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Chapter 3 Homework

Chapter 3 Homework
Due: 10:00pm on Friday, February 14, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 3.7
The coordinates of a bird flying in the xy-plane are given by
and = 1.2 m/s2 .

x(t) = t

and y(t) = 3.0m t2 , where = 2.4

m/s

Part A
Calculate the velocity vector of the bird as a function of time.
Give your answer as a pair of components separated by a comma. For example, if you think the x
component is 3t and the y component is 4t, then you should enter 3t,4t. Express your answer using two
significant figures for all coefficients.
v (t)

2.4, 2.4t

m/s

Correct

Part B
Calculate the acceleration vector of the bird as a function of time.
Give your answer as a pair of components separated by a comma. For example, if you think the x
component is 3t and the y component is 4t, then you should enter 3t,4t. Express your answer using two
significant figures for all coefficients.
a (t)

= 0,-2.4

m/s

Correct

Part C
Calculate the magnitude of the bird's velocity at

t = 2.0s

v

= 5.4

m/s

Correct

Typesetting math: 43%

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Part D
Let the direction be the angle, that the vector makes with the +x-axis measured counterclockwise. Calculate the
direction of the bird's velocity at t = 2.0s.
Express your answer in degrees using two significant figures.

= -63

Correct

Part E
Calculate the magnitude of the bird's acceleration at

t = 2.0s

Express your answer using two significant figures.

2.4

m/s

Correct

Part F
Calculate the direction of the bird's acceleration at

t = 2.0s

= -90

Correct

Part G
At

, is the bird speeding up, slowing down or moving at constant speed?

t = 2.0s

speeding up
slowing down
moving at constant speed

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Chapter 3 Homework

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Conceptual Problem about Projectile Motion

Learning Goal:
To understand projectile motion by considering horizontal constant velocity motion and vertical constant acceleration
motion independently.
Projectile motion refers to the motion of unpowered objects (called projectiles) such as balls or stones moving near the
surface of the earth under the influence of the earth's gravity alone. In this analysis we assume that air resistance can
be neglected.
An object undergoing projectile motion near the surface of the earth obeys the following rules:
1. An object undergoing projectile motion travels horizontally at a constant rate. That is, the x component of
its velocity, vx , is constant.
2. An object undergoing projectile motion moves vertically with a constant downward acceleration whose
magnitude, denoted by g, is equal to 9.80 m/s2 near the surface of the earth. Hence, the y component of
its velocity,

vy

, changes continuously.

3. An object undergoing projectile motion will undergo the horizontal and vertical motions described above
from the instant it is launched until the instant it strikes the ground again. Even though the horizontal and
vertical motions can be treated independently, they are related by the fact that they occur for exactly the
same amount of time, namely the time t the projectile is in the air.
The figure shows the trajectory (i.e., the path) of a ball
undergoing projectile motion over level ground. The time
t0 = 0 s corresponds to the moment just after the ball is
launched from position x0 = 0 m and y 0 = 0 m. Its launch
velocity, also called the initial velocity, is v0 .
Two other points along the trajectory are indicated in the
figure.
One is the moment the ball reaches the peak of its
trajectory, at time t1 with velocity v1 . Its position at
this moment is denoted by
(x1 , y max )

(x1 , y 1 )

or

v2

corresponds to the moment just before the ball strikes

the ground on the way back down. At this time its
position is (x2 , y 2 ) , also known as (xmax , y 2 ) since it is at its maximum horizontal range.
Projectile motion is symmetric about the peak, provided the object lands at the same vertical height from which is was
launched, as is the case here. Hence y 2 = y 0 = 0 m.

Part A
How do the speeds

v0

v1

, and v2 (at times

t0

t1

, and t2 ) compare?

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v0

v1

v2

>0

v0

v2

>

v1

=0

v0

v2

>

v1

>0

v0

>

v1

>

v2

>0

v0

>

v2

>

v1

=0

Correct
Here v0 equals

v2

by symmetry and both exceed v1 . This is because v0 and v2 include vertical speed as

Consider a diagram of the ball at time t0 . Recall that t0 refers

to the instant just after the ball has been launched, so it is
still at ground level (x0 = y 0 = 0 m). However, it is already
moving with initial velocity v0 , whose magnitude is
v0 = 30.0 m/s and direction is = 60.0 degrees
counterclockwise from the positive x direction.

Part B
What are the values of the intial velocity vector components
vector components

a0,x

v 0,x

and v0,y (both in m/s) as well as the acceleration

and a0,y (both in m/s )? Here the subscript 0 means "at time t0 ."
2

Hint 1. Determining components of a vector that is aligned with an axis

If a vector points along a single axis direction, such as in the positive x direction, its x component will be its
full magnitude, whereas its y component will be zero since the vector is perpendicular to the y direction. If
the vector points in the negative x direction, its x component will be the negative of its full magnitude.

Hint 2. Calculating the components of the initial velocity

Notice that the vector v0 points up and to the right. Since "up" is the positive y axis direction and "to the
right" is the positive x axis direction,
As shown in the figure,
v 0,x

v0,x

v0,y

v0,x

and v0,y will both be positive.

, and v0 are three sides of a right triangle, one angle of which is . Thus

and v0,y can be found using the definition of the sine and cosine functions given below. Recall that

= 60.0 degrees
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0 = 30.0 m/s

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v 0 = 30.0 m/s

and

= 60.0 degrees

sin() =

cos() =

length of opposite side

length of hypotenuse

length of adjacent side

length of hypotenuse

v0,y
v0

v 0,x
v0

What are the values of v0,x and v0,y ?

Enter your answers numerically in meters per second separated by a comma.
15.0,26.0

m/s

30.0, 0, 0, 0
0, 30.0, 0, 0
15.0, 26.0, 0, 0
30.0, 0, 0, -9.80
0, 30.0, 0, -9.80
15.0, 26.0, 0, -9.80
15.0, 26.0, 0, +9.80

Correct
Also notice that at time t2 , just before the ball lands, its velocity components are v2,x
as always) and v2,y

= 26.0 m/s

(the same size but opposite sign from

v0,y

(the same

by symmetry). The

acceleration at time t2 will have components (0, -9.80 m/s ), exactly the same as at
2

= 15 m/s

t0

, as required by Rule

2.

The peak of the trajectory occurs at time t1 . This is the point where the ball reaches its maximum height y max . At the
peak the ball switches from moving up to moving down, even as it continues to travel horizontally at a constant rate.

Part C
What are the values of the velocity vector components
vector components

a1,x

v 1,x

and v1,y (both in m/s) as well as the acceleration

and a1,y (both in m/s )? Here the subscript 1 means that these are all at time t1 .
2

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0, 0, 0, 0
0, 0, 0, -9.80
15.0, 0, 0, 0
15.0, 0, 0, -9.80
0, 26.0, 0, 0
0, 26.0, 0, -9.80
15.0, 26.0, 0, 0
15.0, 26.0, 0, -9.80

Correct
At the peak of its trajectory the ball continues traveling horizontally at a constant rate. However, at this
moment it stops moving up and is about to move back down. This constitutes a downward-directed change in
velocity, so the ball is accelerating downward even at the peak.

The flight time refers to the total amount of time the ball is in the air, from just after it is launched (t0 ) until just before it
lands (t2 ). Hence the flight time can be calculated as t2 t0 , or just t2 in this particular situation since t0 = 0 .
Because the ball lands at the same height from which it was launched, by symmetry it spends half its flight time
traveling up to the peak and the other half traveling back down. The flight time is determined by the initial vertical
component of the velocity and by the acceleration. The flight time does not depend on whether the object is moving
horizontally while it is in the air.

Part D
If a second ball were dropped from rest from height

y max

, how long would it take to reach the ground? Ignore air

resistance.
Check all that apply.

Hint 1. Kicking a ball of cliff; a related problem

Consider two balls, one of which is dropped from rest off the edge of a cliff at the same moment that the
other is kicked horizontally off the edge of the cliff. Which ball reaches the level ground at the base of the cliff
first? Ignore air resistance.

Hint 1. Comparing position, velocity, and acceleration of the two balls

Both balls start at the same height and have the same initial y velocity (v0,y

= 0

) as well as the

same acceleration (a = g downward). They differ only in their x velocity (one is zero, the other
nonzero). This difference will affect their x motion but not their y motion.

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Chapter 3 Homework

The ball that falls straight down strikes the ground first.
The ball that was kicked so it moves horizontally as it falls strikes the ground first.
Both balls strike the ground at the same time.

t0
t1 t0
t2
t2 t1
t2 t0
2

Correct
In projectile motion over level ground, it takes an object just as long to rise from the ground to the peak as it
takes for it to fall from the peak back to the ground.

