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Cardiovascular System

heart and blood vessels

Circulatory System
Also known as the cardiovascular
system
Consists of heart, blood vessels,
blood
Transports oxygen and nutrients to
all
body cells
Transports carbon dioxide and
metabolic materials away from the
body cells

Structure of the Heart


Heart Size about
14 cm x 9 cm (the
size of a fist).
The distal end of the
heart is called the
apex.

Heart
Muscular, hollow organ functions as
pump
Weight is less than one pound
Location
Three layers of tissue
Endocardium
Myocardium
Pericardium
(continues)

Pericardial cavity contains fluid for the


heart to float in, reducing friction
Wall of the Heart
Epicardium outer layer, reduces friction
Myocardium middle layer, mostly cardiac
muscle
Endocardium thin inner lining, within chambers
of the heart

Heart Chambers & Valves


Your heart is a double pump. Circulation is a double
circuit: Pulmonary (lungs only) and systemic (rest of the
body)
Heart has 4 chambers:
o 2 Atria thin upper chambers that receive blood returning
to the heart through veins.. Right and Left Atrium
o 2 Ventricles thick, muscular lower chambers. Receive
blood from the atria above them. Force blood out of the
heart through arteries. Right and left ventricle.
Septum separates the right and left sides of the heart

Valves of the Heart allow one-way flow of blood.


4 total
Bicuspid valve or mitral valve. Between left atrium
and ventricle
Tricuspid valve. Between right atrium and ventricle
Aortic valve. Between the left ventricle and the aorta
Pulmonary valve. Between the left ventricle and the
aorta

Systemic
Circulation
delivers blood to all
body cells and
carries away waste
Pulmonary
Circulation
eliminates carbon
dioxide and
oxygenates blood
(lung pathway)

Path of Blood Flow

Blood Flow

Heart
(continued)

Cardiac cycle
Conductive pathways
Arrhythmias

Heart Actions
Cardiac Cycle: One complete heartbeat. The

contraction of a heart chamber is called


systole and the relaxation of a chamber is
called diastole.

1 Sinoatrial node
(Pacemaker)
2 Atrioventricular
node
3 Atrioventricular
Bundle (Bundle of
His)
4 Left & Right
Bundle branches
5 Bundle
Branches
(Purkinje Fibers)

View the heart


animations at
McGraw Hill to
understand the
Cardiac Cycle

Blood Vessels
Blood is carried throughout the body
in blood vessels
Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

Blood Vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries


ARTERIES : strong elastic vessels which carry blood
moving away from the heart. Smallest ones are
arterioles which connect to capillaries.
VEINS - Thinner, less muscular vessels carrying blood
toward the heart.
Smallest ones are called venules which connect to
capillaries. Contain valves.

Major Blood Vessels


Aorta - Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, Descending Aorta,
Abdominal Aorta. The aorta is the largest artery. (leaves left
ventricle)
Pulmonary Trunk splits into left and right, both lead to the lungs
(leaves left ventricle)
Pulmonary Veins return blood from the lungs to the heart
(connects to left atrium)
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava return blood from the head
and body to the heart (connects to right atrium)

Blood

Average adult: 46 quarts


Transports many substances
Plasma
Blood cells
Erythrocytes or red blood cells
Leukocytes or white blood cells
Thrombocytes

Diseases and Abnormal


Conditions

Anemia
Aneurysm
Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Embolus
(continues)

Diseases and Abnormal


Conditions
(continued)

Hemophilia
Hypertension
Leukemia
Myocardial infarctionheart attack
Phlebitis
Varicose veins

Valve Replacement Surgery


Valves can be replaced with biological tissue or with
mechanical valves

See video of an aortic valve replacement (13


minutes)

Atherosclerosis deposits of fatty materials such as cholesterol form


a plaque in the arteries which reduces blood flow. Also called
arteriosclerosis.
Treatment: Angioplasty, where a catheter is inserted into the artery and
a balloon is used to stretch the walls open.
Video Showing a Stent and Angioplasty (Mayo Clinic)

Hypertension high blood pressure, the force within the arteries is too
high. A sphygmomanometer can be used to diagnose hypertension
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled
balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel