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StateTrendsfor2013onAbortion,FamilyPlanning,SexEducationandInsurance

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LawsAffectingReproductive
HealthandRights:
TrendsintheFirstQuarterof2013

STATERESOURCESON
Abortion
Adolescents
Contraception
Pregnancy
ServicesandFinancing

GODIRECTLYTO
MonthlyPolicyUpdate
StatePoliciesinBrief
StateFactsAbout
UnintendedPregnancy
FactsonPubliclyFunded
FamilyPlanningServices
StateFactsAboutAbortion
HealthBenefitsandCost
SavingsofPubliclyFunded
FamilyPlanning
StateDataCenter
ContraceptiveNeedsand
Services,2010:CountyData
StateCenterMain

In2013,asinrecentyears,statelegislaturesaredevotingsignificantattentionto
issuesrelatedtoreproductivehealthandrights.Duringthefirstthreemonthsofthe
year,legislatorshaveintroduced694provisionsontheseissues,and93havebeen
approvedbyatleastonelegislativebody.

Alsoinlinewithrecentexperience,abortionrestrictionsareatthecenterofstate
legislativeactivity(see2012StatePolicyReview).Abouthalf(47%)ofall
reproductivehealthmeasuresintroducedinthefirstquarteroftheyearseektorestrict
accesstoabortion.Butunlikeinrecentyearswhenthethrustoflegislativeactivity
wasonregulatingabortion(e.g.,requirementsthatwomenundergoanultrasound,
clinicregulationsorinsurancecoveragerestrictions),legislatorsinseveralstatesthis
yearseeminsteadtobefocusingonbanningabortionoutright,eitherbydeclaringthat
personhoodbeginsatthemomentofconceptionorbyprohibitingabortionevenduring
thefirsttrimesterofpregnancy.

Atthesametime,however,legislatorsmayalsobemovingtowardreversingarecent
trendrelatedtosexeducationthathasledtoanexpansionofabstinenceeducation
overthelasttwoyears.BytheendofMarch,twostateswerepoisedtoenact
legislationexpandingaccesstocomprehensivesexeducationforthefirsttimesince
2010.

Forafullaccountingofproposalsandenactmentsonarangeofreproductivehealth
andrightsissues,clickhere.

AbortionBans
Duringthefirstthreemonthsof2013,legislatorsin14statesintroducedprovisions
seekingtobanabortionpriortoviability.Thesebansfallintothreecategories:
measuresthatwouldprohibitallabortions,thosethatwouldbanabortionsaftera
specifiedpointduringthefirsttrimesterofpregnancyandthosethatwouldblock
abortionsat20weeksafterfertilization(theequivalentof22weeksafterthewomans
lastmenstrualperiod,theconventionalmethodphysiciansusetomeasure
pregnancy).AlloftheseproposalsareindirectviolationofU.S.SupremeCourt
decisions.

Legislatorsin10stateshaveintroducedproposalsthatwouldbanall,ornearlyall,
abortions.Ineightstates(AL,IA,MS,ND,OK,SC,VAandWA),legislatorshave
proposeddefiningpersonhoodasbeginningatconceptionifadopted,these
measureswouldbanmost,ifnotall,abortions.TheNorthDakotalegislaturegave
finalapprovaltoafetalpersonhoodmeasureinMarchasaresult,aproposed
amendmenttothestateconstitutionwillbeputbeforevotersin2014.(Thisechoes
recentattemptsinColoradoandMississippitobanabortionviapersonhoodballot
initiativesvotersrejectedthemeasuresinbothstates.)Meanwhile,infourstates
(CO,FL,IAandND),legislatorsintroducedmeasuresthatwouldbanabortionexcept
inverylimitedcircumstances,suchaswhenthewomanslifeisendangeredorin
casesofrapeorincestnoneofthesehaspassedalegislativechamber.

Alreadyin2013,ArkansasandNorthDakotahaveenactedlegislationbanningnearly
allabortionsbeginningatsomepointinthefirsttrimesterofpregnancysimilar
measureshavebeenintroducedinfourotherstates(KS,KY,MSandWY).InMarch,

http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/updates/2013/statetrends12013.html

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StateTrendsfor2013onAbortion,FamilyPlanning,SexEducationandInsurance
theArkansaslegislatureoverrodeGov.MikeBeebes(D)vetoofaprovisionbanning
abortionat12weeksgestationthelawisscheduledtogointoeffectlaterthisyear.
(Thismovecameevenafterthestateenactedaseparatemeasuretobanabortionat
20weekspostfertilization,asdiscussedbelow.)Laterinthemonth,NorthDakota
Gov.JackDalrymple(R)signedameasurebanningabortionafterafetalheartbeat
canbedetected,apointthatisreachedataboutsixweeksgestationthelawis
slatedtogointoeffectinAugust.Bothlawsareclearlyintendedasdirectchallenges
toU.S.SupremeCourtdecisionsthatstatesmaynotimposeanundueburdenon
womenseekinganabortionpriortoviability,apointthatisgenerallyreachedjustafter
theendofthesecondtrimesterofpregnancysupportersofabortionrightsarewidely
expectedtotakeupthegauntletandcontesttheprohibitions.

Finally,legislationtobanabortionsat20weekspostfertilizationwasenactedin
Arkansasandispendinginnineotherstates(IA,IL,KY,MD,ND,OR,TX,VAand
WV).InFebruary,theArkansaslegislatureoverrodeGov.Beebesvetoofaprovision
banningabortionat20weekspostfertilization.(Thelegislaturethenwentonto
overrideasecondvetoinMarchtoenactabanat12weeksgestation,asdiscussed
above.)Thelaw,whichisnowineffect,permitsabortiononlywhenthewomanslife
isendangered,thereisriskofpossiblesubstantialandirreversiblephysical
impairmentofamajorbodilyfunction,orincasesofrapeorincest.Asimilar
provisionhasbeenapprovedbybothhousesoftheNorthDakotalegislatureandis
awaitingdebatebyaconferencecommittee.Thesebansarepatternedaftera2010
Nebraskalawthathasalreadyservedasthemodelforsuchlawsineightotherstates,
twoofwhichareenjoinedpendinglegalchallengesbecausetheyprohibitabortion
priortoviability(seeStatePoliciesonLaterAbortions).

MedicationAbortionLimitations
Legislatorsineightstates(AL,AR,IA,IN,MO,MS,NCandTX)haveintroduced
provisionstorestrictmedicationabortion.Ifadopted,theserestrictionswouldhavea
profoundimpactonaccesstomedicationabortion(seeMedicationAbortion
RestrictionsBurdenWomenandProvidersandThreatenU.S.TrendToward
VeryEarlyAbortion).Stateadoptedrestrictionsonmedicationabortiongenerally
taketwoapproaches.

First,somerestrictionsprohibituseoftelemedicinebyrequiringthephysician
prescribingthemedicationtobeinthesameroomasthepatient.Duringthefirst
quarterof2013,bothhousesoftheMississippilegislatureapprovedatelemedicine
banthemeasureisawaitingdebatebyaconferencecommittee.Asoftheendof
March,similarprovisionshavepassedalegislativechamberinAlabamaandIndiana
andarependinginthesecondbody.Sevenstatesalreadybantelemedicinefor
prescribingmedicationabortion(seeMedicationAbortion).(InearlyApril,the
governorsignedtheAlabamameasureintolawandHousepassedtheIndiana
measurewhichisnowpendinginaconferencecommittee.)

Otherrestrictionsrequiremedicationabortiontobeprovidedinstrictaccordancewith
longstandingFDAprotocol,prohibitinguseofawidelyused,simplerprotocolthathas
beendemonstratedtobesafeandeffective.LegislationrequiringtheFDAprotocolis
pendinginIowaandTexas.ArizonaandOhioalreadyhavesucharequirementin
effect,andasimilarlawinNorthDakotaisenjoinedbecauseofalegalchallenge.

SexEducation
Between2006and2010,fivestatesexpandedrequirementsforcomprehensivesex
education.Thatpositivemovementcametoahaltin2011sincethen,fourstates
haveenactedlawsstrengtheningabstinenceeducationandnonehasexpanded
comprehensiveinstruction(seeSexEducation).Twostates,however,appeartobe
poisedtoreversethattrend.

Duringthefirstthreemonthsof2013,theColoradolegislatureapprovedameasureto
requireallsexeducationinthestatetobescientificallyproventodelaysexualdebut,
reduceadolescentsnumberofsexualpartnersandsexualfrequency,orincreasetheir
contraceptiveuse.Themeasure,whichisawaitingapprovalbyGov.John
Hickenlooper(D),effectivelywouldprohibitabstinenceonlyinstruction.TheHawaii
Houseadoptedameasurethatwouldincludeinstructiononskillsforbuildinghealthy
relationships,makingdecisionsandtalkingtofamilymembersaboutsexitwouldalso
prohibitinstructionfromdiscriminatingonthebasisofsex,race,ethnicity,national

http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/updates/2013/statetrends12013.html

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StateTrendsfor2013onAbortion,FamilyPlanning,SexEducationandInsurance
origin,disability,religion,sexualorientationorgenderidentity.Themeasureis
pendingintheSenate.

Measuresthatimprovesexeducationinamorelimitedwayhavealsoreceived
legislativeattentionthisyear.InJanuary,Illinoisenactedanewlawrequiringstudents
toreceiveinstructiononsexualabuse.Similarmeasureshavebeenapprovedbyone
legislativebodyinMississippiandPennsylvaniaandarependingineightotherstates.

Onlytwolegislaturesappeartobemovingtowardrestrictionsonsexeducationin
2013.InMarch,theMontanaHouseapprovedameasuretorequireparentalconsent
beforeastudentparticipatesinasexeducationprogram.InMarch,theNorthDakota
Houseapprovedaprovisiontobarthestateuniversityfromprovidingcomprehensive
sexeducationtochildreninFargo.(EarlyinApril,however,theNorthDakotaSenate
strucktheprovisionfromthebill.)

copyright19962006,GuttmacherInstitute

http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/updates/2013/statetrends12013.html

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