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Research Scientist (Agril. Engg.)


JUNAGADH 362 001
JANUARY - 2010











Diesel engines have been a major source of power in the industrial fields
for many years. This trend has continued and has been even more pronounced
in recent years with the increased use of diesel engines to reduce operating
costs in trucks, buses, farm tractors, marine and industrial power units.

Dr. Rudolf Diesel, a German inventor, patented the principle of the diesel
engine in 1893.

Diesel engines can be found in practically all heavy industry and in any
place that needs tremendous power. The diesel engine has been in use since

In the diesel engine, air alone is compressed in the cylinder; then after the
air has been compressed, a charge of fuel is vaporized by injection into the
cylinder and ignition is accomplished by the heat of compression.

A machine which uses heat energy obtained from combustion of fuel and
converts it into mechanical energy is known as a Heat engine. They are
classified as external and internal combustion engine. In an external combustion
engine, combustion takes place outside the cylinder and the heat generated from
the combustion of the fuel is transferred to the working fluid which is then
expanded to develop the power. An internal combustion engine is one where
combustion of the fuel takes place inside the cylinder and converts heat energy
into mechanical energy. IC engines may be classified based on the working
cycle, thermodynamic cycle, speed, fuel, cooling, method of ignition, mounting of
engine cylinder and application.

Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which uses diesel oil as a

fuel and operates on two or four stroke cycle. In a 4-stroke diesel engine, the

working cycle takes place in two revolutions of the crankshaft or 4 strokes of the
piston. In this engine, pure air is sucked in the engine cylinder and the fuel is
injected at the end of the compression stroke. The power developed and the
performance of the engine depends on the condition of operation. So it is
necessary to test an engine for different conditions based on the requirement.
The test rig has been designed to study the working principle and the
performance of a 4-stroke single cylinder diesel engine.

Major advantages of diesel

Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion


➢ They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work due to
the engine's high efficiency. Gasoline engines are typically 25 percent
efficient while diesel engines can convert over 30 percent of the fuel
energy into mechanical energy.

➢ They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to attend to, resulting

in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments. The absence
of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also eliminates a source of radio frequency
emissions which can interfere with navigation and communication
equipment and the like, which is especially important in marine and aircraft

➢ They can deliver much more of their rated power on a continuous basis
than a petrol engine.

➢ The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of petrol
engine due to the increased strength of parts used, also because diesel
fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol.

➢ Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many applications. Although

diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does
not release a large amount of flammable vapour. The low vapor pressure
of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the
accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard.

➢ For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (mass burned per energy
produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to
petrol and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial
power outputs.

➢ They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.

➢ With diesel, boost pressure is limited only by the strength of the engine
components due to which predetonation of the fuel charge does not occur
as in petrol engines.

➢ The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimum therefore diesel

engines are used in underground mines.


Biodiesel is one of the available alternative fuels in the market. It is

derived from biomass, which is one of the sources of renewable energy. Due to
increasing environmental awareness, Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the world
as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without
any modifications to the engine. Biodiesel fuels can be produced by ethanol and
vegetable oil, both agriculturally derived products. Currently, the cost of fuel is a
primary factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of Biodiesel is to use
a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a potato processing

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum diesel. The fuel is called biodiesel

because it is made from mostly biodegradable materials and can be used as fuel
in diesel engines. Biodiesel can also be used in boilers or furnaces designed to
use heating oils or in oil-fueled lighting equipment. It can be used neat, meaning
100 percent biodiesel, or it can be blended with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is
made by chemically reacting vegetable oil or animal fat or a combination of oils
and fats with alcohol, usually nearly pure methanol, denatured ethanol or

Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel, produced from renewable resources. It
contains no petroleum, but can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to
create a biodiesel blend. Biodiesel is biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially
free of sulfur and aromatics. One of the biggest advantages of biodiesel
compared to many other alternative transportation fuels is that it can be used in
existing diesel engines, which relieves manufacturers of having to make costly
engine modifications. Biodiesel can also be mixed, at any ratio, with conventional
petroleum diesel. As a result, the alternative fuel can be used in the current
distribution infrastructure, replacing petroleum diesel either wholly, or as a diesel
fuel blend with minimal integration costs. As per the most scientists, biofuels
including biodiesel will play an increasingly important role in diversifying energy
supplies to meet the world’s growing energy needs.

Advantages of Biodiesel:

➢ Produced from sustainable / renewable biological sources.

