and discussed the strengths
and weaknesses of the bureaucratic organizations. The various alternative
forms of Organizational development has been analysed and I recommend
that IOM should adopt the planned strategic change with its structural
change along with addressing the interests and implications of and to its
stakeholders and involving them in to the process of change and
development and make it participatory and make it successful. The
process models discussed such as BPR, Kotler’s 8 step change model IOM
could implement the structural review change and enjoy the benefits of it.


1. Senge, Peter; C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski, Betty Sue Flowers

(March 2004). Presence. Cambridge, MA: SoL. ISBN 0974239011.
OCLC 231987197.

2. Argyris, Chris (Autumn 1982). (PDF)Organizational Dynamics,.
data/MONITOR_ARTICLES/object/92.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-12-29.

3. Tucker, Kate. "The Milan Approach To Family Therapy: A Critique".

Psychiatry On-line (Priory Lodge Education Ltd.).

4. Hiatt, J. 2003. Change Management: the people side of change.

Learning Center Publications, Loveland, CO.

5. Greenfield, A 2008. The 5 Forces of Change - A Blueprint for Leading

Successful Change, Management Books 2000, England.

6. Clampitt,P. & Williams, M.(2007)Decision Downloading, MIT Sloan