The range \texttip{R}{R} of the ball refers to how far it moves horizontally, from just after it is launched until just before it
lands. Range is defined as x_2 - x_0, or just \texttip{x_{\rm 2}}{x_2} in this particular situation since x_0 = 0.
Range can be calculated as the product of the flight time \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} and the x component of the velocity
\texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} (which is the same at all times, so v_x = v_{0,x}). The value of \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} can be
found from the launch speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and the launch angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} using trigonometric
functions, as was done in Part B. The flight time is related to the initial y component of the velocity, which may also be
found from \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and \texttip{\theta }{theta} using trig functions.
The following equations may be useful in solving projectile motion problems, but these equations apply only to a
projectile launched over level ground from position (x_0 = y_0 = 0) at time t_0 = 0 with initial speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}
{v_0} and launch angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} measured from the horizontal. As was the case above, \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}
{t_2} refers to the flight time and \texttip{R}{R} refers to the range of the projectile.
flight time: \large{t_2 = \frac{2 v_{0, y}}{g} = \frac{2 v_0 \sin(\theta)}{g}}
range: \large{R = v_x t_2 = \frac{v_0^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g}}
In general, a high launch angle yields a long flight time but a small horizontal speed and hence little range. A low launch
angle gives a larger horizontal speed, but less flight time in which to accumulate range. The launch angle that achieves
the maximum range for projectile motion over level ground is 45 degrees.

Part E
Which of the following changes would increase the range of the ball shown in the original figure?
Check all that apply.

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Increase \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} above 30 \rm{m/s}.

Reduce \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} below 30 \rm{m/s}.
Reduce \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} to 45 \rm{degrees}.
Reduce \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} to less than 30 \rm{degrees}.
Increase \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} up toward 90 \rm{degrees}.

Correct
A solid understanding of the concepts of projectile motion will take you far, including giving you additional
insight into the solution of projectile motion problems numerically. Even when the object does not land at the
same height from which is was launched, the rules given in the introduction will still be useful.
Recall that air resistance is assumed to be negligible here, so this projectile motion analysis may not be the
best choice for describing things like frisbees or feathers, whose motion is strongly influenced by air. The value
of the gravitational free-fall acceleration \texttip{g}{g} is also assumed to be constant, which may not be
appropriate for objects that move vertically through distances of hundreds of kilometers, like rockets or
missiles. However, for problems that involve relatively dense projectiles moving close to the surface of the
earth, these assumptions are reasonable.

Exercise 3.10
A daring 510-{\rm N} swimmer dives off a cliff with a running horizontal leap, as shown in the figure .

Part A
What must her minimum speed be just as she leaves the top of the cliff so that she will miss the ledge at the
bottom, which is 1.75 {\rm m} wide and 9.00 {\rm m} below the top of the cliff?
v_0 = 1.29 {\rm m/s}

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Exercise 3.12
A rookie quarterback throws a football with an initial upward velocity component of 15.9{\rm m/s} and a horizontal
velocity component of 19.9{\rm m/s} . Ignore air resistance.

Part A
How much time is required for the football to reach the highest point of the trajectory?
Express your answer using three significant figures.
t_1 = 1.62 {\rm s}

Correct

Part B
How high is this point?
Express your answer using three significant figures.
h = 12.9 {\rm m}

Correct

Part C
How much time (after it is thrown) is required for the football to return to its original level?
Express your answer using three significant figures.
t_2 = 3.24 {\rm s}

Correct

Part D
How does this compare with the time calculated in part (a).
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Express your answer using three significant figures.

\large{\frac{t_2}{t_1}} = 2.00

Correct

Part E
How far has it traveled horizontally during this time?
Express your answer using three significant figures.
x = 64.6 {\rm m}

Correct

Exercise 3.13
A car comes to a bridge during a storm and finds the bridge washed out. The driver must get to the other side, so he
decides to try leaping it with his car. The side the car is on is 22.4{\rm m} above the river, while the opposite side is a
mere 1.6{\rm m} above the river. The river itself is a raging torrent 57.0{\rm m} wide.

Part A
How fast should the car be traveling just as it leaves the cliff in order just to clear the river and land safely on the
opposite side?
v_0 = 27.7 {\rm m/s}

Correct

Part B
What is the speed of the car just before it lands safely on the other side?
v = 34.3 {\rm m/s}

Correct
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Exercise 3.15
Inside a starship at rest on the earth, a ball rolls off the top of a horizontal table and lands a distance D from the foot of
the table. This starship now lands on the unexplored Planet X. The commander, Captain Curious, rolls the same ball off
the same table with the same initial speed as on earth and finds that it lands a distance 2.43 D from the foot of the
table.

