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Ashford 4: - Week 3 - Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your
discussion will be evaluated.

Redundancy, Coherence, and Personalization


Jigsaw

0 responses

Depending on the first letter of your last name, examine the principle you are assigned, using the
textbook as a guide. Describe the principle and any challenges associated with implementing it
principle in a JIT training/learning activity. Describe at least one example to illustrate how this
principle could be applied in a JIT training/learning activity.
A-K: Redundancy Principle
L-R: Coherence Principle
S-Z: Personalization Principle

The Coherence Principle: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfu3FKpSJY0

Ashford 4: - Week 3 - Discussion 2


Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your
discussion will be evaluated.

Business/Institutional Needs

0 responses

Read the following situations:


Situation A: Bill is manager at a major retailer. He has experienced high turnover this year, and

has therefore had to spend a lot of time (both his, and any remaining employees) training the
new employees, mostly on the companys customer database. The navigation for this database
isnt very intuitive, so theres a steep learning curve. Further, the database is extremely intricate,
in that there are several navigation options, each with its own set of sub-pages. Bills existing
employees keep getting interrupted by the new employees several times each day with questions
about this database.
Situation B: Jane is the Assistant Principal at a local elementary school. With dozens of faculty
and staff members, she finds that updating them on the newest policies and procedures can be
time consuming. Further, it seems that many policies and procedures arent needed right away,
so faculty and staff are forced to remember everything they are told until the time it needs to be
applied.
Select one situation to discuss. Identify the specific problems and needs in this situation and
describe at least one Just-in-Time training solution that might fulfill those needs. Justify your
proposed solutions with an explanation that is supported from the readings

References

Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-Learning and the science of instruction (3rd ed).
San Francisco. Pfeiffer.

Ashford 4: - Week 3 - Journal


Reflection of Readings
Reflect on your readings this week and describe at least three take-away concepts. Explain each
concept, where you learned about it, and how it relates to e-Learning and Just-in-Time
training/learning. Finally, examine how each concept might be applied, either in your current or
future career.
From this week text/audiovisuals reading and viewing, I take away the concepts of the
Redundancy Principle, Coherency Principle and JIT solutions as time-savers.
Redundancy

I learned that the Redundancy Principle is repeating text on screen and with audio with
graphics. I knew that to be redundant means to repeat but in instruction design it takes on more
meaning. Mayer and Clark (2001) state, the psychological advantage of presenting words in
audio alone is that you avoid overloading the visual channel of working memory (p.133).
Thus, redundancy in instruction during e-learning activities can be detrimental to learning if not
controlled throughout the lesson. Of, course intentional audio/text redundancy in e-learning
instruction may be included in order to bring home a major point at some juncture of the
instruction without overdoing it; however, if one has audio/text redundancy throughout the
presentation, the major point may be lost in the shuffle.
Just-In-Time learning may be affected by the Redundancy Principle when the repetition
of the same material is done with on-screen text and audio because it overloads the learning
capacity of the student at the very time when the transfer of concise, clear and relative
information is critical. I can see how in my future work as an educational/occupational
instruction designer the Redundancy Principle can render my work as less valuable by my peers
superiors, and learners once I take the assessment of what the learners took away from the
lesson.
Coherency Principle
From the video, The Coherence Principle: @ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfu3FKpSJY0
I learned that clutter in instruction design can make learners incoherent to the thrust/point
of the e-learning activity. In particular, the video referred to the placement of extra graphics, text
and audio in the e-learning instruction as clutter which detracts from the learning initiatives that
the presentation should project foremost.
I can see how in my future work as an instruction designer that the coherency Principle
can be used as a guideline for controlling the use of graphics, audio and text extraneously as it
would confuse/overload the learners cognition.
E-learning as a Time Saver
From the You Tube video by Anna Sabramowicz @ https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=5zJndfnstd8 as an instruction designer explains that online learning can save time and alleviate
scheduler conflicts. I also learned that through e-learning and JIT training that assessments and
interactive simulations are available in e-learning programming which allow asynchronous
learning/training. In my current online business venture, I have used JIT training through Wiki
in order to train associates of distance the experience I am gaining with the venture, class
curriculum/instruction and peer interaction will provide me with plenty of academic reference
and reflection before making decision regarding e-learning implementation and its effect on
instruction design and learning outcomes.

References

Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-Learning and the science of instruction (3rd ed). San
Francisco. Pfeiffer
Sabramowicz, A. (N.D.). Online education training - save time w/ e-learning modules.

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zJndfnstd8

.The coherence principle: @ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfu3FKpSJY0

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your journal
entry.

Ashford 4: - Week 3 - Assignment


Comparing JIT Solutions
Conducting a cost analysis is a useful way of representing the benefits and risks associated with
purchasing a particular product or service. For example, if your organization was considering
switching from a Windows platform to a Mac, the IT department would need to conduct a cost
analysis prior to implementation. Items to be addressed would include potential benefits (greater
efficiency of network, fewer outages, improved user functionality, etc.) along with possible risks

(e.g., high cost of new hardware/software, teacher training costs, teacher resistance, etc.).
Using your needs analysis from Week One and your survey results from Week Two, conduct a
cost analysis for the technologies you identified as potential solutions. Your cost analysis can
take the form of a spreadsheet or a chart, and should include the following:

Identify the name of each specific JIT technology solution

Identify URLs or locations where each solution might be purchased

An estimated cost for each solution

A description of the challenges associated with using each solution (e.g., extensive
training)

Describe the benefits anticipated for each solution

Any additional notes or comments on each solution (if applicable)

Note: Your final spreadsheet or chart should be submitted in a Word document.

Learning activities are budgeted in a wide variety of ways, so the degree of estimating the costs
will depend upon the organization you are working for. Generally speaking, the closer you are to
your customers or clients, the less you have to estimate. For example, a small Training &
Development department located within a manufacturing facility might only have to justify its
time and capital expenditures, while a training vendor will probably have to give a full
development estimate before a training program is approved
Proposed JIT Solutions
Just-in-Time Benefit/Cost Analysis
Just-In-Time
Solution

Benefit

Cost

Additional Notes and Comments

Challenges

References

Knowledge Jump (2010). Estimating costs and time in instructional


design. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/costs.html