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# Physics 132 Equations

n1 sin! 1 = n2 sin! 2
d x
F = ma = m 2 = "kx
!
r = !i
dt
#
x(t) = Acos(
!t +2 " 0 ) 2
"1 % n2 &
(
2
!
=
sin
1
1
1
c
E = 2 kA = 2 kx + 2 mv
\$ n1 '!
k
g
1
2#
,!=
, !=
f = ," =
m
l
T
T
s"
2#
M=!
v = f ", k =
s
"
n1 n2 n2 "!n1
D(x, t) = A cos(kx ! ! t)
+
=
!
s
s
!
R
Ft
o
vsound = 344 m/s at 20 C, vstring =
2

!
!

## D(x, t) = (2Asin kx)sin(! t)

f0
, moving source
f =
1 ! vs v
f = (1 vO v) f0 , moving observer

W =!"

Vf
Vi

p dV

## W= -(area under p-V curve)

pV = nRT = Nk B T

monatomic:
U = 32 nRT = 32 Nk B T
CV = 32 R , CP = 52 R

e=

## double slit/grating: d sin ! = m" !

(max)
8
v light = 3.0 "10 m/s

M = nM mol
N = nN A

"V %
W = !nRT ln \$ f ' , isothermal
# Vi &
TV ! "1 = const
p V ! piVi
C
,! = P
W =! f f
CV
! !1

## N A = 6.02 "10 23 mol-1

P
P
(for point source)
=
Area 4r 2

!
I
W
, where I 0 = 10 12 2
I0
m
!
2L
v
, f n = n , n = 1,2,3,
n =
n
2 L
4L
v
, f n = n , n = 1,3,5,
n =
n
4 L
!
f beat = f a f b

= (10dB )log

## sin ! " tan !, for small !

g=9.8m/s2
!

!
!

!
!
!

nair=1.00
nwater=1.33

!Etherm = Q + W
Q = Mc"T Q = nCV !T
Q = ML Q = nCP !T
CP = CV + R

diatomic:
U = 52 nRT = 52 Nk B T
CV = 52 R , CP = 72 R
V
!=
4 2"Nr 2
1N
2
,
p=
mv rms
3V
3kBT
3RT
vrms =
=
m
M
W = ! p(V f !Vi ) , isobaric

I=

1 1 1
= +
f s s!

## pfluid = psurface + "gd

K avg = 32 k B T
(translation) !
At equilibrium
T1f = T2f = Tf
Wcycle= (area inside pV curve)
W out
Q
= 1" !C
QH
QH
T
eCarnot = 1" C
TH

T (K)=T (oC)+273

## STP: T=0 oC and p=1 atm

patm = 1.01"10 5 Pa

Troom= 20 oC =293 K

R=8.31 J/(mol K)