Part A
What is the acceleration due to gravity on Planet X?
g_{\rm X} = 1.66 {\rm m/s^2}

Correct

Exercise 3.19
In a carnival booth, you win a stuffed giraffe if you toss a quarter into a small dish. The dish is on a shelf above the point
where the quarter leaves your hand and is a horizontal distance of 2.1 {\rm m} from this point (the figure ). If you toss the
coin with a velocity of 6.4 {\rm{ m/s}} at an angle of 60 ^\circ
above the horizontal, the coin lands in the dish. You can
ignore air resistance.

Part A
What is the height of the shelf above the point where the quarter leaves your hand?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
H = 1.5 {\rm m}

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Part B
What is the vertical component of the velocity of the quarter just before it lands in the dish?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
v_y = -0.89 {\rm m/s}

Correct

Problem 3.51
A jungle veterinarian with a blow-gun loaded with a tranquilizer dart and a sly 1.5-{\rm kg} monkey are each a height
25{\rm m} above the ground in trees a distance 70{\rm m} apart. Just as the hunter shoots horizontally at the monkey,
the monkey drops from the tree in a vain attempt to escape being hit.

Part A
What must the minimum muzzle velocity of the dart have been for the hunter to hit the monkey before it reached the
ground?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
v = 31 {\rm m/s}

Correct

Circular Launch
A ball is launched up a semicircular chute in such a way that at the top of the chute, just before it goes into free fall, the
ball has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude 2 \texttip{g}{g}.

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Part A
How far from the bottom of the chute does the ball land?
Your answer for the distance the ball travels from the end of the chute should contain \texttip{R}{R}.

Hint 1. Speed of ball upon leaving chute

How fast is the ball moving at the top of the chute?

Hint 1. Equation of motion

The centripetal acceleration for a particle moving in a circle is a_c = v^2/r, where \texttip{v}{v} is its
speed and \texttip{r}{r} is its instantaneous radius of rotation.

\texttip{v}{v} = \sqrt{\left(2 g R\right)}

Incorrect; Try Again; 5 attempts remaining

Hint 2. Time of free fall
How long is the ball in free fall before it hits the ground?
Express the free-fall time in terms of \texttip{R}{R} and \texttip{g}{g}.

Hint 1. Equation of motion

There is constant acceleration due to gravity, so you can use the general expression
\large{y(t) = y_0 + v_{y0}t + \frac{a_y t^2}{2}}.
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Write the values of \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0}, \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0}, and \texttip{a_{\mit y}}{a_y}
(separated by commas) that are appropriate for this situation. Use the standard convention that
\texttip{g}{g} is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Take y = 0 at the ground, and take
the positive y direction to be upward.
\texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0}, \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0}, \texttip{a_{\mit y}}{a_y} = 2 R,0,-g

Hint 2. Equation for the height of the ball

To find the time in free fall before the ball hits the ground, \texttip{t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{t_f}, set the
general equation for the height equal to the height of the ground.
Answer in terms of \texttip{t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{t_f}, \texttip{R}{R}, and \texttip{g}{g}.
y(t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}})=0 = \large{2 R-\frac{g}{2} {t_{f}}^{2}}

\texttip{t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{t_f} = \large{2 \sqrt{\frac{R}{g}}}

Hint 3. Finding the horizontal distance

The horizontal distance follows from D = x(t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}) = x_0 + v_{x0}t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}},
where x_0=0. \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0} and \texttip{t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{t_f} were found in Parts i and ii
respectively.
\texttip{D}{D} = \large{\sqrt{19.6 R} \sqrt{\frac{4R}{9.8}}}

Correct

Direction of Acceleration of Pendulum

Learning Goal:
To understand that the direction of acceleration is in the direction of the change of the velocity, which is unrelated to the
direction of the velocity.
The pendulum shown makes a full swing from -\pi/4 to + \pi/4. Ignore friction and assume that the string is massless.
The eight labeled arrows represent directions to be referred to when answering the following questions.

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Part A
Which of the following is a true statement about the acceleration of the pendulum bob, \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec}.
\texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} is equal to the acceleration due to gravity.
\texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} is equal to the instantaneous rate of change in velocity.
\texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} is perpendicular to the bob's trajectory.
\texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} is tangent to the bob's trajectory.

Correct

Part B
What is the direction of \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} when the pendulum is at position 1?
Enter the letter of the arrow parallel to \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec}.

