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How instructional design principles and theory influence the use of technology-enhanced

instructional strategies to support needs of all learners.


Research has shown properly designed technology-supported instruction can have a great impact
on enhancing students learning. Using various multimedia and learning materials not only
enhances his or her learning, but helps students have a positive attitude towards learning. In an
essence technology compliments students learning (Nguyen, et, 2012). Designing an online
environment, needs to be engaging, promote interactions, motivate students, and simplify
learning. Because of the abundance of information that is available at our fingertips, anyone has
the ability to learn anything on his or her own rate, in addition to customize or be in charge of his
or her own learning. However where instructional design comes into play by guiding learners
into the best ability of his or her self-directed learning capabilities (N.A. 2013).
Principles of instructional design, one must analyze the learners to start the design process. By
examining students skill levels, cultural background, attitudes, and motivation for learning.
Keeping in mind how students will access the content and instruction. Lastly analyzing the
objectives of learning and the purpose of the instruction. For example, course can direct learners
who need a specific certification, Algebra, or personal interest to name a few (N.A. 2013).
The next phase is planning goals for the course by identifying the objections from analyzing
phase. Instructional strategies can be the delivering methods, interaction, instruction, selecting
materials needed, tools, and course evaluation. Detailed instruction for delivering and presenting
a user-friendly information in a logical and intuitive format (N.A. 2013).
The last phase is implementing and putting the course into practice. Gathering feedback from
students is critical to the revision and updating of the design in the course. Modifying the course

materials, content, and instruction, will help meet the needs of all students with the ongoing
updating process. Making the learning experience more student centered as oppose to teacher
centered (N.A. 2013).
Instructional design has a wide exposer to technology with a variety of applications to enhance
the knowledge and skills of learners around using web-based tools. Depending on the instruction
also depends on the tools needed for the specific learning environment. However, learners
knowing that there is more than one way to skin a cat (sort of speak), improves their attitude
towards learning and technology. Research shows that students would rather have a variety of
learning activities and media that is technology enhanced than interaction with peers and
professors alone. Students perform and benefit from integration of technology in instruction
with the improvements of learning and experiences (Nguyen, et, 2012).
It can be very challenging for instructional designers to create an instruction message that
will be helpful to human processing, with the correct amount of multimedia to help engage the
learner as oppose of distracting. The six principles of e-learning are coherence, redundancy,
contiguity, modality, multimedia, and personalization principals will help designers to understand
limitations that may need placed on learning environments.
Coherence is one that state students learn better from multimedia messages when
extraneous material is excluded by eliminate words, pictures, and sounds that are not relevant to
teachers goals. Redundancy is where students learn on a deeper level using graphics and
narration as oppose to graphics, narration, and screen text. Spatial contiguity is where students
learn from multimedia messages that corresponds with words and pictures next to each other.
Modality Principle presents words as speech that than on-screen text (Clark & Mayer, 2011).
Some learners can learn better when the information is narrated rather than on screen, especially

a more complex learning. Research studies show that when abundance of information students
can get visual overload that is why the modality principle is better for face paced learning (Clark
& Mayer, 2011). Multimedia Principle is more conducive to learning rather than only text or
graphics alone. The correct combination can engage in relevant cognitive material that improves
students knowledge. Personalization Principle is when the teacher engages student by delivering
content in a specific conversational tone that help increase students learning. This helps focus
learners attention on the teacher and content.
Coherence principle to eliminate or avoid extraneous processing by; avoid e lessons with
extraneous audio; According to the cognitive theory of multimedia that the capacity of a humans
memory is limited. Learners learn more deeply from multimedia presentations and does not
contain extraneous sound. Avoid e lessons with extraneous graphics; learners may want a mental
structure or image of the course content as a student reads the content on screen. An image
should supplement a learners thinking process that will not distract the learner. Avoid e lessons
with extraneous words; this principle states that a simple, basic, and concise on screen text will
aid in students learning. Therefore, avoid long phrases and sentences, and use sounds sparingly
that will complement the images making learning more deep.
Research has shown properly designed technology-supported instruction can have a great
impact on enhancing students learning. Using various multimedia and learning materials not
only enhances his or her learning, but helps students have a positive attitude towards learning. In
an essence technology compliments learning (Nguyen, et, 2012). Designing an online
environment, needs to be engaging, promote interactions, motivate students, and simplify
learning. Because of the abundance of information that is available at our fingertips, anyone has
the ability to learn anything on his or her own rate, in addition to customize or be in charge of his

or her own learning. However where instructional design comes into play by guiding learners
into the best ability of his or her self-directed learning capabilities (N.A. 2013).
Principles of instructional design, one must analyze the learners to start the design
process. By examining students skill levels, cultural background, attitudes, and motivation for
learning. Keeping in mind how students will access the content and instruction. Lastly
analyzing the objectives of learning and the purpose of the instruction. For example, course can
direct learners who need a specific certification, Algebra, or personal interest to name a few
(N.A. 2013).
The next phase is planning goals for the course by identifying the objections from
analyzing phase. Instructional strategies can be the delivering methods, interaction, instruction,
selecting materials needed, tools, and course evaluation. Detailed instruction for delivering and
presenting a user-friendly information in a logical and intuitive format (N.A. 2013).
The last phase is implementing and putting the course into practice. Gathering feedback
from students is critical to the revision and updating of the design in the course. Modifying the
course materials, content, and instruction, will help meet the needs of all students with the
ongoing updating process. Making the learning experience more student centered as oppose to
teacher centered (N.A. 2013).
With all this being said, my youngest hates school, its all about lecturing and testing. In
his 3rd grade I went to speak with his teacher. Who told me government is pushing for kids to
reach certain instructions at certain times. What happens to the children who dont understand?
They fall behind. I think that teachers are placed next to a rock and a hard place. Its like a
conveyer belt job. Just push them through, the ones who understand, great! The ones who dont

they get rejected, maybe this sounds a little harsh. However, my son he has a great memory.
Especially when it comes to visual. A lot like me.
Since 3rd grade, our school had a program that offers extra help. He must fall under
certain guidelines in order to be accepted. They always seem to go back to his low test scores
which makes him eligible. With that, it also makes him feel insecure and will not ask a question
in class. Now he is in 8th grade and they still complete the same. I mean, yes he has done better,
but has struggled every step of the way. When the school sends homework that contains using
the computer etc. He is eager to complete. Other that he thinks he is too stupid for school. I tell
him, I had the same problem and its not that you are stupid, its that we learn differently. We
bought computer games, go on sites to help with understanding some of his subjects, and we try
to promote his learning in any way that he wants to learn. Up until this year, he has had great
grades in Math, this year, will not put forth any effort. .
Without going through each step by step of explanations, it just hurts, upsets, angers, and
sometimes time excels more extreme that the school system is not focusing on the childrens way
of learning. This is not only my son that is having these problems. There are many other
students, some parents have taken the step to change schools other parents have just ignored the
matter thinking that their child needs resource room help, while some of us fight to get a better
way to teach our students. It just makes me sad, that our school systems does not have the
resources to make learning better for all involved.
https://bubbl.us/?h=2625e5/4d1aec/25bJGmQRwowC.&r=2033557911

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction:

Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning (3rd ed.).
N.A. (May 7, 2013). Why online courses really need an instructional design strategy.
https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/tag/principles-of-instructional-design/
Nguyen, T., Mondragon, F., OBrien, W. J., Jackson, K., Issa, R. R. A., Rojas, E. M. (September
2012). Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol 26, pg562-573. Revised from;
http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/