➢ Ecofriendly and oxygenated fuel.
➢ Sulphur free, less CO, HC, particulate matter and aromatic compounds
➢ Income to rural community.
➢ Fuel properties similar to conventional fuel.
➢ Used in existing unmodified diesel engines.
➢ Reduce engine exhaust smoke.
➢ Non toxic, biodegradable and safety to handle.
➢ Reduce expenditure on oil imports.
➢ India is importing the oil of Rs. 2,72,699 crore per year, By mixing
biodiesel in to diesel, our country can save Rs. 54,540 crore.


Diesel engines are widely used for various applications ranging from
agriculture to automobiles. Engines are required to be tested mainly for two
purposes - Firstly, on production line of engines, engines are tested to check the
proper operation, output, fuel consumption etc. and Secondly, in research or
design purposes, where the performance of new design is to be evaluated. The
apparatus consists of a single cylinder, vertical diesel engine mounted on a
sturdy frame. Loading arrangement used is rope brake which is connected to
engine through a coupling. A digital multichannel temperature indicator measures
temperatures at various points. Various measurements provided enables to
evaluate the performance of the engine at various loads.

An engine test facility is a complex of machinery, instrumentation and

support services, housed in a building adapted or built for its purpose. Engine
and vehicle developers now need to measure improvements in engine
performance that are frequently so small as to require the best available
instrumentation in order for fine comparative changes in performance to be
observed. This level of measurement requires that instrumentation is integrated
within the total facility such that their performance and data are not compromised
by the environment in which they operate and services to which they are
connected. Engine test facilities vary considerably in power rating and


1) To install and get acquaint with engine testing rig.

2) To evaluate the performance of diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel
blend (80:20) separately.
3) To analyze the data observed and report writing.


Dorado et al. (2002) determined the feasibility of running a 10 percent

waste vegetable oil-90 percent diesel fuel blend during a 500-h period in a 3-
cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The results revealed an approximately 12
percent power loss, slight fuel consumption increase. Combustion efficiency
dropped slightly during the testing period. They concluded that the diesel engine,
without any modifications, ran successfully on a blend of 10 percent waste oil-90
percent diesel fuel without externally apparent damage to the engine parts.

Huzayyin et al. (2004) conducted experiment on evaluation of using

jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present
work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have
indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel.
Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to
reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil.
Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single
cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed
using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine
performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range
have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in
brake specific fuel consumption.

Raheman et al. (2004) investigated the fuel properties of karanja methyl

ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20 percent to 80 percent by volume
and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried
out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, and
specific fuel consumption. They reported that the reduction in exhaust emissions
together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and
reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja
esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel.

Kayisoglu et al. (2006) studied the effects on characteristics of a diesel
engine by using different diesel fuel and vegetable oil blends. As experimental
material diesel engine with single cylinder, direct injection, four cycles, 5.52 kW
defined power were used. Refined vegetable oils chosen to be added into fuel oil.
They observed that in the sunflower oil and diesel fuel blends were found better
than the soybean oil and diesel fuel blends. In addition, lubrication oil of the
engine by using the soybean oil and diesel fuel blends were get dirty excessively
and viscosity of the engine lubrication oil was reduced more than the others. The
results by using 75 percent diesel fuel + 25 percent sunflower oil blend showed
nearly the same results by using diesel fuel.

Das et al. (2006) worked to evaluate the performance of CI engine using

Jatropha methyl ester from non-edible vegetable oil and its blends with diesel.
The short-term engine (3.73 kW, 2- cylinder, 4-stroke, water cooled)
performance tests were done by using six different blends of Jatropha methyl
ester with diesel fuel from 10 percent to 100 percent by volume, Jatropha methyl
ester-diesel with respect to (10:90), (20:80), (30:70), (40:60), (50:50) and
(100:0). The engine performance parameters studied were power output, fuel
consumption and brake thermal efficiency using the above mentioned blend of
fuels. BHP measured with Jatropha methyl ester was found to be higher than the
diesel. Therefore, Jatropha methyl ester can be used as a diesel fuel
replacement with little sacrifice in brake thermal efficiency.

Chen-Hao et al. (2008) conducted experiment to investigate the

combustion performance of biodiesel on diesel engines. Comparative
experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct-injected diesel engine.
Combustion pressure, ignition delay period, heat release ratio and emission
performance were evaluated. They concluded that Compared with diesel, the
ignition delay period of biodiesel was low, and continuous combustion period was
long. The maximum combustion pressure, pressure increase ratio and heat
release ratio of biodiesel decreased by 1.91, 30.1 and 29.32 percent,
respectively, at 1500 rpm. The specific fuel consumption of burning biodiesel
increased by 11.6 at 1500 rpm. Burning biodiesel will increase specific fuel

consumption. Under the condition that the structure of engine is invariable,
biodiesel can be used on diesel engines as an alternative fuel.