Hint 1. Velocity at position 1

What is the velocity of the bob when it is exactly at position 1?
\texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} = 0 {\rm m/s}

Correct
Hint 2. Velocity of bob after it has descended
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Chapter 3 Homework

What is the velocity of the bob just after it has descended from position 1?
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow D
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow A
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow H
The velocity cannot be determined without more information.

Correct

H

Correct

Part C
What is the direction of \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} at the moment the pendulum passes position 2?
Enter the letter of the arrow that best approximates the direction of \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec}.

Hint 1. Instantaneous motion

At position 2, the instantaneous motion of the pendulum can be approximated as uniform circular motion.
What is the direction of acceleration for an object executing uniform circular motion?
C

Correct
We know that for the object to be traveling in a circle, some component of its acceleration must be pointing

Part D
What is the direction of \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} when the pendulum reaches position 3?
Give the letter of the arrow that best approximates the direction of \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec}.

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Hint 1. Velocity just before position 3

What is the velocity of the bob just before it reaches position 3?
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow B
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow C
very small and having a direction best approximated by arrow H
The velocity cannot be determined without more information.

Hint 2. Velocity of bob at position 3

What is the velocity of the bob when it reaches position 3?
\texttip{v_{\rm 3}}{v_3} = 0 {\rm m/s}

F

Correct

Part E
As the pendulum approaches or recedes from which position(s) is the acceleration vector \texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec}
almost parallel to the velocity vector \texttip{\vec{v}}{v_vec}.
position 2 only
positions 1 and 2
positions 2 and 3
positions 1 and 3

Correct

Exercise 3.25
The earth has a radius of 6380 {\rm km} and turns around once on its axis in 24 {\rm h}.
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Chapter 3 Homework

Part A
What is the radial acceleration of an object at the earth's equator? Give your answer in {\rm{m/s}}^2.
a_{\rm rad} = 3.40102 {\rm{m/s}}^2

Correct

Part B
What is the radial acceleration of an object at the earth's equator? Give your answer as a fraction of {\it g}.
a_{\rm rad} = 3.40103 {\it g}

Correct

Part C
If a_{{\rm{rad}}} at the equator is greater than {\it g} , objects would fly off the earth's surface and into space. What
would the period of the earth's rotation have to be for this to occur?
T = 5070 {\rm s}

Correct

Exercise 3.29
A Ferris wheel with radius 14.0 {\rm m} is turning about a horizontal axis through its center (the figure ). The linear speed
of a passenger on the rim is constant and equal to 6.40{\rm {\rm m/s}} .

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Chapter 3 Homework

Part A
What is the magnitude of the passenger's acceleration as she passes through the lowest point in her circular
motion?
a = 2.93 {\rm m/s^2}

Correct

Part B
What is the direction of the passenger's acceleration as she passes through the lowest point in her circular motion?
towards the center
outwards the center

Correct

Part C
What is the magnitude of the passenger's acceleration as she passes through the highest point in her circular
motion?
a = 2.93 {\rm m/s^2}

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Correct

Part D
What is the direction of the passenger's acceleration as she passes through the highest point in her circular
motion?
towards the center
outwards the center

Correct

Part E
How much time does it take the Ferris wheel to make one revolution?
T = 13.7 {\rm s}

Correct

Exercise 3.30
At its Ames Research Center, NASA uses its large 20-G centrifuge to test the effects of very large accelerations
(hypergravity) on test pilots and astronauts. In this device, an arm 8.84 {\rm m} long rotates about one end in a
horizontal plane, and the astronaut is strapped in at the other end. Suppose that he is aligned along the arm with his
head at the outermost end. The maximum sustained acceleration to which humans are subjected in this machine is
typically 12.5 {\it g}.

Part A
How fast must the astronaut's head be moving to experience this maximum acceleration?
v = 32.9 {\rm m/s}

Correct

Part B
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Chapter 3 Homework

What is the difference between the acceleration of his head and feet if the astronaut is 2.00 {\rm m} tall?
\Delta a = 27.7 {\rm m/s^2}

Correct

Part C
How fast in rpm \left( {\rm rev/min} \right) is the arm turning to produce the maximum sustained acceleration?
\large{\frac{1}{T}} = 35.5 {\rm rpm}

Correct

Problem 3.88
A projectile is thrown from a point P. It moves in such a way that its distance from P is always increasing.

Part A
Find the maximum angle above the horizontal with which the projectile could have been thrown. You can ignore air
resistance.