Karhale et al. (2008) investigated the performance of Karanja methyl

ester and its blends with diesel from 20, 40 and 60 percent by volume for running
a diesel engine. They observed the increase in power output, brake thermal
efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption. Injection pressure
and fuel temperature were found to have significant effects on engine
performance parameters. The power output decreased with increase in the
concentration of karaja methyl ester in diesel and increased with the increase in
injection pressure and fruil temperature. Blend of karanja esterified oil (B2O) was
found a suitable alternative fuel for diesel.

Ji-Wei et al. (2008) investigated the mutual solubility and the

physicochemical properties of the ethanol-diesel-biodiesel blend fuel were
investigated, and the power and fuel economy of the diesel engine were
measured under the condition of burning diesel fuel and the ethanol-diesel-
biodiesel blend fuel. Results showed that ethanol and diesel fuel and biodiesel
can steadily mutually solubilize when the temperature was higher than 10℃ and
the volume fraction of biodiesel was more than 17.6 percent. As the mixed
proportion of alcohol gets larger, the combustion and emission circumstances of
diesel engine burning the ethanol-diesel-biodiesel blend fuel include: the brake
specific fuel consumption increased gradually; the brake specific energy
consumption did not change significantly; the torque increased gradually at
medium and high loads the peak value of the maximum combustion pressure
and the rate of heat release gradually increased as well as moving back.

Deepak Agarwal et al. (2008) studied on the performance and emission

characteristics of linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and linseed oil methyl ester
(LOME), in a stationary single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine and compare it
with mineral diesel. The linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and LOME were
blended with diesel in different proportions. Baseline data for diesel fuel was
collected. Engine tests were performed using all these blends of linseed, mahua,
rice bran, and LOME. Straight vegetable oils posed operational and durability

problems when subjected to long-term usage in CI engine. These problems are
attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of
vegetable oils. However, these problems were not observed for LOME blends.
Hence, process of transesterification is found to be an effective method of
reducing vegetable oil viscosity and eliminating operational and durability
problems. Economic analysis was also done in this study and it is found that use
of vegetable oil and its derivative as diesel fuel substitutes has almost similar
cost as that of mineral diesel.



Preparation of foundation:

Platform for CI engine was prepared in the workshop of farm machinery

department of College of Agril. Engg. & Tech., Junagadh. In the foundation holes
were drilled with hand drill so that engine was fixed with nails.

Installation of CI engine:


1) Engine : Single Cylinder, vertical, water cooled, self-governed diesel

engine developing 5 HP at 1500 rpm
2) Brake Dynamometer: Rope brake with spring balances and loading
screw. Brake drum diameter = 0.400 m.

The CI engine with rope brake dynamometer manufactured by Kirloskar

Oil Engine Ltd. India was selected and installed in the Department of FMP,
College of Agril. Engg. and Tech., Junagadh.

The engine was installed on the platform. Initially rubber sheet was placed
between engine and platform to absorb unnecessary socks and vibration. The
proper alignment of the engine was made and nails were fixed properly around
the engine so that engine can’t make unnecessary vibration.

Installation of diesel engine test rig:

The test rig was placed near the engine with proper alignment for getting
accurate observation and to reduce unnecessary vibration.
Calibrated fuel burette was joined with the engine through small pipe. The
engine air inlet was joined with test rig air inlet tank. The temperature sensors
fixed in the engine at various locations and were connected with the test rig
through thermocouples. The gas calorimeter was joined with exhaust pipe of the


1) Fuel consumption measurement (ml/s) will be measured by Calibrated fuel

burette and digital stopwatch.
2) Air intake measurement with help of Orifice meter, fitted to air inlet tank
with water manometer to measure air intake capacity.
3) Temperature measurement at various locations of the engine with the help
of multichannel digital temperature indicator.
4) Heat carried away by exhaust gases will be measured by exhaust gas

Testing of the CI engine:

Testing of the engine will be carried out by following tests using diesel and
blend of biodiesel (B20).

Data collection:

Fixed parameters:

1) Fuel (diesel and blend of biodiesel (20 percent))

2) Load (100, 75, 50 percent)

Dependent parameter:

1) Time for 10 ml fuel consumption tf, (sec)
2) Manometer difference hw, (cm)
3) Time for 1 lit calorimeter water tc, (sec)
4) Time for 1 lit jacket water tj, (sec)
5) Water inlet temperature T1
6) Water output from engine Jacket temperature T2
7) Water output from calorimeter temperature T3
8) Exhaust gas outlet from engine (before calorimeter) temperature T4
9) Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter temperature T5

The performance evaluation of diesel engine will be determined by following



1) Brake Power

BP = 2πNT1000×60 kW

N = brake speed, rpm
T = torque, N-m
= Force × Distance
= (W1 – W2) 9.81 × 0.3 Nm

2) Fuel Consumption

FC = 10tf×36001000 ×0.78

= 28.08tf Kg / hr

3) Specific fuel Consumption

SFC = FCBP Kg / kW hr.

4) Heat supplied by fuel

Hf = FC × 42630 KJ/hr

Where, calorific value of diesel is 42630 KJ/kg.

5) Graph will be plotted for Fuel consumption Vs. Brake power so as to

determine friction power.

6) Indicated Power

IP = FP + BP kW

7) Heat Equivalent to BP

HBP = BP × 3600 KJ/hr

8) Heat Equivalent to IP

HIP = IP × 3600 KJ/hr

9) Efficiency

i) Mechanical efficiency

nm = BPIP × 100 %

ii) Brake thermal efficiency

nBT=HBPHF × 100%

iii) Indicated thermal efficiency

nIT= HIPHF × 100%

1) Air consumption

Air head across orifice

Ha= hw100(1000-ρa)

Where, hw is in cm
Where ρa= density of air

Or ρa = P287 ×(T+273)

P = atmospheric pressure, N/m2 = 105 N/m2

T = absolute ambient temp. in K

Mass flow of air,

ma = 0.62 × 4.9 × 10-4 × 2gha × 3600 × ρa


Cd of orifice = 0.62 and Area of orifice = 4.9 × 10-4 m2

2) Air Fuel Ratio

AFR = maFC


1) Reviews were collected regarding different methods of diesel engine

testing and performance evaluation with diesel and biodiesel blend as a

2) Installation of diesel engine and test rig has been over.

3) Preliminary test on engine using diesel was conducted and the setup was
made ready so as to carry out the actual experiment with diesel and
biodiesel both.


1) The evaluation of the diesel engine will be carried out using diesel and
biodiesel blend at different load conditions and the observations for
dependent parameters will be done.

2) The performance evaluation of diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel

blend at different load condition will be determined in terms of brake
power, fuel consumption, specific fuel consumption, heat supplied by fuel,
indicated power, heat equivalent to brake power and indicated power,
efficiencies i)Mechanical ii)Brake thermal iii)Indicated thermal, air
consumption and air fuel ratio.

3) The collected data will be analyzed and report writing will be done.


Chen-Hao, Geng-LiMin, Qi-DongHui and Bian-YaoZhang, (2008). Performance

research of biodiesel on a single cylinder direct-injected diesel engine, Journal-
of-Northwest-A-and-F-University-Natural-Science-Edition, China. 36(7): 219-223.

Das, D.K., Ghosal, M.K. and Yadav, G.V. 2006. Study on the performance of CI
engine by using Jatropha methyl ester, Department of Farm Machinery and
Power, College of Agriculture Engg. and Tech., Orissa Uni. of Agril. and Tech.

Deepak-Agarwal, Lokesh-Kumar and Agarwal, A.K., (2008). Performance

evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine, Renewable-
Energy. UK, 33(6): 1147-1156.

Dorado, M.P., Arnal, J.M., Gomez, J., Gil, A. and Lopez, F.J.,(2002). The effect
of a waste vegetable oil blend with diesel fuel on engine performance,
Transactions-of-the-ASAE. USA, 45(3): 519-523.

Huzayyin, A.S., Bawady, A.H., Rady, M.A. and Dawood, A., (2004). Experimental
evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil
and diesel fuel, Energy-Conversion-and-Management, UK, 45(13/14): 2093-

Ji-Wei, Fu-TaiJun, Yao-YaGuang, Zhou-QingHui, (2007). Experimental study on

diesel engine burning ethanol-diesel-biodiesel blend fuel, Transactions-of-the-
Chinese-Society-of-Agricultural-Engineering. China, 23(3): 180-185.

Karhale, S.S., Nadre, R.G., Das, D.K. and Dash, S.K. (2008). Studies on
comparative performance of a compression ignition engine with different blends
of biodiesel and diesel under varying operating conditions, Karnataka-Journal-of-
Agricultural-Sciences, India, 21(2): 246-249.

Kayisoglu,-B., Ulger, P. and Akdemir, S. (2006). A research on determining some

performance values by using proportional mixture of vegetable oils and diesel
fuel at a diesel engine, Journal-of-Tekirdag-Agricultural-Faculty (Turkey). v. 3(1)
p. 16-24.

Raheman, H. and Phadatare, A.G., (2004). Diesel engine emissions and
performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel, Biomass-and-
Bioenergy. UK, 27(4): 393-397.